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Spirochetae is an elongated, double-membrane bacteria that is very flexible and motile. The term “Spirochetae” originates from the Greek “spiro” (“coiled”) and “create” (“hair”) and owes its existence to the form of the bacteria, which has a spiral shape (“Spirochete Bacteria,” 2017). The Lyme disease (B. burgdorferi) bacterium can be characterized by its wiggly movement, which is also defined by its shape. Like the rest of Spirochetae, syphilis T. pallidum /Lyme disease (B. burgdorferi) is prokaryotic (i.e., its cell does not have a nucleus). Being a very ancient group of organisms, B. burgdorferi causes a range of complicated conditions, Lyme disease being the key and the most dangerous one (Delost 289).
The bacteria have comparatively small genomes, which can be seen in the analysis of etiologic agents causing the development of Lyme disease (Kingry et al. 1). B. burgdorferi exists in several variations. When considering the factors that prompt the development of Lyme disease, one must consider strain B31 first (Kingry et al. 12). At present, 13 isolates can be identified in a genome sequencing process when analyzing the B. burgdorferi genome (Kingry et al. 1). Particularly, one has to mention the following isolates: 64b, 72af, 94a, 118a, 156a, 297, 29805, B31e, Bol26, CA-11.2A, JD1, N40, WI91-23, and ZS7 (Kingry et al. 19). It should be noted, however, that the entire genome sequence of the bacterium has not been completed yet and, therefore, is yet to be explored. The bacterium can also be characterized by the presence of the MM1 protein sequence and three fully-sequenced strains (i.e., B31, N40, and JD1 (Kingry et al. 1)). The complete genome sequence of the bacterium consists of a conserved chromosome and fifteen plasmids that are attached to it (Kingry et al. 2). However, further analysis of the bacteria’s genome sequencing is required.
As a rule, the environment in which the growth of the bacteria can be observed is facilitated with the help of the Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly II (BSK-II) medium (Jutras et al. 757). In addition to using the specified solution, one will need to ensure that the temperature at which the bacterium is grown in between 26C° and 34C° (Jutras et al. 757). Furthermore, it is essential for the solution to contain 6% rabbit serum (Jutras et al. 757). The specified conditions are expected to produce the environment in which the number of B. burgdorferi will start to quadruple (Jutras et al. 758). As a result, it becomes possible to cultivate the bacteria to its late exponential phase (Jutras et al. 758).
When considering morphological features of B. burgdorferi, one must mention that the bacterium is capable of changing its morphology depending on the conditions to which it is exposed. For instance, B. burgdorferi can change its shape to round bodies (RBs) (Meriläinen et al. 519). Furthermore, the morphology thereof is significantly different from other bacteria. For instance, B. burgdorferi is known for its lack of LPSs, which typically constitute a significant portion of a bacterium membrane (Meriläinen et al. 519). B. burgdorferi also does not have a cell wall (Meriläinen et al. 520).
It is remarkable that B. burgdorferi is neither gram-positive nor gram-negative. There is a propensity toward a weak gram-negative expression in B. burgdorferi (Delost 289). However, the overall assessment of the bacterium does not allow classifying it as either. To reproduce, the bacterium needs a host body. Binary fission is used as the key reproduction method (Delost 289).
Relative Related Pathogenic
Although there are few similarities in the pathogenesis of B. burgdorferi and spirochetes Leptospira and Treponema, the latter two can be considered as relative pathogenic to B. burgdorferi (Kung et al. 42). Because of the difference in the membrane structure that can be observed between B. burgdorferi and other sidearms, the bacterium can be compared to the specified pathogenic types.
Delost, Maria Dannessa. Introduction to Diagnostic Microbiology for the Laboratory Sciences. Introduction to Diagnostic Microbiology for the Laboratory Sciences. Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 2014.
Jutras, Brandon L., Alicia M. Chenail, and Brian Stevenson. “Changes in bacterial Growth Rate Govern Expression of the Borrelia Burgdorferi OspC and Erp Infection-Associated Surface Proteins.” Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 195, no. 4, 2013, pp. 757-764.
Kingry, Luke C., et al. “Whole Genome Sequence and Comparative Genomics of the Novel Lyme borreliosis Causing Pathogen, Borrelia Mayonii.” PloS One, vol. 11, no. 12, 2016, pp. 1-21.
Kung, Faith, et al. “Borrelia burgdorferi and tick proteins supporting pathogen persistence in the vector.” Future Microbiology, vol. 8, no. 1, 2013, pp. 41-56.
“Spirochete Bacteria.” NCBI.NIH.gov, 2017, Web.