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“The Godfather’s” management Essay


Introduction

Principles of management are inclined in management concepts and theories to ensure successful management is achieved. The essay will integrate management principles and theories in ‘The Godfather’ movie to help us understand the degree to which management practices and applied.

Management principles vary from organization to organization and are regarded as necessary and helpful components of successful management. In striving to reach organizational goals and utilizing scarce resources, the analysis compares and contrasts leadership and management skills in an effort to accomplish these goals. To achieve this, management processes have been divided into principles that include ethics, decision making, planning, organizing, team building, culture, motivation influencing and controlling and leadership.

Motivation

Lamp (1968) analysis provides that good leadership skills are valuable resource in an organization and in employees’ lives. The movie ‘The Godfather’ (1972) covers the main principles of management and presents concepts and theories very prevalent in day to day running of organizations.

Motivation plays an important role in creating and influencing the opinion of employees in an organization. It does this by linking the ideas of the organization with their employees whereby the manager pass down their themes to their team members hence changing the way they perceive certain issues. Sound management requires strategic planning and setting of an organization in combination with the coordination and assembly of resources and employees with the goal of reaching objectives.

According to Lamp (1968) there exists a direct relationship between motivation and what the employees are giving the organization. In this relationship the role of manager employee is to generate information from a chain of relations and influences and the role of the managers is to infer and evaluate the information from the employees and generate other information external of the media perspectives.

Sound management requires strategic planning and setting with the coordination and assembly of resources and employees with the goal of reaching organization objectives. Collaborative efforts from employees and other resources alongside what Lamp (1968) states as “knowing what you want people to do, then getting them to do it in the best way” (p.1) is required of good management and leadership skills in influencing goals in an organization. In relation to The Godfather (1972) movie Don Corleone argues to Sollonzo that….

I said that I will see you because I had heard that you were a serious man, to be treated with respect. But I must say no to you and met me give you my reasons. It’s true I have a lot of friends in politics (1).

To achieve this, management processes have been divided into principles that include ethics, decision making, planning, organizing, team building, culture, motivation influencing and controlling and leadership.

Recent research efforts by Sinclair (2004) suggests that management is a continuous process and the mentioned principles are interwoven throughout management functions and requires careful coordination in order to maximize their value. It is important to note that these principles are universal and effective and efficient application of them will provide best practices. This is as result of their capability to reach a broad range of organization functions with a powerful and transforming message.

Planning and Decision Making

Planning requires adequate arrangement of organization goals and planning on how best to achieve them. It requires allocation of particular tasks to employees and instructions on how and when they will be performed. In essence, planning provides a conceptual framework in which an organization outlines its objectives on how to be successful.

Although this may take time, collaboration and coordination among employees and expertise is required. Sinclair (2004) succinctly states that “Effective planning takes effort and ability to take broad objective view” (p.1). He further classifies decision making among the central element of planning when he stated that “it involves selecting the best course of action to achieve success” (p.1).

In relation to this statement, Michael talks to Johnny Fontane in The Godfather (1972) movie that…

Corleone family is thinking of giving up all of its interest in the olive oil business, setting out there. Now, Moe Greene will sell us his share of the hotel and the casino so that it can be completely owned by the family. Tom (1).

Michael adds in another statement that…

I’ll make him an offer he can’t’ refuse. You see Moe, Johnny, we feel that entertainment is going to be a big factor in drawing gamblers into the casinos. We’re hoping that you’ll sign a contract agreeing to appear 5 times a year. Perhaps convince some of your friends in the movies to do the same. We’re counting on you, Johnny (1).

This quote clarifies that organizing to own the hotel and Casino by Corleone family is a planning process and decision making in relation to signing a contract to be part of the business is itself connected to management theory. Planning is indeed the foundation and the central element required for the success of any organization. Since it’s interrelated to other principles, Sinclair (2004) suggests the following planning process to be of paramount importance in providing best practices.

