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Social Science and Elementary Teaching Methods Essay

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Updated: Apr 16th, 2019

Introduction

The teaching profession has existed since the historical point of view. As the need for better education increases, several teaching techniques have emerged making the teaching profession more complex and interesting.

However, teachers training to become experts in the teaching profession, henceforth known as pre-service teachers have consistently faced several challenges, especially while handling normal classroom activities consequently affecting their performance appraisal.

Considerable educational research studies have recognized such challenges as contributing factors to failure in educational performance. Holmes and Holmes (2011) postulate that teachers, “face the responsibilities and pressures of the accountability movement where the lessons they plan must continue the momentum of the curriculum required by the state, district, school and classroom teacher” (p.144).

It is always the teacher’s responsibility to plan lessons for students with different intelligence abilities, varying levels of cultural knowledge and languages as well as varying language experiences. For this reason, this study provides a comprehensive report on Classroom Instructional Planning & Designing.

B1 Contextual classroom factors

As postulated before, several classroom contextual factors prove challenging to the pre-service teachers while on their Pre-Clinical Experience (PCE) assessment. As the teaching profession needs a classroom as the main practical zone where practical interaction between the teacher and students occur, any interference in this environment proves imperative.

During the Pre-Clinical Experience (PCE), contextual factors necessary for undertaking social sciences included physical class appearance and available resources, student’s characteristics and behavioral traits as well as student’s skills are essential consideration while designing instruction and assessing learning plan.

In this context, the researcher assessed several contextual factors observed in the classroom during the teaching practice.

Physical features, technology equipment/ resources, rules and regulation

During the Pre-Clinical Experience assessment, three important classroom factors were core and observable in this assessment. The elements observed included physical classroom visual aspects, handiness of technology materials, as well as classroom rules/routines.

For smooth running of the classroom activities, the class environment in which can be in physical appearance matters a lot. Gurney (2007) affirms, “The classroom environment should mirror the teacher’s reflective practices that would be central to the learning environment”(p.91). Availability of resources and modern technology is also essential. Finally, rules and routines governing the class are also imperative.

Physical features– Physical features is the apparent environment observed in the classroom. In terms of physical appearance, the classrooms were quite spacious, well ventilated and with attractive wall paintings providing a conducive student-centered learning atmosphere.

The furnished classroom furniture is inclusive of tables, desks and chairs. There were 24 desks for the children, each with a chair, arranged in three rows parallel to each other with each row having eight desks. This arrangement aided in avoiding off-task behavior to occur.

There is one teacher’s table with a chair located in front of the classroom, clean, equipped with teacher’s classroom teaching aids. There are partitioned shelves located next to the white board, where children locate learning material.

The classroom floor is nicely carpeted, suitable for young children. The class had good roofing providing pleasant atmosphere. The class had properly ventilated, with four adjustable widows, walls painted in cream non-reflective color.

Technology equipment/ resources – Ideally, availability of learning material and modernity of such learning resources are two crucial considerable factors in a classroom setting. Technological advancement in all spheres of life has greatly influenced the delivery of services globally.

During this assessment, the researcher observed that the classroom had ample learning resources capable of accommodating the learning needs of the entire school populace. In the context of the technological equipment in the classroom, technological devices found in the class included a large digital media enclosed at the black of the classroom wall.

The digital media was a computerized LCD screen in form of a projector, connected to computer system with internet support. The digital primary source in this system produced physical features in the large screen, where it provided options for touch. Once touched, the name or feature touched produces the necessary description. This was the latest digital media integrated across several different sectors in U.S.

Classroom rules and routines– classroom rules and routines formed an important part before undertaking instructional planning and designing for the classrooms. Classroom rules ensured existence of classroom order and sanity hence providing a quite learning environment.

The class had the following rules, Rule 1: All students should remain disciplined throughout successive lessons. Rule 2: Students must report to classes on time and should seek permissions in and out from respective authorities. Rule 3: Students must arrive in classroom early in the morning as indicated in the arrival time.

