Home > Free Essays > Warfare > World War I > The Battle of Jutland: the History and Context of the Battle of Jutland

The Battle of Jutland: the History and Context of the Battle of Jutland Research Paper

Exclusively available on IvyPanda Available only on IvyPanda
Updated: Jul 28th, 2022

The Battle of Jutland (31 May – 1 June 1916) is a significant large-scale naval battle of the First World War between the British Royal Navy Grand Fleet and the Imperial German High Seas Fleet. It took place in the North Sea, near the Danish peninsula of Jutland.

Germany aimed to break the starvation blockade, while Britain intended to maintain their advantage. Since John Jellicoe’s Grand Fleet was the only British battlefleet, severe losses would have seriously undermined Britain’s control (Osborne, 2016). Concerning that the British battlefleet had a 2:1 superiority, Scheer intended to openly go to the shores of Norway to induce some of the British ships to break away from the main fleet. However, information about the departure of German ships was disclosed (Osborne 2016).

At 14 o’clock, the British Squadron of D. Beatty engaged in the battle with the German vanguard. The struggle between the opposing fleets began at 18 o’clock with an active role of battlecruisers. The second battle started at 19:10 with the help of battleships, and then at 20:00, the British completely lost the location of the rival, who hid behind a smokescreen. However, Beatty managed to track down the enemy, and the Grand Fleet began to attack German forces. Actions lasted until 20:40 when the Germans managed to retreat (Osborne 2016).

The third stage was the night battle, initiated by the German fleet led by Scheer. The last clash of opponents resulted in the destruction of the destroyer G-40. The Germans managed to escape; their losses of men amounted to 2,500 people. The British fleet suffered heavy losses, with 6,100 people killed. Both opponents declared themselves the victors in this battle. Germany boasted that it caused significant damage to the British fleet, while England pointed out that they still maintained their blockade (Osborne 2016).

Summary of the Jellicoe’s Account of the Battle

Describing the events of the battle, Sir John Jellicoe starts with the position of the Grand Fleet’s ships. Following his directions and complying with the policy of periodical sweeps, The Battle-cruiser Fleet was led by Vice-Admiral Sir David Beatty, with the ships of the Fifth Battle Squadron under Rear-Admiral Hugh Evan-Thomas left for the southward of the Battle Fleet. There the fleet faced the enemy battlecruisers. Unfortunately, the fight happened under disadvantageous conditions: the mist made it difficult to see the enemy’s positions.

Before joining Beatty and Evan-Thomas, the main forces prepared their older battleships, testing their speed qualities. Jellicoe ordered the Third Battlecruiser Squadron to reinforce Beatty’s fleet. According to Rear-Admiral Hood’s instructions, the Chester was sent to investigate the situation and afterward met with the German light-cruisers. There were continuing reports about flashes and sounds of gunfire, but the mist prevented the men from seeing the ships. After 5.55 p.m., some vessels of the First Cruiser Squadron engaged in battle. However, the information about the enemy’s position was reported at 6.14 p.m.

Opposing the enemy, Jellicoe formed the battle fleet in line of battle, while Beatty’s cruisers were ahead of the battle fleet. The fire was opened at 6.17 p.m., and the collision of the battle fleets lasted until 8.20 p.m. The enemy was constantly maneuvering and used smoke screens; therefore, the Germans managed to bring the British Fleet in the line between the enemy and his bases. However, according to Jellicoe, the effect of the enemy’s fire was insignificant. The Germans followed the tactics of avoiding any further action in poor visibility conditions, so at 9 p.m., they were out of sight. During the night, the Fourth, Eleventh, and Twelfth Flotillas attacked the German forces, and after the night battle, the Germans finally retreated.

Assessment of Jellicoe’s Account of the Battle

Jellicoe’s account of the battle contains the description of the Royal Navy Grand Fleet’s actions with the explanations of tactics and expresses his pride in their navy. His level of authority could be noticed due to his language and terms, assumptions, and arguments.

