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The modern business environment is characterized by the increased level or rivalry because of the emergence of multiple companies that function in the most attractive spheres. Under these conditions, the effective strategy that helps to generate a competitive advantage and promote the further growth of firms acquires the top priority. Employee management, as one of its essential elements, has also become a popular construct that is utilized by companies and organizations to enhance such important aspect as employee engagement.
However, regardless of the increased importance of this issue, there is a certain knowledge gap related to the application and significance of the construct in emerging economies countries. Thus, the paper under the investigation aims at the in-depth analysis of employee engagement and its essential elements that precondition the emergence of various outcomes.
The work under the investigation outlines the importance of the acquisition of additional knowledge about the issue regarding the waves of ongoing recession and resource scarcity battles in the Middle Eastern region and Egypt. The pivotal purpose of the article is to research the role engagement plays in relationships with job performance and organizational commitment. The author is sure that it will help to understand the nature of the construct and the way it is utilized in the modern business environment.
The research question is whether efficient employee engagement management can improve companies’ outcomes. Introduction of the given purpose preconditions the formulation of the following objectives. The first one is to identify the key drivers of employee engagement regarding the existing Egyptian context. The second one is to assess the impact of this issue on job performance and commitment in terms of social exchange theory (SET). Finally, the author tries to fill in the gap in existing knowledge about employee engagement and factors impacting their work.
Research Approach and Methodologies
Investigating the selected issue, the author conducts an exploratory study supported by the questionnaire developed specially for this very project. The survey consists of eight parts to assess the central variables of the study. Leadership was evaluated using 15 items, training and development were measured by 7 items, compensation and benefits – 4 items, policies and procedures – 8 items, job performance – 3 items, employee engagement – 9 items, organizational commitment – 6 items, organizational justice – 17 items.
Introduction of these aspects is critical for the in-depth investigation of the problem and the participants’ experiences regarding the discussed topic. Thus, the choice of interviewed individuals was preconditioned by their experiences in working in a particular organization in Egypt. In such a way, the study was conducted on 245 bank employees from private and public banks functioning in Cairo with an average response rate around 81,6%. The average age of participants is 34,24 years; 58,5% are women; 69% of the sample have a bachelor degree, 25% – a master degree, and 6% have a professional banking degree.
The author uses Pearson correlation matrix and regression to analyze the discussed issue and predict the relations between outlined elements. Conducting a series of simple regressions, the investigator manages to collect data regarding employee engagement and their attitudes to the efficiency of its management. At the same time, the given quantitative study utilizes the statistical analysis of gathered data by using SPSS tools. As a result, the work manages to assess the reliability of employed scales and provide data sets needed to follow the objectives and understand the impact organizational factors have on employees’ engagement, performance, and commitment.
Use of Research Methods to Achieve the Purpose
The author of the research utilizes quantitative research methods to collect information about the analyzed issue and conclude about the role of employees’ engagement. Thus, conducting the regression analysis to analyze the relationship between suggested variables, the researcher uses a five-point Likert scale that perfectly matches the purpose of the study. To show descriptive statistics and the current reliability of coefficients of the applied scales Table 1 is added:
The table incorporates results of the participants’ answers regarding the suggested elements of employees’ engagement covered by the survey. The author applies the Cronbach’s formula:
It helps him to measure the internal consistency and inter-correlation between all elements touched upon in the course of the research. Thus, average means are not lower than 0,756 which means that the high reliability of the research are attained.
Another utilized formula is Pearson correlation:
It is a measure between two selected variables demonstrating whether there is a positive linear correlation (if value is +1), no correlation (0), or negative correlation. In such a way, the author compares all 8 introduced items and calculates coefficients to determine the degree to which they depend on each other. Results are presented in Table 2:
Results incorporate in the table prove the author’s assumption that employee engagement remains in the positive correlation with other aspects (positive means are acquired). At the same time, leadership shows the highest values which indicates its increased importance for the investigated sample regarding the banking environment in Egypt.
Finally, considering the fact that regression can predict evolution of particular factors and their interconnection, the author conducts this sort of analysis:
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The central aim is to determine the way employees’ engagement and organizational outcomes alter regarding the change of other factors. Thus, the author estimates high coefficients, especially for leadership (R-square scores 0.624) that becomes the central factor regarding employees’ engagement. The rate of change of one variable alters as function of another one becomes different. Therefore, utilization of linear regression model helps to conclude about the prevalence of factors that are in correlation with each other and have the highest significance for the discussed issue.
In such a way, utilizing the methods mentioned above and performing a chain of statistical analyses, the author concludes that work policies and HR approaches have a powerful impact on employees’ engagement and their commitment. This statement is evidenced by data acquired due to the Cronbach’s and Pearson correlation formulas.
Suggestions for Improvements
The paper conducts a comprehensive investigation of the topic of employee engagement. However, there is a place for improvements. For instance, introduction of the qualitative methods could have helped to acquire results about the participants’ attitudes to the issue of employees’ engagement and factors promoting the strongest impact on them. In such a way, utilization of the mixed qualitative-quantitative research paradigm can become a potent tool to make the paper more informative. Regarding the fact that investigator uses surveys, they can be utilized to gather data for the additional investigation.
At the same time, the workers from different banking institutions can be engaged in the study to compare their answers. It will help to determine whether suggested issues are universal and affect employees’ engagement in similar ways. At the same time, the introduction of this pattern will broaden the scope of the research and contribute to its enhanced practical utility.