  1. Proving clear organization objectives to enable proper planning.
  2. Proposing alternative strategies of reaching company objectives
  3. Develop several assumptions upon which each alternative will be based
  4. Selecting the best alternative for arriving at organization objectives
  5. Strategizing plans to pursue the selected alternatives
  6. To balance the principle of planning, managers are required to put their plans into action-organizing can not benefit until the plans are put into action; both short plans are put into action; both short plans and long plans.

Organizing

Organizing can be defined as allocation of tasks to various individuals and groups. Simply put as putting plan into action, assigning tasks to different individuals contribute to achieving organization goals. Sinclair (2004) also mentions that using resources appropriately and developing tactual plans to reach organization goals is a first way of activating plans.

Since organizing is another way of getting acquaintance with the organization and people, Sinclair (2004) mentions the following steps to be of paramount importance in organizing process

  1. Making references to previous plans and objectives
  2. Establish major responsibilities in an organization
  3. Sub-dividing major tasks into small units as a strategy to help employees get to the details
  4. Allocating resources to different people and departments in form of work groups, committees and teams.
  5. Performing an end year evaluation of the company’s objectives

Coordination is another primary organizing objective that ensures efficiency and effectiveness of a manager. Sinclair (2004) further mentions the benefits to include better organization in resource management, supports initiative development and responsibility, while maintaining discipline and states clear duties.

Communication

Communication is a way of influencing people or guiding the activities of organization members’ towards certain strategic direction. Influencing has also been mentioned by Sinclair (2004) as way of “motivating, directing and leading” (p.1). Communication is among the top considered strategies in management process with the ultimate goal achieving organizational goals.

Communication goals should align with organization objectives regardless of their predefined objectives such as increased productivity, money surplus and increase livelihoods. Sinclair (2004) observes that “a manager must have the ability to influence employees to accomplish these goals and missions of the organization” (p.4).

In communication flow, The Godfather (1972) quotes…

I have a sentimental weakness for my children and I spoil them, as you can see. They talk when they should listen. Anyways, Signor Sollozzo, my no to you is final (1).

It can be said that people will always be influenced by communication in a number of ways but however, this hinges on what the target employees want to get from working in an organization. Effective communication and efficient feedback system are among the best management principles required of an organization. The idea could be established that communication skills such as an effective communicator plays a significant role in ensuring organization accomplish its goals.

This helps employees with understandings critical issues that managers feel their target departments ought to know. Sinclair (2004) elaborates his point by stating that “good manager should realize that employee’s need information to do their jobs and aren’t afraid to share that information and knowing the value of feedback and keeping the doors open for feedback system from employees” (p.1) is of primary importance.

Motivation Analysis

A renowned scholar, Sinclair (2004) urges organization to practice motivation by first knowing employees needs are. He mentions the following motivation programs to include aspects such as; 1) variable pay programs coined in Expectancy theory and Equity theory, 2) recognition programs coined in the positive re-enforcement theory and; 3) management by objective program aligned in goal setting theory. Sinclair (2004) further mentions that management by objective requires motivation program based on goal setting.

A sound organization relies on motivators in delivering their objectives to employees. In this regard motivation can be seen as extensions of man due to its capability of extending what managers want to tell, communicate, hear information, and to access efforts that can not be accessed without it. As result of the use of motivation in maximizing employees’ capabilities, competition has in essence made the world a global village. In this regard, the goals to achieve certain objectives should be; 1) mutually agree upon 2).

Be difficult and realistic and achievable at the same time 3) have defined time-frame, measurable (objective and budgeted) and 4) provide means for feedback system. Goal setting theory, Sinclair (2004) states the following objectives to be of paramount importance “1) hard goals result in a higher level of individual performance 2). Specific hard goals result in a higher level of performance than do no goals or generalized goals 3) Feedback system whether positive or negative on one’s performance leads to higher productivity” (p.7).