The position of Jellicoe and his knowledge of the subjects could be noticed through the terms he used and his explanation of tactics. It is naval terminology: “sweeps,” “scouting,” “Squadron,” and so on (Jellicoe 2009). Jellicoe pointed out rational aspects of his actions. For example, he maneuvered to keep the position to protect the fleet from the attack of a destroyer. Jellicoe also stressed the effect of disadvantageous weather conditions and argued that the fleet was in the unfavorable position of a chasing side (). Those are the reasons why they started the fire only at 6.17 p.m. Fortunately, the fire was so effective that “the enemy vessels were seen to be constantly hit” (Jellicoe 2009). Hence, Jellicoe provided the arguments showing their victory was the result of skillful work.

Considering that battle victorious, Jellicoe expresses gratitude to everyone who was involved in it. Even the losses of battleships were followed with remarks on the bravery of commandment. For example, Jellicoe noticed Arbuthnot’s desire to complete the destruction of the enemy’s ships. Jellicoe pays a lot of attention to the courage and conscientiousness of his subordinates. Vice-Admiral Beatty was “keeping with the best traditions of the service,” Captain Lawson “handled his vessel with great skill against heavy odds,” Iron Duke proved his excellency in gunnery organization, and so on (Jellicoe 2009). The report ends with the words of praise for the gallantry of the enemy and the conduct of officers and men.

Admiral’s presented account is mainly positive. The victory seems to be almost inevitable, and participants in the battle must be awarded. Indeed, despite significant losses, it was a strategic victory for Great Britain.

References

Jellicoe, John. 2009.” Sir John Jellicoe’s Report on the Battle of Jutland, 31 May-1 June 1916“. Firstworldwar. Web.

Osborne, Richard. 2016. The Battle of Jutland: History’s Greatest Sea Battle Told Through Newspaper Reports, Official Documents and the Accounts of Those Who Were There. UK: Frontline Books.

This research paper on The Battle of Jutland: the History and Context of the Battle of Jutland was written and submitted by your fellow student. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly.
Removal Request
If you are the copyright owner of this paper and no longer wish to have your work published on IvyPanda.
Request the removal

Need a custom Research Paper sample written from scratch by
professional specifically for you?

801 certified writers online

Cite This paper
Select a referencing style:

Reference

IvyPanda. (2022, July 28). The Battle of Jutland: the History and Context of the Battle of Jutland. https://ivypanda.com/essays/the-battle-of-jutland-the-history-and-context-of-the-battle-of-jutland/

Reference

IvyPanda. (2022, July 28). The Battle of Jutland: the History and Context of the Battle of Jutland. Retrieved from https://ivypanda.com/essays/the-battle-of-jutland-the-history-and-context-of-the-battle-of-jutland/

Work Cited

"The Battle of Jutland: the History and Context of the Battle of Jutland." IvyPanda, 28 July 2022, ivypanda.com/essays/the-battle-of-jutland-the-history-and-context-of-the-battle-of-jutland/.

1. IvyPanda. "The Battle of Jutland: the History and Context of the Battle of Jutland." July 28, 2022. https://ivypanda.com/essays/the-battle-of-jutland-the-history-and-context-of-the-battle-of-jutland/.


Bibliography


IvyPanda. "The Battle of Jutland: the History and Context of the Battle of Jutland." July 28, 2022. https://ivypanda.com/essays/the-battle-of-jutland-the-history-and-context-of-the-battle-of-jutland/.

References

IvyPanda. 2022. "The Battle of Jutland: the History and Context of the Battle of Jutland." July 28, 2022. https://ivypanda.com/essays/the-battle-of-jutland-the-history-and-context-of-the-battle-of-jutland/.

References

IvyPanda. (2022) 'The Battle of Jutland: the History and Context of the Battle of Jutland'. 28 July.

Powered by CiteTotal, online citation maker
More related papers