Technology is considered dynamic as it is never ideal. There always would be something to improve resulting in the progress and prospect innovations. Moreover, technology is a cumulative process that stores and transfers its knowledge to the future generations by means of the development (Volti, 2014). In its turn, the evolution of technology is inextricably linked to the evolution of human society.
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It goes without saying that humankind relies on technology as it is impossible to survive without it. Substantially, people are physically weaker than animals, for example. However, they possess power plants, bridges, aircraft, and other devices that contribute to the better and easier life of human beings. In addition, people create such devices due to which human labour is becoming less necessary than before that means mechanization.
First and foremost, technology is an organization. It means that people have to make a group effort in order to achieve their common goal. Second, the technology exists in a system of information, skills, and devices that are strongly interconnected (Volti, 2014).
Technological development depends on several factors. To begin with, economics and politics play a prominent role in the technology evolution. According to Allison (2012), “technological advancement is associated with economic growth and political development” (p. 5). Besides, usually, it is the government that appears as a main contributor and investor of the technological science. Finally, the technology relies on a particular group, ethnicity, nation, or country as what is appropriate for one group is fully unacceptable for another one.
Usually, technological changes result in power, wealth, and income redistribution. It occurs due to the fact that technology is a subversive force when people use both strong and weak tactics to influence each other (Kipnis, 2012). For example, Pony Express quickly lost its clientele with the invention of the wireless telegraph. Another example of disruptive technology is a replacement of wire phone by cell phone.
Social construction approach to technological innovation is a sociotechnical process that embraces all forms of technology (Volti, 2014). For example, mobile phone or bicycle are best fit from this perspective while nuclear weapon is not.
It is considered that “technological advance in one area is often stimulated by the emergence of new technologies in different, but related areas” (Volti, 2014, p. 47). For example, the internal combustion engine that was a single-cylinder and double-acting horizontal machine running on a mixture of air and coal gas with electric spark ignition from an external source. However, its power was not sufficient. Therefore, it required the improvement of the fuel as well.
Technology a set of methods, processes, and materials used in any field of science, as well as the scientific description of methods of technical production. At the same time, science is an area of human activity aimed at the elaboration and systematization of the objective knowledge. The basis of this activity is the collection of facts, their constant updating and systematization, critical analysis, and synthesis of new knowledge (Volti, 2014). Therefore, technology is more practical process while science is theoretical.
However, science does not always play the significant role in the progress of technology because there is a multitude of the other issues affecting technology such as societal development or a personal experience (Volti, 2014). For instance, ancient Greeks’ technology developed mostly due to a great contribution in astronomy, agriculture, and mining.
Allison, J. (2012). Technology, Development, and Democracy: International Conflict and Cooperation in the Information Age. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Kipnis, D. (2012). Technology and Power. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Volti, R. (2014). Society and Technological Change (7th ed.). New York: Worth.