Recognition programs

Sinclair (2004) defines employee recognition program as “one of the most powerful workplace motivators and that they consistence with the reinforcement theory since they reward a behavior by recognizing it immediately” (p.5). In essence rewarding an effort following a behavior is likely to encourage its repletion.

Sinclair (2004) re-emphasizes the point by stating that “people tend to do that which they get rewarded for doing” (p.5). Employee recognition programs use multiple resources and recognize both individual and team accomplishments. By simply recognizing employee superior performance requires little effort and normally costs no money.

Sinclair (2004) quotes that “quality circles or employee involvement programs are forms of participative management activities and regarded as good ways to get people involved” (p.5). Also included are variable pay programs as mentioned to include piece work plans, commission sales, gain-sharing programs, profit-sharing programs.

Variable pay program is simply put as converting fixed costs into variable costs. Sinclair (2004) also mentions opportunity to gain permanent employment as the greatest motivating factor as it increases hope of becoming company’s primary asset and the ability to develop salable skills.

Some employees are motivated by freedom and work variety that temporary employment provides. Evidence shows that professionals being motivated by the work itself. The challenge and problem-solving of the job provide the incentive to perform at a higher level. Professionals like the autonomy to follow their interest and to structure their own work. A goal that is difficult but achievable. Mutually agreed to, specific, and provides feedback will provide stronger motivation than an easy goal such as ‘do your best’.

Recognition programs provide strong motivational reinforcement in the workplace. Quality circles are a form of participative management based on the theory that workers are more motivated if they can participate in the decision of the organization. Variable pay programs such as piece work, gain-sharing and profit-sharing offer incentives as a means to motivate workers (Sinclair 7).

Motivation is one of the critical and the most applied functions in the modern management. To retain employees, the responsibility of a leader in an organization is to come up with strategies on how employees can be motivated.

And because globalization is persistently increasing pressure for increased productivity and specialization, the most preferred way to utilize scarce resources is motivation. Lamp (1968) provides motivation to be is very popular in management circles where he redefined the function to be motivation in its traditional sense to mean “the process of stimulating people to action to accomplish desired goals” (p.1).

Since it’s a critical factor in judging how effective management cycles are performed and productivity is achieved, leadership skill that considers how production factors and people are motivated is of crucial importance. To do this, a manager is required to consider the following factors motivation; 1) participative management and 2) interpersonal competence.

Good leadership skills are oriented by high-task and high-relationship oriented and required recognition for self-actualization, a strategy that is deeply embedded in people and production.

In essence, Lamp (1968) quotes that “the distinction between motivation and job satisfaction should be established to rule out the misconceptions about the relationship between productivity, job satisfaction and motivation” (p.2). Lamp (1968) puts it that “in the long run a minimum level of satisfaction is considered necessary and should be maintained” (p.2). This change is best evident in the following theoretical models on productivity-satisfaction relationships as developed by Lamp (1968).

Lamp (1968) stresses his point where he stated that “employee satisfaction does not necessary lead to high employee performance, while high productive employees are not necessarily the highly satisfied employees” (p.2). And further adds that effective management to entail both productivity and satisfaction functions.

According to Lamp (1968), regardless of manager’s motives, the productivity and satisfaction ought to be purported in a way that is interesting to the employees so as to draw their interest and employ their thinking. Here, there different factors of productivity and satisfaction depend on the following things; 1) resource utilization 2) employees’ ability to perform, and; 3) employee willingness to work or motivation that stimulates them to perform.

A few individuals may claim that motivation is not sole determinant of productivity since certain effect may not be desired, or that the manager may not even be aware of the manipulation Ideally. Some argue that motivation is a determinant of crucial importance and without it employees may be demoralized.

Lamp (1968) requires the theory of motivation-to-work to be able to answer the following questions; 1) the reason behind employees choose particular occupations, 2) why people work, 3) why people choose to work with particular companies, 4) why employees use their abilities at maximum, and; 5) why employees decide to move to other organization for better positions. Since ach set of questions requires its own determinant, Lamp (1968), redefines motivation as “an entire class of drivers, desires, needs and wishes” (p.4).