Rule 4: It is the duty of children to maintain classroom order in teacher’s absence. Rule 5: Students must perform well in all subjects. Rule 6: They must duly complete given assignments and homework in slated time. Classroom routines were available and this aspect enhanced the smooth running of the activities within the classrooms.

Students arrive at 7.30 am in morning; attend two lessons each 40 minutes, followed by a short break of 40 minutes, resume classes for two lessons of 40 minutes each, then break for lunch for about 2 hours. The afternoon session begins at 2.30 pm with two lessons of 40 minutes each. Afterwards, students attend clubs and set for home at 4.30pm.

B2 Student characteristics

Student characteristics or rather traits are essential in determining the progress of the learning process. Personalities in students can either ease the teachers work or provide them with hard time. In this case, before and during designing instruction and assessing learning progress plan in the classroom, it was important to consider observable student traits to enable effective teacher-student connection.

Special needs and the levels of abilities and skills were two student characteristics that coherently assisted in determining the procedures undertaken during the process of designing instruction and assessing learning progress plans. Some students had greater aptitude, with great ability to respond to tests provided, while others were slow learners.

Students with special needs actually needed special attention compared to students with high levels of abilities and skills. In a scenario where teachers are unable to identify, the two aspects while handling classroom matters, the general classroom performance remains unstable throughout successive years.

B3 Student skills and prior learning

Student skills are among the classroom factors considered in the teaching profession, which have an impact on the level of individual learners understanding. “Teaching is a practical interaction between the teacher and students for the purpose, of enhancing students’ learning in some specific knowledge/information skill or attitude” (Malik & Khurshed, 2011, p.531).

Since the level of understanding, differ from one individual student to another, student’s skills and knowledge consideration is key to effective lesson planning and assessment (Singh, 2005). Lesson planning is a crucial teaching technique that involves setting up goals and objectives necessary for each successive teaching period.

A goal or objective is successful when the planner is capable of making considerable achievement based on targeted goals. The teacher will consider asking oral questions on the prior topic related to the lesson.

Achievement of a teaching goal appears when all learners are capable of comprehending from the teachings and put them into practice. After asking the relevant questions pertinent to the study, the teacher will manage to identify available student skills and prior learning.

Teaching is a profession that involves instructional approaches where students receive instructions from their teachers and respond accordingly. This scenario appears normally during class time and after class hours as well. For teachers to determine whether the teaching has achieved its set goals and objectives, a frequent assessment is usually essential.

The teacher will ensure students participate in goal-oriented assessment, to examine if they are capable of handling individual assessment activities that encourage learning through personal experience. Pre-assessment of student’s abilities will be done immediately before introduction of the study unit.

Instructions from teachers to students go hand in hand with assessments done by teachers. Intellectual students are capable to handling complex instructions and in a pace much faster compared to dull students. With the levels of abilities differing from an individual learner to another, it is important for the teacher to consider these factors before giving instructions and assessing learners.

D1 Learning goals and objectives (General Teacher Objective)

For any teacher to remain successful in the teaching profession, it is important to have learning goals and objectives necessary for performance achievement. Several educational research studies specialized in the teaching profession have concluded that learning objectives are essential for providing direction and guidance in teaching and overtly determine the overall teachers achievement at the end of the lesson.

Holmes and Holmes (2011) postulate, “Teachers must keep the learning goals and objectives in mind to avoid a “scatter-brained” student outcome” (p.147). During the assessment period of Pre-Clinical Experience in this school, the student designed the following goals and objectives for a lesson of 30-40 minutes.

The main goals for the lesson were to ensure that students have equally achieved the theme of the topics taught. Objective 1: at the end of the lesson, students are capable of handling assessment tests pertinent to physical features, especially hills and mountains. Objective 2: involved students must be able to apply the knowledge on a practical basis outside classroom.

