Within the past decade there has been an unprecedented demand to host major sporting events by several of the world’s most prominent cities. This is due to such events fulfilling certain multi-leveled economic, social and political agendas in the form of a much improved local economy and greater community pride over hosting the event, which results in more prominence for local government officials (Emery, 2009: 158).
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On the other hand based on the work of Emery (2009) sporting events are seen as rife with mismanagement with occurrences such as ticketing problems, crowd problems, financial problems and other such situations that detract from the overall success of the event (Emery, 2009: 159 – 160).
It is based on this that this literature review section will explore effective and efficient methods of sports management involving the tripartite relationship of sport, media and event funders/personnel in order to show what is necessary to successfully manage a major sporting event.
Furthermore, this section will also aim to explore aspects of sports management related to its necessity, challenges to its implementation, logistical features necessary as well as what goes into its overall planning and conceptualization.
It is expected that by the end of this section readers will be able to identify: success factors related effective sports management, understand aspects related to its logistical implementation as well as be able to understand the underlying management structure that is present at any major sporting event.
For this particular paper, what will be utilized is an ethnographic approach wherein a descriptive report will be created through the use of various observational techniques along with a range of approaches as determined by the researcher. The benefit of such an approach is in its ability to provide a holistic view of the topic being studied along with an emphasis on content and an understanding of the work setting involved.
It is a qualitative method of research that places an emphasis on learning and understanding how particular phenomena, which is reflected in the knowledge and systems developed in a particular field of study result in guiding influences towards a particular group, culture or practice.
The data collection methods normally utilized in this form of research method usually utilizes questionnaires, interviews and observational data. While for this section academic journals will be utilized other sections will use other methods of data collection as determined by the ethnographic approach.
The very essence of this particular type of research method is that it focuses on describing the nature of the subject/topic being studied and as such its goal is to create a portrait so to speak of the informants, community or subject that is at the focus of the study.
It must be noted though, that the ethnographic approach stipulates that during the process of data collection the researcher should not impose their own bias on the data and as such particular emphasis is placed on the reliability of observed data backed up by relevant academic literature.
Project management can be described as a discipline wherein the five processes of initiation, planning, executing, controlling and closing come together in order to achieve a specific goal (Adams and Thomas, 2005: 107). In a way, it can be seen as an effective means of organizing people, managing resources and planning outcomes so as to meet the requirement of a specific project.
What must be understood though is that project management differs greatly from business management due to business operations being repetitive and permanent in nature whereas projects are often temporary and differ in content on a case by case basis.
Examples of project management endeavors can be seen in the promotion of a particular product utilizing a new branding strategy, the creation of a new product line for a company or actions which focus on creating a greater sense of public awareness of the company’s adherence to Corporate Social Responsibility (i.e., charity work or replacing new equipment to comply with environmental regulations).
It must also be noted that project management is often constrained by factors related to scope, time and cost and as such it is the goal of all project managers to implement a process that takes these limitations into consideration in order to create a high-quality outcome that fits within such constraints.
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In summary, it can be stated that project management is a step by step procedure utilized in order to accomplish a goal within the scope, time and cost limitations imposed upon the process being implemented by the project manager.
The discipline of event management came about as direct result of the proliferation of large and small events occurring at the local level and the need to implement proper management procedures to ensure their success (Adams and Thomas, 2005: 100).
On the other hand, Adams and Thomas (2005) note that as a professional discipline events management is still in its infancy and state that “there is no overarching process drawing all the different functions or activities of event management together despite the proliferation of textbooks, trade publications and community programs” (Adams and Thomas, 2005: 100).
Despite this, the event industry is still one of the largest employers in the world and actually contributes towards positive economic impacts for local communities.
What must be understood is that the way in which an organization chooses to handle a particular event is known as events management and is composed of organizational objectives spanning factors such as: organizing funding, managing staff, assigning roles and responsibilities, marketing and public relations, ticketing, security, etc. (Kose, Argan and Argan, 2011: 2)
As Kose, Argan and Argan (2011) state “The linkages between the various departments within the organization required to handle events and the flow of this information between them is the focus of event management” (Kose, Argan and Argan, 2011: 2).
It is based on this that the practice of events management can be summarized as a way in which organizations implement guiding practices so as to influence the flow of activities, events and people within a particular venue to ensure smooth methods of operation and a successful climate for socialization, presentation and observation.