He further explains that “it is essentially a process by which an individual attempts to satisfy certain needs by engaging in various behaviors” (p.4). This in essence changes the opinion of the society on those issues and thereby acts as agent of societal change. Lamp (1968) argues that “a motivated behavior is goal oriented, sustained, and is a result from internal needs and drives” and “most work behaviors are motivated” (p.4).

Lamp (1968) further defines a motive as “an internal drive that arouses, directs, and integrates a person’s behavior” and that “motives can be inferred from the behavior” (p.5). The Braham Maslow was among the initial authors who related motivation with human behavior needs when he classified them within need of hierarchy framework.

Theories of motivation

Lamp (1968) observes that motivation functions as a system of motivating employees and representation to the organization at large.

Based on the concept of needs, theories of motivation have the role of encouraging, recreating, and of educating, and instilling members of the society with the opinions, perceptions, and norms of behavior that integrates them into the principles of the organization as a whole.

In his opinion Lamp (1968) argues that “the important driving force is the degree to which individual values certain rewards or second-level outcomes—or what needs are operating at what strength to motivate the individual’s behaviors” (p.5).

It is obvious here that Lamp links motivational factors to the following employment theories; valence-expectancy and instrumentality formulation. In his opinion Lamp (1968) argues that, in the earth full of wealth and wars of class interest lower-level needs such as psychological and safety are against the background of the modern behaviorists beliefs that argue that the needs are generally satisfied.

This due to the fact that, in providing only a very thin range of needs on main issues affecting employees, the modern theorist persuades the modern world that there is no option to the solutions it provides to problems and the often ignored high-level needs are of crucial importance to employees.

It is worth to note that, the significance of Godfather movie messages is directly linked to what is accounted and how it is reported. Godfather movie is bound with different formulations of theories and empirical thoughts about motivation, management literature views motivation as something imposed on an employee. Godfather (1972) movie puts much emphasis on leadership style when Don Corleone quotes that…..

I said that I would see you because I had heard that you were a serious man, to be treated with respect. But I must say no to you and let me give you my reasons. It’s true I have lots of friends in politics, but they wouldn’t be so friendly if they knew my business was drugs instead of gambling which they consider a harmless vice (1).

Lamp (1968) opined that leadership behavior based on the X and Y assumption. Lamp (1968) succinctly states “management practice that demonstrates democratic leadership and employee participation, making employee feel real responsible for organization’s goals” (p.6) is of paramount importance. Lamp (1968) further adds that “leadership style is asserted to produce better results in productivity and job satisfaction, and motivates employees to achieve job objectives” (p.6).

In his efforts Lamp (1968) observes that “motivation is a significant source of influence on a number of issues that lead to profound effect on the society and as such there exist pervasive interest in the value of management” (p.6) . In causing social change in the organization, Sinclair (2004) purports to trace leadership style influences to management practice that in turn motivate employees.

Lamp (1968) mentions motivation theories to be coined in Likert motivational forces that include both economic rewards and the higher-level needs. Being agents of motivating the organization as whole, the manager spreads knowledge to vast population and as such it is part and parcel of wide range endeavors of promoting actions that are believed to have profound social transformations in that society.

Likert’s approach embraces the entire need hierarchy and considers them as public relations instruments. Lamp (1968) cautions that “application of the basic principles of system for management should take into account the difference in the kind of work, industry tradition, and skills and values employees of a particular company” (p.6).

Lamp (1968) studies consider a society as a group of isolated persons subjected to motivational factors. Lamp (1968) states that “this school of thoughts envisions the motivation factors as a needle syringe that infusion the opinions of the media producers into the minds of the target audience, who accept these opinions and principles” (p.6).