Learning goals for Social Sciences

To commence, under the specified subjects assigned to the pre-service teacher that is social studies and art subjects, specific goals and objectives were equally important to deliver the teaching concepts. For the social studies, several factors are important towards the end of the lesson.

The following objectives guided the lesson. Objective 1: at the end of the lesson, students should be able to understand all terminologies used in explaining the physical features. Objective 2: Students should be in a position distinguish between hills and mountains, from names to description, within the physical features Unit.

Objective 3: Learners should be in a position to compare and differentiate physical features (hills and mountains) within the region.

Objective 4: Students should relate the teachings with real life experiences and explore the discussed features continentally. Objective 5: All students involved in the social science class must be capable of responding to all assessment tests provided by the teacher from the concepts and themes discussed during the lesson.

Learning goals for Arts

Since it was a combination of two subjects in a single lesson, the art lesson possessed different objectives. For the arts, which was core to this Pre-Clinical Experience (PCE) assessment, drawing skills and producing cutouts were the assessable part of art teaching.

Several goals accompanied the visual art subject. The pre-service teacher ensured all goals and objectives affiliated with artistic skills in the classroom. Objective 1: For testing the art techniques, learners in this class should think critically and creatively on how integrate the art taught to develop simple mountains and hills as tutored.

Objective 2: Learners should develop skills in understanding the use of sophisticated technology and its related techniques in arts. Objective 3: Students at the end of the lesson should be able to develop skills and techniques necessary for the production and understanding art using simple resources like magazines, newspapers and photos.

Objective 4: Prior to the end of the lesson, all students should be able to be familiar with arts and imagination to interpret environment.

D2 Alignment of goals with local, state and national standards

Each goal or objective set by professional teachers in guiding their classroom activities and school functionality must always consider rules and regulation governing the local, state and the national standards. According to Holmes and Holmes (2011), lessons they plan (referring to teachers) must “continue the momentum of the curriculum required by the state, district, school and classroom teacher” (p.144).

The local and state standards in this region carry similar aspect for this topic. In respect to the social studies, there are local and state standards set.

According to local and national standards, According to local and national standards, students should manage to interpret information on physical features from their definitions, and distinguish between hills and mountains using the provided learning aids including photographs. 4b. students should be able to relate the information given on physical features to the real world experiences and employ the desired technology to validate the concepts.

In art, the national and local standards state that students must understand all applicable arts used by teacher to enhance understanding. The teacher ensured confirmation of these standards before setting objectives. Based on the provided objectives by the teacher, both social studies and art applied necessary techniques to deliver the two concepts.

E1 Assessment plan

Contrary to the past where teaching was not priorities as such, teachers in the new world have become assessment reformers where the assessment plan has emphasized on closer substantive connection between classroom assessment and meaningful instruction.

According to Gurney (2007), assessment enhances “processes of peer tutoring, co-operative learning, reciprocal teaching through predicting answers, questioning, clarifying and summarizing and collaborative reasoning” (p.94).

Based on the subjects assigned for the pre-service teacher, teaching social studies had a different assessment compared to the arts subject. Assessment plan generally involved all activities undertaken by the teacher to acquire information about a topic prior to the lesson and after the lesson.

Pre-assessment plan– for ascertaining if students’ achieved prior teachings and if they possessed any idea of the topic intended for discussion, the teacher conducted pre-assessment. The pre-assessment enabled the teacher to discover prior knowledge and allowed the teacher present the new information in appropriate manner.

For the pre-assessment, the teacher will introduce the topic with few verbal questions to bring students into attention and test the level of present knowledge. The pre-assessment plan will also involve providing students with simple quiz pertaining to the topic that the teacher intends to introduce, which is physical features (hills and mountains).

The teacher will also produce all the teaching aids including photographs, magazines and newspapers containing images of hills and mountains for the students to describe and distinguish. The teacher will develop simple drawings of hills and mountains on the whiteboard for the students to identify, as the teacher provides correct answers for the tests.