Relations between Project management and Event management
As the number, size and complexity of special events have increased within the past three decades it has become increasingly apparent that proper management and planning efforts are needed in order to make such events a success. In fact, it is not uncommon for business events, such as professional conferences, to attract 5,000 or more attendees with sporting events drawing in people by the thousands as well.
This creates simultaneous problems in the form of crowd and traffic control, proper scheduling, ticketing and overall organization, which needs to be addressed otherwise the entire event will descend into chaos.
While the discipline of event management has been utilized as of late to address this need the fact still remains that it is still in the process of developing a sufficient body of knowledge to be recognized as a profession. As Adams and Thomas (2005) indicate there is a need for an overarching process in its development and as such this is where the discipline of project management enters the picture.
By utilizing the body of knowledge of project management as a guide for development the field of event management has quickly developed into a profession by using the project management model as the basis for its management practices.
Adams and Thomas (2005) pursue this particular line of reasoning by indicating that while special events form an industry-specific group the fact still remains that they are still projects and function as projects (Adams and Thomas, 2005: 113).
In fact, Adams and Thomas (2005) compare special event management practices as being derived from project management practices with components currently utilized in event processes being a mixture of both project management and event management disciplines (Adams and Thomas, 2005: 111).
Further evidence of this can be seen in a comparison of the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) with that of the special events management practices from the work of O’Toole examined by Adams and Thomas (2005).
PMBOK defines an average project life cycle as consisting of the following five processes: “an initiation process which authorizes the project or plan, a planning process that defines and refines objectives which allows the best of alternative courses of action to be attained, an executing process involves carrying out the plan using the resources allocated, a controlling process which monitors and measures project progress regularly to ensure appropriate corrective action can be taken when necessary, and a closing process which involves a formal acceptance of project completion and the termination of any contracts” (Adams and Thomas, 2005: 107).
In comparison 6 of the 13 special event management processes consisting of: scope, time, communication, human resources, risk and procurement are virtually identical to the project management knowledge areas indicated in PMBOK.
Not only that the seven other event management processes describe by O’Toole which were examined by Adams and Thomas (2005) comprising of: finance, design, stakeholder, site choice, sponsorship, marketing and deadline while not identical to PMBOK knowledge areas can actually be found within several existing PMBOK processes (Adams and Thomas, 2004: 112).
It is based on this that it can be seen the relationship between project management and event management is a co-relational one wherein the processes and methods evident in event management today are based of the knowledge base created by project management.
This was done in order to fulfill the overarching process stated by Adams and Thomas (2005) as a necessity in order to help guide and develop the body of knowledge utilized by events management in making itself into a valid profession.
Sport Event Management
The discipline of sports event management came about as a direct result of the need to employ proper organizational and management skills for events attended by thousands, viewed by millions and the logistical complications that arise with having to ensure that the sporting event begins and ends on schedule.
As described by Chadwhick (2009) sports management can actually be considered quite different from mainstream management practices due to the element of uncertainty surrounding particular sporting events (Chadwick, 2009: 169).
No manager can accurately predict which team may win an event, what the crowd reaction will be or what possible problems may arise as a direct result of thousands of people being gathered within a single location.
It is based on this that sport event management focuses on creating a logistical management structure whereby the factors that can be addressed such as event management, crowd logistics and event preparation can be achieved effectively and efficiently so as to minimize the amount of problems that may possibly occur (Appelbaum, Adeland and Harris, 2005: 69 – 82).
What must be understood though is that proper sports event management should not be considered as merely being isolated to within the confines of the event itself rather community partnerships in holding particular events are equally as important so as to ensure proper event management.
From the perspective of Reverte and Izard (2011) social capital (S.C.), which refers to the stocks of social trust, norms and networks which people may access to solve joint problems, is a necessary aspect of proper event management (Reverte and Izard, 2011: 37).
They build up on this argument by indicating that S.C. generates civic engagement and allows individual resources to be transformed into collective attributes which enables members of a local community to cooperate resulting in shared trust, cohesive actions and the creation of permanent relationship networks which reinforce mutual benefits among the members of a community (Reverte and Izard, 2011: 38).
By utilizing this sport event management creates a beneficial working relationship with members of the local community resulting in better organizational performance and efficiency of operations as compared to a purely event-oriented management style.