He further provides Likert approaches to motivation are similar in nature to when he quoted that “they are broader in scope than, the above line of thinking is the call for an organization structure and work environment that would provide opportunity for internal and external integration, self-expression, employee participation and self-actualization “(p.5)”.

Authors like Sinclair (2004) opinioned that “the traditional structure of rigid specialization, well-designed jobs, and standard operating procedures (so –called bureaucratic-mechanic structure) can hardly provide such work environment whose basic ingredients of nature of task (involving technology and social and psychological processes), work group, and leadership” (p.5).

Lamp (1968) observes that, the link between motivation and the modern popular culture is usually conceived in terms of spreading opinions from the privileged few to the general employees.

He concludes that “only an adaptive-organic system can provide a high degree of job flexibility, initiative, variety, and attachment to match the varied interests and multiple talents of modern man” (p.6). Culture is very prevalent in Latin families as portrayed in The Godfather (1972) movie. For example, Lucas was delivering his rehearsal speech murmuring that….

Don Corleone, I am honored and grateful that you have invited me to your ….’s wedding…on the day of your daughter’s wedding. And I hope their first child be a masculine child. I pledge my ever-ending loyalty (1).

In another argument, Tom Hagen tells Sonny that….

Nobody has ever gunned down a New York police captain before. It would be disasterous. All the other five families would turn against you. The Corleone family would be outcast. Even the old man’s protection would run for cover (1).

Lamp (1968) argues that organization with dynamic technologies have the ability to motivate employees into goal-orientation. And that such organization is well suited to adaptive-organic structure and environment as mentioned in Frederick Herzberg which clearly distinguishes the two sets of needs.

As quoted in Lamp (1968), Herzberg explains hygiene factors to include the “determine behavior on the job, but not motivate and argues that without proper provision for them cause job dissatisfaction and adds that “adequate provision of them only guarantees dissatisfaction while cannot lead to positive motivation” (p.6).

Lamp (1968) concludes by stating “since they are strongly motivating, they can’t also be de-motivating when they are not provided and they are satisfiers in nature” (p.6). In comparison with The Godfather movie, Herzberg theory seems to be greater in theory than the evidence provided for it. The theory is strictly defines an objective to mean two different things.

For example, it defines one job factor to be a satisfier or a di-satisfier or not both at the same-time. This explanation is un-dimensional since one job factor can neither be the other and since they all seem to be interrelated in one occasional or the other. For example, money and inter-personal relations seem to be co-independent. Lamp (1968) argues that Herzberg theory “assumes that motivators and hygiene factors operate in the same fashion for everyone” (p.7).

In summary, Lamp (1968) quotes that “needs are the origin of much of the human motivators and motivators have to be ignited by an appropriate organizational climate” (p.7). This is a situation whereby only the cultural attitudes and beliefs of the media employees are taken as standard measurements and beliefs of the society.

A case in the study is that the implications of motivation are quite complex and delicate whereby the organization refuses to recognize employees’ efforts which were thought to be damaging to his interests in motivation. In what follows, we attempt to raise some questions on Godfather movie as an attempt to translate the conceptual knowledge into practice. As depicted in the movie, motivators depend on different societies, individuals and organizations and in essence, there is probably no universal motivator for all mankind.

Achievement is generally recognized as a very crucial motivator factor to achieve the best results, but in many settings, such as the godfather movie, there are no well-defined, achievable task objectives set by the society or a function that is mutually agreed upon by individuals (Lamp 8).

Further more, it is within the organization whereby leaders/directors create awareness of thorny issues in the society. When member of an organization understand such issues they change their attitudes and beliefs and the result is society’s social change. According to Lamp (1968), organization function as an instrument for formulating and evaluating public opinions, linking the world with thinkers and rebuilding the self picture of society.

Without question, organization has brought significant social transformations over time in behavior models and cultural attitudes and norms. For instance, clear identification of group tasks and objectives and their relationships to individuals in a group and organization as a whole has brought remarkable social lasting impacts such the industrial revolution, the eradication of discrimination as well as effort recognition.