Formative assessment- Formative assessment simply describes evaluation methods employed by teachers to keep track and check-up of the discussed themes and concepts. To ensure that the teacher achieved both personal and lesson objectives it will be essential to undertake formative assessment.

During the proceedings of the teaching, the teacher will ensure consistent questioning and simple testing to ascertain the level of understanding. After delivering all concepts and discussion of the themes in the subject, the teacher assess students understanding using a matching worksheet, in which each individual student will try to match features with the respective description.

After successful matching in the matching sheet, this does not guarantee total achievement of the concept. To provide a deeper insight into the discussed concepts and themes, the teacher will provide set of ten questions to test the student understanding. Each of the students will respond to the questions individually after which the teacher will collect the answer sheets for marking.

Post- assessment plan- Post-assessment is an appraisal technique used by teachers to ascertain successive understanding and progress in students on the taught topic. Post assessment in this aspect too the summative approach. Summative assessment is a form of assessment criteria used by teachers to obtain information about what students have learnt basing on student, classroom, and school levels.

For this study, a summative assessment will involve successive assessment where every day, during the first three minutes of small-group instruction the teacher assessed the level of understanding in consecutive lessons discussing physical features. Summative assessment will involve evaluating unit tests, performance tasks and portfolio review.

Student undertaking these tests during summative assessment must attain about 75% as their pass mark throughout successive periods of testing. The teacher will provide students several assignments on the discussed physical features to undertake during weekends.

The school will provide continuous assessment tests as in school routines. Subsequently, fall, winter and spring school-wide district assessors will administer assessment.

E2 Alignment of assessment with goals and objectives

Alignment with social studies objectives –Based on the correct meaning of the word assessment and its relative relationship with the teaching profession, assessment is the technique used by teachers to collect data on learning and instruction progress.

For teachers to understand progress in their classroom teachings, which is in guidance of the set goals and objectives, assessment of the learning progress is essential. These factors and their relative procedures are inseparable.

For the social studies lesson, students should be able to understand all terminologies used in explaining the physical features, should be in a position to compare and differentiate physical features (hills and mountains) within the region and that students should relate the teachings with real life experiences and explore the discussed features continentally.

The assessment plan ensured that the student had the ability of learning individually and in groups, using the teaching aids used prior to the lesson. The teacher used tests to access the students understanding to ensure that student equally benefited from the lesson.

Alignment with art objectives– To test the art as discussed in the topic and concepts achieved, similar observations undertaken to indicate how the assessment correlated with the set goals and objectives.

The social studies objectives stated that students should be able to understand all terminologies used in explaining the physical features, students should be in a position distinguish between hills and mountains, from names to description, within the physical features Unit.

To commence, should be able to develop skills and techniques necessary for the production and understanding art using simple resources like magazines, newspapers and photos. They should also be able to develop skills and techniques necessary for the production and understanding art using simple resources like magazines, newspapers and photos.

Finally, the students must be in a position to familiarize with arts and imagination to interpret environment. The assessment ensured that all art-teaching aids, inclusive of the sophisticated digital media were in comprehensive use to enhance deeper understanding of the social concepts in relation art.

E2 how assessments authentically measured student learning

After setting comprehensive goals and objectives meant for guiding the teacher throughout the teaching plan, assessment was essential to determine the level of achievement in the teaching. As postulated in the lesson plan, the teacher will employ both formative and summative assessment in the assessment procedure.

Consumption of the two important assessment techniques will ensure that students achieved the learning goals immediately after the lesson and in the successive days (Singh, 2005). In determining how the assessment plan authentically measured the students learning, it is important to consider the forms of assessment.

Three assessment approaches including pre-assessment, formative and post-assessment were paramount. The employment of these approaches enhanced understanding of the concepts, thus aligning with goals.