Why we need sport events
Allmers and Maennig (2009) in their examination of the economic impacts of the FIFA Soccer World Cups in their respective host cities showed that while sporting events delivered a certain amount of excitement and media exposure there is usually a positive return of investment associated with cities hosting such events (Allmers and Maennig, 2009: 500).
For example, when Allmers and Maennig (2009) examined the economic impact of the FIFA World Soccer Cup in Germany from 2000 to 2008 it showed a dramatic increase in the number of overnight stays by foreign tourists by at least 1.1 million.
In fact, surveys conducted by the World Cup during the event revealed that tourists, both local and international, spent on average 6.0 to 11.4 days in Germany during the World Cup season (Allmers and Maennig, 2009: 502).
The economic impact of the amount of visitors takes the form of increased sales revenue, more jobs generated as well as greater international media exposure which translates into the potential for more foreign tourists in the future (Taks, Kessene, Chalip, Green, Martyn, 2011: 187 – 201).
Aside from having a positive economic impact on local communities Schulenkorf (2009) reveals that sporting events actually also have a positive social impact. As Schulenkorf (2009) explains, societies that were previously divided due to ethnic or religious differences were actually brought together as a direct result of sporting events being held in their city or region.
In a sense, sporting events augment the normal patterns of behavior of divisive communities by establishing a common social identity which creates a positive impact on general living conditions of people living within that particular area that used to be rife with ethnic and religious conflict (Schulenkorf, 2009: 121).
Other positive social impacts described by Schulenkorf (2009) come in the form of socio-cultural experiences by visitors to the event, which in turn helps to promote cultural exchange and greater foreign tourism to the area.
Challenges on Sport Event Management
Challenges to sport event management, though numerous, can actually be divided into two distinct categories namely: organizing the event itself and managing the sport structure or venue in which it is held.
As Ulfik and Nowak (2009) indicate in their study examining main threats evident during big sporting events effective management of sport structures actually entails a far different organizational nature as compared to the challenges of organizing the sporting event that is to be held in it (Ulfik and Nowak, 2009: 902).
This is due to the fact that on average major sports stadiums can hold 53,000 to 78,000 people depending on the event in question resulting in possibly thousands of people rushing into limited entrances in order to get to their seats or thousands of people rushing out as soon as the event is over (Ulfik and Nowak, 2009: 903).
Not only that there are logistical aspects to take into consideration such as proper ticketing and registering, monitoring crowd flows through particular entrances, ensuring that there are enough restrooms or portable toilets for the crowds to use not to mention ensuring that no brawls or pre or post-match fights occur between fans of opposing teams.
There are also issues related to security that should be taken into consideration, such as the possibility of hidden weapons, bombs or even the possibility of terrorism. It is this and other factors that present numerous challenges for properly managing a sports structure or venue during a special sporting event.
On the other end of the spectrum exists challenges related to successfully organizing and managing the sports event itself. These challenges come in the form of proper logistics involving the scheduling of events, ensuring that equipment is delivered on time, making sure that participants are properly attended to, integrating event planning with proper media coverage, as well as a variety of other concerns to numerous to cite.
Based off the work of Minis, Paraschi and Tzimourtas (2006) all challenges involving proper organization of a sporting event such as the Olympics can be placed into three distinct categories:
- external clients – this refers to the media, the sports committees, local government etc.
- functional areas – this refers to the areas where the events will actually take place
- the logistics of the Olympic venues – refers to proper crowd control, scheduling as well as other similar concerns (Minis, Paraschi and Tzimourtas, 2006: 622).
It is only when such factors are adequately addressed that sporting event can actually be called a success.
Sport Event Management success factors
As the number of sporting events has grown within the past two decades it becomes necessary to determine what aspects define a successful sporting event and how such aspects might be utilized in planning session of future sporting events so as to ensure their success as well.
It is based on this that this section explores the various sports management success factors and how they interrelate in order to create a truly effective method of management that is able to make an event a success.
As such this section will examine the correlation between proper planning, the implementation of logistics, the proper use of venues and resources as well as various other factors that help to facilitate the creation of a proper organizational structure.
It is expect that by the end of this reading readers will be able to determine how particular practices are implemented and how they themselves can utilize such practices in order to create their own methods of proper methods of sports management.
Understanding of the philosophy surrounding the events
All events have some form of underlying philosophy that are behind their inception.