To do this, Lamp (1968), states that there must be “open, accurate, specific (not generalized) feedback available to the employees as to how he is doing” (p.8). This concept has however been without challenges. Many organizations have complained of its inability to implement employee motivation since it proves difficult to align organization goals or objective setting and performance feedback in the motivational tools (Lamp 8).

Ethics

As Cline (2011) provides, “ethical concepts is an association of people organized under system of rules” (p.1). He broadly defines ethical concepts as “rational examination of morality and evaluation of people’s behavior”. This provides rules and guidelines aligned with business objectives for the realization of business strategic goals (De George 2).

Ethical concepts have enables coordination and management that ensures implementation of company planning to operate effectively. Overall success of an integrated business objective is stated by Cline (2011) as a “guiding conduct and principles for evaluating rules rational based on formal laws” (p.1).

This therefore implies that ethical conducts are indeed management function and requires the integration of both morality and evaluation of people’s behavior in a given setting. It also implies what Cline (2011) succinctly defines to be “morals are derived from society’s system of values” (p.1). The Godfather (1972) for example portrays its American culture as……

I believe in America. America has made my fortune. And I raised my daughter in the American fashion. I gave her freedom but I taught her never to dishonor her family. She found a “boyfriend”, not an Italian. She went to the movies with him. She stayed out late. I didn’t protest. Tow months ago he took her for a drive, with another boyfriend. They made her drink whiskey and then tried to take advantage of her. She resisted. She kept the honor. So they beat her. Like an animal. When I went to the hospital her nose was broken (1).

Kantian deontology is basically a duty based ethic. As Cline (2011) argues “good without qualification is a goodwill” (p.1). As a control and coordinative function, deontology is increasingly becoming important integration unit in many business application services.

Cline (2011) further defines deontology as “Deontology as approaches in ethics usually constructed with teleological approaches” (p.1). The author is trying to explain that ethics have increased the global nature of interdependent to ethical conducts which in turn enhances business strategy.

Kantian deontology is basically grounded in duty that requires people to be responsible to each other (Sheth 1994). Rule deontology on the other hand determines what Cline (2011) defines as “the basis for moral obligation, act on a rule that can be universally binding on all people” (p.1). In other words, deontology acts on the rule that ensures people are treated equally at the end.

Kant’s moral theory is based on the assumptions that “views of the human being have the unique capacity for rationality” (p.1).This approach to ethical concepts has influenced the forces will see today.

Business Ethics (2005) reasons that propensity applies to what he states as “reasoned thoughts and actions, and it’s exactly this ability which obliges us to act according with and for the sake of duty” (p.1). Their contribution and impacts sufficiently support Kant’s belief that argues in Business Ethics (2005) that “inclination, emotions and consequences should play no role in moral action” (p.3).

This theory captures how emotions are applied and challenges moral actions. This simply implies that motivation for action should be equated with moral obligation. Business Ethics (2005) further adds that “morality should provide us with a framework of rational principles (rules) that guide and restrict action-independent of personal intentional and desires” (p.3).

In this regard, deontology should be generally understood as a critical requirement to corporate principles and development inter-relationships that meet company’s needs. Consequently, realization of the need to make moral obligations importance to organization has become practical bringing with it an intertwined relationship business ethics and corporate strategy.

Deontology definition tries to answer the following questions as stated in Ethical Concepts (2005) as “what is my moral duty, what are my moral obligation, how do I weigh one moral duty against another?” (p.2).

In other words, deontology plans to integrate into the corporate system moral duties and obligation that are specific and adequate to allow understanding of each application, and to understand its procedural order of development. This simply means that organizations should provide a new checklist to ensure most critical priorities are met first.

Therefore, if the best consequence such as happiness or pleasure has resulted from moral obligation, it means that the theory is utilitarianism because pleasure is the absolute good. Kant’s moral theory on the other hand argues in Business Ethics (2005) that “we are morally obliged to act in accordance with a certain set of principles/rules regardless of the outcome” (p.3).