Formative assessment acted as the shortest assessment criteria as Summative assessment since it is a form of assessment criteria used by teachers to obtain information about what students have learnt basing on student, classroom, and school levels, provided long time assessment.

General Information

Fifth grade classroom, this class contains 24 students, approximately 10 boys and 14 girls. Students will be sitting at desks arranged three rows parallel to each other, comprising of eight desks in each respective row.

Sitting on desks during the lesson will be principally for presentation of new information and thereafter, the arrangement of the desks will change for predetermined pairs for guided practice during the group discussions. Most of the teaching moment students will be seating on desks as the teacher explains and demonstrates the teaching concepts for the lesson.

During the lesson, students will posses instructional learning materials including photographs, magazines and newspapers, drawing books, painting materials and wall charts, bulletin boards and posters, which will provide relevant information pertinent to the topic. (The lesson will cover reading strategies as well)

Standards, Goals And Objectives

  • Your State Core Curriculum/Student Achievement Standard(s)

Social studies Standards: Foundational Skills (K-5), Grade 5 students, 4 a: According to local and national standards, students should manage to interpret information on physical features from their definitions, and distinguish between hills and mountains using the provided learning aids including photographs. 4b. students should be able to relate the information given on physical features to the real world experiences and employ the desired technology to validate the concepts.

  • Lesson Goal(s): Main goal and objective

The main goals for the lesson were to ensure that students have equally achieved the theme of the topics taught. Secondly, at the end of the lesson, students are capable of handling assessment tests pertinent to the topics discussed. We should note that the national standards correlate with the local standards in the teaching of social studies.

  • Competency Goals: Social Studies Standards (Content subject1)

Objective 1: at the end of the lesson, students should be able to understand all

terminologies used in explaining the physical features.

Objective 2: Learners should be in a position to distinguish between hills and

mountains, from names to description, within the physical features Unit.

Objective 3: Students should relate the teachings with real life experiences and explore the discussed features continentally.

Objective 4: All students involved in the social science class must be capable of responding to all assessment tests provided by the teacher from the concepts and themes discussed during the lesson.

  • Competency Goals: Visual Art Standards

Based on the available standards, the national and local standards state that students must understand all applicable arts used by teacher to enhance understanding.

Competency goal 1: Prior to lesson end, Learners in this class should think critically and creatively on how integrate the art taught to develop simple mountains and hills as tutored.

Competency goal 2: Students at the end of the lesson should be able to develop skills and techniques necessary for the production and understanding art.

Competency goal 3: Prior to the end of the lesson, all students should be able to become familiar with arts applied in teaching.

Competency goal 4: Prior to the end of the lesson, all students should be able to be familiar with arts and imagination to interpret environment.

Reading Standards: (Content Subject 3)

National and local standards- Learners should manage to use all terminologies coherently as taught for each topic.

Competency goal 1: Students should be able to read accurately and eloquently all used in explaining concepts at the end of the lesson.

Competency goal 2

  • Lesson Objective(s)

Social studies:

  1. When given all the learning aids inclusive of photographs, magazines among others, students should correctly identify the discussed features.
  2. When given facts designed for the topic taught, students will manage to match each fact with respective feature.
  3. When given the matching worksheet, students should manage to match the features with their correct description.
  4. When given assessment tests pertaining to the physical features taught, students should manage to pass the assessment.
  • Measureable objectives (Social Studies)

Competency goal 1: By the end of the lesson, students should be able to respond the matching sheet with at least 85% accuracy.

Competency goal 2: By the end of the lesson, learners should manage to score at least 8/10 in the assessment questions.