For example, business conferences highlighting entrepreneurship have the underlying philosophy of encouraging the development of new business while sporting events on the other hand such as soccer, basketball, tennis or the Olympics have philosophies ranging from the spirit of fair play and competition to man overcoming his limitations and achieving the near impossible.
One study by Schulenkorf (2009) presented the social utility of sports events and how they contribute to greater social cohesion and this becomes their underlying philosophy (Schulenkorf, 2009: 120 -122).
The importance of understanding the philosophy surrounding event is based on the need to organize and implement management and promotion structures that highlight this specific philosophy and portray it to local audiences and international viewers alike since it is only through this that a sporting event gains a greater degree of importance and meaning behind it merely being a competition.
Understanding participant expectations
Based on the work of Herstein and Jaffe (2008) participants in sporting events can be divided into two main categories each with its own unique set of expectations:
Event participants – the main purpose of this particular group is to participate in the event thus their expectation is that the sporting event and category they’re in is properly organized, scheduled and is set to the standards of their particular sport.
Event Spectators – for this particular group their primary purpose is to watch the event thus their expectations are focused more towards proper seating arrangement, crowd control, hassle-free ticketing, clear facilities, visible security in the form of guards, proper restrooms and the presence of concession stands if they feel hungry in anyway.
As Hernstein and Jaffe (2008) explain proper management of any sporting event is not limited to just ensuring that the event is underway it also means that event managers need to ensure that all the needs of participants and spectators are met since they are the primary “consumers” so to speak and it is important for any manager to ensure that consumers are satisfied with a product or service (Herstein and Jaffe, 2008: 36-40).
Establishment of SMART objectives/organizational goals
SMART objectives for an organization can be defined as (S)specific, (M)measurable, (A)attainable, (R)relevant, and (T)time-bound. They form the core of what will be organizations overall plan for a specific event and as such are used as guide to ensure proper compliance with the events overall organizational goals. It must also be noted that aside from acting as a guide SMART objectives also act as limiters of actions.
They prevent management practices that veer away from the established organizational plan of the organization and as such help to prevent actions that could be considered wasteful, time-consuming or detrimental towards the effective implementation of the end goal (Te and Ye, 2011: 143 – 145).
Based on this it is important to first establish SMART objectives before planning out management practices logistical structures so as to ensure that there is an underlying structure to follow when planning out the event.
Establishing Event organization structure
For sporting events such as basketball, baseball, or tennis a common tournament format utilized is the elimination-style wherein winners play other winners until a final champion is decided for a particular competition.
In the case of sporting events such as the Olympics wherein events such as the javelin throw, hammer toss, 10-meter sprint and gymnastics individuals are measured by individual skill and merit instead of being placed into a tournament style of play.
In either case, it is necessary to establish a proper event organization structure in order to examine the number of entries into particular events and schedule a specific number of draws for the limited amount of playing surface.
For this a Decision Support System (DSS) is necessary in order to develop a proper tournament schematic of events and create an efficient and organized structure for the events occurring at multiple venues at different times (Kostuk, 1997: 183 – 190).
While there are numerous available software models to choose from the fact remains that such a system is necessary in order to help organize large scale sports events occurring simultaneously in one location.
Proper financial planning/ budgeting
When the 2007 Formula One Grand Prix was held in Singapore numerous logistical challenges appeared, first and foremost among them were the inherent costs associated with the event which were estimated at US$ 103 million (Henderson, Foo, Lim, and Yip, 2010: 60 – 71).
The success of sporting events such as the Formula One Grand Prix is not only measured by positive public perception regarding the event itself but also by the profit and positive economic gain achieved (Emerald Group, 2010: 9 – 13). If an event costs more than what was brought in it cannot be considered successful at all.
Thus proper financial planning/ budgeting in the case of sporting events needs to take into account budget allocations for the venue, staff expenses, equipment expenses, media and marketing expenses as well as miscellaneous costs that may appear (Deery and Jago. 2010: 8-11).
One way in which proper financial planning and budgeting can be achieved is through cooperation with public and private entities in order to share the cost of event in exchange for concessions regarding sponsorships, profits and other benefits for the event.
Proper logistic operation
In managing a sports event it necessary to implement proper methods of logistical operation so as to deal with concerns related to administration of the event and facilities, local community relation and finally media and marketing (Nichols and Ojala, 2009: 369 – 375).