Evidently, deontology and utilitarian theories are polar opposites. In a given setting, utilitarianism is the most favored theory since it makes most people happy in a certain set of circumstances. Business Ethics (2005) mentions this as some of the ethical complications with utilitarianism. Business Ethics (2005) stresses the theory to “disregards the intrinsic value of all persons justifies of killing one to save many” (p.3).

Put forward by Immanuel Kant in 1788, Kantian deontology is major ethical theory that applies to human conduct. Utilitarianism aims at satisfying a specific goal such as happiness and pleasure and justifies any consequence of any act that achieves that goal precisely because it achieves it. Deontological theories on the other hand argue as provided by Business Ethics (2005) that “some acts are always wrong-even if they achieve morally admirable ends” (p.3).

The same analysis explains an act, in deontology, as a morality that is constantly judged independently of its outcome. Unlike deontology, utilitarianism does not to equate the right with the good .Thus, if someone has the moral duty not to steal, then stealing is always wrong regardless if the consequences are harmful to others.

Merely as a tool for understanding business ethics, utilitarianism is basically a consequence based while ethical relativism is subjective and cultural. Subjective relativism on other hand provides that the decisions to do right and wrong depends on an individual judgment- meaning that moral people can agree or differ on moral issues. Finally, cultural relativism provides morals guidelines on which to determine right and wrong.

Business Ethics (2005) states that “deontologists moral systems are characterized by a focus upon adherence to independent moral rules or duties” (p.3). He adds that, “to make the correct moral choices, we need to understand what our moral duties are and what correct rules exist to regulate those duties” (p.3). Deontologists argue in Business Ethics (2005) that “simply following the correct moral rules is often not sufficient; instead, we have to have the correct motivations” (p.3).

While deontology is generally recognized as obligations individuals are required to adhere to, Business Ethics (2005) consider it as one of the most ethical source of moral duties and obligations. In reality, a person may not regard this as Business Ethics (2005) states as “immoral even though they have broken a moral rule, but only so long as they were motivated to adhere to some correct moral duty” (p.3).

Change, Conflict and Decision Making

Change refers to the organization change of behavior or attitudes in the relation to the use and application of natural resources. Overall, organizations primarily concentrate their efforts on organization goal either than directing their efforts to implementing strategies and tactics.

For example, an organization can produce very good cosmetic products, but have employed zero efforts in creating change. Striving to create change in attitudes or behavior of employees as pointed by Mitchell (2005) is very useful when trying to create change in the way people use or manage resources. The following steps are required in recognizing change in an organization;

  1. Requires employees in different cluster and selecting individuals whose attitude or behavior need changing
  2. Careful selection of certain attitudes and behavior need changing and the reason be such changes
  3. Determining employees’ current perceptions, concerns and actions
  4. Investigating major development drivers and incentives required for change in an organization
  5. Barriers that impede change. These move will turn play a significant role in inspiring the marginalized sections of the organization to cause a social change. These barriers can be overcome by creating and maintaining dialogue with employees whose attitude and behaviors need to change.
  6. Interpret the message and transform new knowledge amongst team members.

This requires involving employees in decision making process through team building in providing open and transparent consultation and negotiation mechanisms.

Collaborative efforts from employees and organization require a partnership approach to enable the entire team to reach shared vision and attain specific targets. This could be first achieved by recognizing and appreciating employee’s values, concerns and needs. Overly, evaluating organization joint success against specific pre-set targets will ensure an organization is moving to a certain direction.