  • F1 lesson aids

Matching worksheet

Matching worksheet

Assessment quiz

  1. ________and________ are physical features
  2. Is a mountain small?
  3. Which one is bigger (a) mountain (b) hill
  4. __________has snow
  5. A hill is_____ than a mountain
  6. A ____________ is steeper.
  7. Mountains are_________
  8. True or false: Hills have a lot of snow________
  9. True or false: Hill are only found in Europe.
  10. A mountain has a __________ shape.
  • F2 Visual aids/ arts
  1. Given the drawing material designed for this topic, students should manage to draw the physical feature.
  2. Students should manage to produce cutouts from the provided magazines and newspapers at the lesson end.
  3. Given the computerized digital media, students should manage to locate the feature on the screen display.
  4. Given the photos, students should manage to distinguish between hills and mountains as discussed.
  5. Given the magazines and newspapers, students should manage to produce cutouts of discussed features.
  • Reading skills

Students will manage to read the newly introduced vocabulary articulately observing sounds and pronunciation patterns.

Materials And Resources

Instructional Materials: Leveled text that is appropriate for each student-Two copies of each.

  • Notebooks/drawing books
  • Pencil/Colored pencils/crayons/markers/erasers/
  • White Board & Markers
  • Twenty five copies of text used to model
  • Newspapers and magazines
  • Charts and collage sheets
  • Samples of magazine cutouts
  • Pre-assessment question sheets

Instructional Plan

Sequence of Instructional Procedures/Activities/Events (provide a description and indicate approximate time for each):

Identification of Student Prerequisite Knowledge and/or Skills: (1.5 minute)

For the teaching of the subject to be successful, the following are the skills needed: Review of previous definitions of terms and concepts

For instance, the study of earth surface, its shape and features: Introducing the purpose of the lesson

Today we will study physical features, mainly distinguishing between mountains, hills among others.

Presentation of New Information: (7 minutes)

Physical features:

1 Definition- they are elements found on the earth.

  1. They are present everywhere across the world
  2. We will explore two features (hills and mountains)

2 Mountain-it is a risen land high above its environment

  1. The top bears a name peak
  2. They are the highest features on earth
  3. They form triangular shapes thin a tops and thick at bottom
  4. Some have snows flowing from top

3 Hill– A hills is a slightly risen part of earth’s land.

  1. It is smaller and shorter than a mountain
  2. It is also less steep than a mountain.
  3. Hills do not have snow

Guided Practice: instructional game (8 minutes):

Instruct the students that they will undertake a game that will provide an insight into the topic studied. Inform them that they we will use the whiteboard to cultivate the ideas. To start with,

  1. Draw the two features on the top of the whiteboard and provide a column running down each of the features.
  2. Arrange the students in only two groups, where each of the individuals will have a chance to demonstrate his/her ability.
  3. Summon each of the students to distinguish between the hill and the mountain by writing the exact name for each of the drawn features.
  4. Students from each of the groups will earn their groups points based on correct naming of the features drawn.

Independent Student Practice: You do (15 minutes):

Students then will go back to their respective sittings where the teacher will guide them to engage in responding to Matching Worksheet, which has features discussed in the class during the lesson.

  • The teacher will set more classroom questions for the students to respond questions in individual terms and in groups.
  • The teacher will supplement the understanding with consecutive tests undertaken on a regular basis to affirm the understanding.

Culminating or Closing Procedure/Activity/Event: 5 minutes:

  • The teacher will produce samples of the magazine cutouts and a number of magazines and newspapers to for pupils to develop skills in producing cutouts of the desired shapes and features.
  • Thereafter, the students will use these features to trace the drawings in their books and putting labels on them. Naming of such features will also continue from the notebooks.
  • The teacher will then provide a comprehensive assessment assignment that will cover all aspects of the discussed topic for continuous assessment.

Technology:

The teacher will try to integrate the knowledge achieved in the topic using technology. The device intended for use is the digital media comprising of computerized photographs and words matching each respective item. The device produces words in which students touch to produce the respective item.

Similarly, photographs produced by this device, enabled students understand physical features. Each student will touch on a physical feature in given directions. The device then provide names for the touched photograph

Student Assessment/ Rubrics:

Pre-assessment plan– for ascertaining if students’ achieved prior teachings and if they possessed any idea of the topic intended for discussion, the teacher conducted pre-assessment. For the pre-assessment, the teacher introduced the topic with few verbal questions to bring students into attention and test the level of present knowledge.