In the case of sporting events logistics takes the form of practices that help to streamline operations in such a way that everything is properly scheduled, people know their tasks, adequate resources have been allocated to the appropriate sections and there is an underlying support structure in place so as to help mitigate any problems that may arise (Nichols and Ojala, 2009: 369 – 375).
What must be understood is that without proper logistical methods in place no matter how good a plan is made at the inception of the event it will be rendered useless without logistical practices involving people, resources and venue administration in place to help both guides and limit actions as they are performed across a variety of different aspects of the event.
Good infrastructure development and Management
One of the major problems faced with managing a major sporting event such as Olympics is tendency to add more resources, personnel or complications than is necessary for the event to properly succeed.
Doolen and Worley (N.I.) explain in their examination of contemporary methods of management infrastructures that the utilization of the “Kaizen event” namely the reduction of material, labor, time, and space which can actually be equated into the term “lean performance” actually results in improved performance in several industries (Doolen and Worley, N.I.: 1).
With Kaizen events focusing on structured improvement to improve technical performance of targeted work areas this enables the creation of far more effective means of operation and management and thus can be a viable method to be implemented in the current sports event management structure so as to improve performance while reducing costs related to excess resources and personnel.
Development of the plan
When creating the initial outline of a plan to manage a particular sporting event it is necessary to take into account multiple factors such as cost, venues, staffing, marketing and media as well as other aspects related to the efficient and effective management of the event.
Studies such as those by Ziakas and Costa (2010) suggest utilizing both the social capital within a given location as well as the host community’s event portfolio to attain the necessary network connections to make an event a success. Social capital at this point acts as a way of creating a cooperative collaboration with members of the local community to facilitate the effective allocation of resources and plans to ensure the event goes smoothly.
The event portfolio, on the other hand, acts as system assembling different event stakeholders into network that serves multiple purposes so as implement joint strategies to achieve specific ends (Ziakas and Costa, 2010: 1 – 6).
This means that multiple events occurring at the same local venue at differing times can actually confer to create a cooperative network to make each of their events a success through resource and contact collaboration. By utilizing these intial steps the planning of an event can go smoothly with potentially few problems occurring.
Professional working teams
As evidenced by the study of Celuch and Davidson (2009) human resources are a vital part of any major event to be implemented since they represent the skills, expertise, creativity and professionalism to make an event a success (Celuch and Davidson, 2009: 241).
In this regard the creation of professional working teams of such individuals is necessary to handle the administrative, marketing, venue and media-related aspects of any major event to be created.
Task delegation is an important facilitator of effective and efficient operational procedure since without it operational capacities tend to mix resulting in confusion regarding pertinent instructions, relevant and irrelevant activities, as well as general confusion regarding who is responsible for what, when and how (Ogden and McCorriston,2007: 319 – 325).
It is due to this that individuals responsible for the creation of the event need to separated and delegated into prospective teams so as to avoid any foreseeable logistical dilemmas and ensure that operations run smoothly.
Proper marketing and media plan
For any major sporting event it is crucial to develop local support due to possible resident opposition playing a detrimental role in creating or even maintaining proper functions once the event is underway.
Thus from the perspective of Ritchie, Shipway and Chien (2010) proper marketing and media planning should not only encompass promotion of the sporting event as a means of drawing in spectators and allowing millions around the world to watch it but it should also encompass creating local support in order to facilitate positive relations in terms of relaying how the event is a boon for the local community (Ritchie, Shipway and Chien, 2010: 203).
Through their study of the local population for the 2012 Olympics it was revealed by Ritchie, Shipway and Chien (2010) that media portrayal of the event as well as progressive local marketing acted as effective tools for changing local perceptions and as such should be utilized in all sporting events as a means of gaining local support.
The term “atmospherics” refers to the way in which commercial spaces are designed, which take into account a consumer’s response to the structure in terms of the way it looks, it amenities, its iconography, imagery, etc. For sports event management, this takes on the meaning of the aesthetics of the event location and the way in which it affects the mood of the spectators and participants alike.
For instance, in the study of Hsu (2010) lighting quality was seen as an important aspect of the visual perception of audiences, which contributed to the overall success of a sporting event (Hsu, 2010: 693 – 699). Poor lighting affected the visual representation of events as they occurred and actually detracted from audience satisfaction of a particular sporting event.