In management of conflict function, Mitchell (2005) states “organizations should try hard to understand other people’s view, listen reflectively to what they are saying and look for common grounds and visions” (p.6). She summarizes her article by pointing out that acknowledging employee’s expertise and focusing on their interests rather than positions they hold should be considered. In conclusion, separating people’s problem and that of organization and looking for solutions that considers employees needs should also be considered

Communication Analysis

With regards to effective dialogue, the idea of self understanding, competent communication and moral consciousness, we inevitably are struck with the idea of understanding the ways and reasons for having these qualities. In this case, Mitchell (2005) quotes “the need for a better understanding of collaboration in management and the need to deal with many of the facets of collaborations, including; recognizing and respecting areas of common ground” (p.3).

Mitchell (2005) succinctly adds that “building on mutual strength for maximum benefits, sharing power, encouraging generosity and goodwill, having real purpose and not just getting together for the sake of it and acknowledging and respecting individual differences” (p.4) is of great importance.

As discussed earlier, in order to truly get your ideas and thought s across to employees, you must be able to connect with the individual in certain ways. In order to do this the organization must establish a certain amount of trust with the employee while keeping their attention at the same time. Of course it is not easy to make collaborations happen, but striving to make working environment conducive for collaboration to occur is necessary.

One of the easiest ways of gaining employees cooperation, connection and keep their attention at the same time is to encourage and support them. Since creating collaborative environment requires time and patience, cooperation from leaders and employees as a whole is required. Mitchell (2005) considers this a viable approach when he stated that “regulatory and institutional framework should be transparent, everyone know hoe this frameworks support collaborations or hinder” (p.4).

Conclusion

In perfecting communication language, organization should look into overcoming language barriers, without devaluing its usefulness. Also devising uniformity between all collaborations is of paramount importance.

With regards to shared sense of place, the need to clearly define all power structures that exists within an organization with clear definitions is required. This can be done through moving within the society informing people about the tasks and clearly defining expectations, providing sound negations and acknowledging expectations of the group involved.

With regards to credibility, Mitchell (2005) quotes that “a manager should determine and negotiate the credibility of those involved because of the acceptance of information is based on trust and respect” (p.5). In relation to skills, best and qualified employees should be highly considered in certain positions and collaborations should be regarded as part of the organizational culture.

With regards to effective dialogue, the idea of self understanding, competent communication and moral consciousness, we inevitably are struck with the idea of understanding the ways and reasons for having these qualities. Ensuring all members of the organization are involved in decisions making so that relationships are established is also of paramount importance.

Planning is indeed the foundation and the central element required for the success of any organization. Sound management requires strategic planning and setting of an organization in combination with the coordination and assembly of resources and employees with the goal of reaching objectives.

Works Cited

Business Ethics. “Business Ethics: Kantian Ethics (Deontology)”. Business Concepts 1(2005): 1-4

Cline, Argos. “Deontology and ethics: What is Deontolgy, Deontological Ethics?” AboutCom 1 (2011): 1

De George, Richards. Business Ethics. 7th ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, 2010.

Ethical Concepts. “Ethical Concepts and Theories”. Aboutcom 1 (2005): 137 “The Godfather”. 1972. Available at .

Lamp, Li. “Human motivation in the work organization:theories and implications”. Managerial Attitudes and Performance 1(1968): 1-11

Mitchell, Christopher. “Conflict, social change and conflict resolution”. Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management 18 (2005): 1-25

Sheth, Japheth. “Deontology”. Journal of Philosophy 1 (1994): 1-2

Sinclair, Menefee. “Motivation in Organizations”. Learning Outcomes 12 (2004): 1-18

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IvyPanda. (2019, May 10). “The Godfather’s” management. Retrieved from https://ivypanda.com/essays/the-godfathers-management/

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"“The Godfather’s” management." IvyPanda, 10 May 2019, ivypanda.com/essays/the-godfathers-management/.

1. IvyPanda. "“The Godfather’s” management." May 10, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/the-godfathers-management/.


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IvyPanda. "“The Godfather’s” management." May 10, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/the-godfathers-management/.

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IvyPanda. 2019. "“The Godfather’s” management." May 10, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/the-godfathers-management/.

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IvyPanda. (2019) '“The Godfather’s” management'. 10 May.

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