The pre-assessment plan also involved providing students with simple quiz pertaining to the topic that the teacher intends to introduce, which is physical features (hills and mountains).

The teacher used all the teaching aids including photographs, magazines and newspapers containing images of hills and mountains for the students to describe and distinguish. The teacher further developed simple drawings of hills and mountains on the whiteboard for the students to identify, as the teacher provides correct answers for the tests.

Formative Assessment: To ensure that the teacher achieved both personal and lesson objectives it will be essential to undertake formative assessment. During the proceedings of the teaching, the teacher will ensure consistent questioning and simple testing to ascertain the level of understanding.

After delivering all concepts and discussion of the themes in the subject, the teacher assess students understanding using a matching worksheet, in which each individual student will try to match features with the respective description. After successful matching in the matching sheet, this does not guarantee total achievement of the concept.

To provide a deeper insight into the discussed concepts and themes, the teacher will provide set of ten questions to test the student understanding. Each of the students will respond to the questions individually after which the teacher will collect the answer sheets for marking. Each student must score at least 85% in the matching sheet and score at least 8/10 in the assessment questions.

Summative Assessments: This will include approaches necessary in assessing the entire learning process and the development of learners in successive learning periods. For this study, a summative assessment will involve successive assessment where every day, during the first three minutes of small-group instruction the teacher assessed the level of understanding in consecutive lessons discussing physical features.

Summative assessment will involve evaluating unit tests, performance tasks and portfolio review. Student undertaking these tests during summative assessment must attain about 80% as their pass mark throughout successive periods of testing.

The teacher will provide students several assignments on the discussed physical features to undertake during weekends. The school will provide continuous assessment tests as in school routines. Subsequently, fall, winter and spring school-wide district assessors will administer assessment.

H1 Data analysis on pre- and post-assessment

After a serious process of developing instructional planning and design, instructional presentation and follow-up, it was important to ascertain whether the objectives and goals were achievable from the teaching period. The pre and post-assessment papers and programs were submitted to the assessor in charge of the pre-clinical experience assessment.

The teacher undertook pre- and post-assessment data analysis for individual students. The teacher chose student X for pre and post assessment. At the beginning of the lesson, student X was unable to distinguish between hills and mountains in photos, magazines, and newspapers. The student could not establish the description for each of the features.

Due to this aspect, an estimation of about 8 students out of 24 students had an idea of the theme. At the end of the lesson, the teacher analyzed data from student X performance. The score for student X in the matching worksheet was 96%. On assessment given about the topic, students X produced 9/10%. Highest scorers produced 100% and 10/10 in the matching sheet and the assessment assignment respectively.

Evaluation

The lesson took the substantial time and followed all the protocols governing the school and the class routines. On aspects related to time, the teacher managed to use the time productively, with each component taking considerable time.

On top of this, the lesson ended 10 minutes ahead, giving the teacher ample time to go through the assessment components. Prior to the pre-clinical experience assessment, several activities transpired that made me to evaluate my performance.

Students were at least able to comprehend to the questions, tests and successive assessments in post assessment. Sophisticated technology remained imperative and students were able to assimilate with the available technology, where computerize digital media become familiar to students.

Reference List

Gurney, P. (2007). Five Factors for Effective Teaching. New Zealand Journal of Teachers’ Work, 4(2), 89-98.

Holmes, K., & Holmes, S. (2011). Hierarchy for effective lesson planning: A guide to differentiate instruction through material selection. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 1(9), 144-151.

Malik, K., & Khurshed, F. (2011). A Proposed Constructive Instructional Design (CID) for Teaching of Social Studies at Elementary Level. European Journal of Social Sciences, 23(4), 531-552.

Singh, H. (2005).Teaching Practice: Lesson Planning. London, UK: APH Publishing.

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