What must be understood is that people are influenced by the visual cues they perceive and as such this affects their moods, behaviors and emotions towards a particular venue. Thus it becomes of paramount importance that from aesthetic perspective sporting event venues should be pleasing to the eye in the form of eye-catching and exciting colors and displays so as to appeal to the need for visual stimulation by audiences.
Local political support is a necessary factor in properly setting up any major sporting event within a country. As evidenced by the work of Spyropoulos (2004), which examined the connection between politics and sporting events it was seen in the case of Greece leading up to the 2004 Summer Olympics that political support was necessary in even getting the necessary structures underway.
What must be understood is that a major sporting event such as the summer Olympics requires the construction of necessary facilities, the establishment of proper management structures in order to deal with the influx of visitors and their effect on local traffic arteries and public transportation, proper funding as well as several other factors necessary to make any major sporting event a success (Spyropoulos, 2004:74- 84).
It is due to this that local political support is necessary to provide the necessary structures, funding and support in order to make sure that a major sporting event can become a success.
Adhering to the set procedures/protocol
Once the proper plans and organizational structures have been implemented it becomes necessary to ensure that there is proper compliance to set procedures and protocols established (N.I., N.I.: 1- 8).
The reason behind this is simple, if left to their own devices each part of the organizational structure may implement either conflicting schedules, implement overlapping events, and create general chaos in what was originally a fairly well-organized management structure.
Taking such factors into consideration it is necessary for any successful sports event management team to ensure compliance to all protocols and procedures by implementing stringent quality checks and follow-ups to make sure that all is what it should be (N.I., N.I.: 1- 8).
It is only by doing so that a truly effective and efficient system can work properly without people getting in the way of themselves or creating conflicting self-created procedures that would “throw a wrench” into efficiency created.
Proper risk management
Proper risk management in the case of sports event management takes the form of ensuring that there is a sufficient level of logistical support to handle problems as they occur and deal with them as necessary (Kim, N.I.: 1 – 8). It is naive to think that all problems can be solved through proper planning and an efficient logistical structure.
A well-seasoned event manager would realize that problems occur not only during the event creation phase but during the event itself. It is based on this that is is important to implement a central logistical structure to observe the sporting event, find problems as they occur and implement fixes as soon as possible so as to prevent the problem from getting worse (Kim, N.I.: 1 – 8).
Examples of this can be seen in problems that may occur in sufficiently coordinating and controlling the crowd of people going in and out of the venue, the possibility of long lines at the restrooms or even unruly crowds during the event itself (Walker, Heere, Parent, and Drane 2010: 659 – 680). As such these present numerous risks to the event that need to be dealt with in order to ensure its success.
Conceptual understanding about successful management of sport event
Based on the various factors presented in can be seen that the successful management of a sporting event is based on minimizing challenges and risks that occur at the onset and during the event while ensuring that there is a sufficient logistical infrastructure in place in order to ensure proper organizational efficiency (Riggs, Epting, Hanky, and Knowles, 2011: 299 – 204).
It was seen that sports event management is not limited to dealing with creating the event alone but also needs to take into account positive relations with the local community in order to get any major sports event underway.
This involves having to implement marketing and media relations in order to portray the positive aspects of a sporting event and how it will not detrimentally impact members of the local community and in fact will be a boon to them.
Also, while it may be true that a sporting event does create a distinct positive economic impact with local businesses the fact remains that it should be profitable venture for the organizers as well.
Taking this into consideration it is often necessary to create links with local government and private companies to share in the burden of managing and initially funding the event so as to ensure that there is a sufficient monetary and organizational structure behind the event itself.
What must also be taken into consideration is the fact that a sports event can be considered as a form of project and as such it is constrained by factors related to scope, time and cost. As such taking such limitations into consideration it is necessary to implement an backbone logistical structure so as to ensure that there is an organized method behind the operations of the sports event management team.
This is done by first implementing SMART goals, creating a logistical overlay of what is necessary for each department, separating staff into individual teams and giving each team their own aspect of the event to be responsible for. By ensuring that each team complies with their given instruction this creates an effective means of ensuring that the sporting event can become a success.
On the other hand, it is also equally important to note that managing a sporting event is not limited to creating the event itself but ensuring that it has a positive impact on the participants and spectators as well. This involves implementing positive atmospherics during the event so as to create an effective visual stimulation for players and audiences a like.
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