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The impact of recruitment and selection on staff retention Research Paper

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Updated: Nov 14th, 2018

Abstract

The purpose of this report is to establish the relationship between recruitment, screening, selection and staff retention and how these processes ensure effective hiring. This will be achieved through establishing a relationship between them (Muchinsky, 2006, p. 166). This processes must be mixed together to come up with an effective strategy for recruitment.

The careful implementation and consideration of these processes results in effective recruitment eventually leading to a productive and quality workforce. These processes, if well planned and structured, will aid in encouraging staff retention.

Preface

This report contains the vitality of the careful implementation of the recruitment process. It outlines the importance of the recruitment, screening and selection process and their relationship. It also covers staff retention and its relationship with recruitment.

This report is meant to dwell on the importance of the recruitment process, and to tackle factors that may setback or challenge the process of effective recruitment implementation. It is targeted at anyone who aims at starting a business other than sole-proprietorship (Champoux, 2010, p. 516). The book is written in a linear order in relation to the recruitment process i.e., recruitment introduction, screening, selection and finally staff retention.

Introduction

The employees form an integral part of the organization and that is why various ways of employee hiring are being adopted by different organizations. This is because of the vitality of choosing the right people and placing them at the right posts. Hiring is a key component and is very important to every organization (Chmiel, 2001, p. 420). This responsibility lies with the Human Resource department which determines the vacancies and type of employees the company needs.

Job Analysis

This is an important step in the recruitment process. It is used to aid in recruitment and can be used in diverse ways including choosing of employees, laying out the training requirements needed in a particular job and helping in setting the pay for the job. Some companies employ job analysts to aid in job analysis. Two key components of job analysis is job description and job specification (Smither, 1998, p. 77).

Job description

It is a type of documentation containing the requirements of the job. It enables the setting of objectives of the post. It contains the job title, the rank of the employee, and a description of the employees’ roles and duties. It also serves as a guideline for an employee as to the role and responsibility he/she is expected to perform.

Job specification

It is a summary of the characteristics needed so as to enable job completion. It contains much more than just the job description (Smith, 2007, p. 34). It has the attributes of the potential candidate.

These are important as they provide useful information necessary and vital to the recruitment process and to the eventual running of the organization (Warr, 2002, p. 81). They also provide specific information as to the role of the employees, hence, making sure that no disputes or neglect in terms of ‘who does what’ arise.

Recruitment refers to the process of identifying the need to employ someone then finding, attracting and screening qualified people, which will then lead to selection which involves choosing the right candidate to fill the post (Heinitz, 2008, p. 73). This topic is very important as a good recruitment and selection policy will go a long way in representing an organizations output.

The impact of recruitment on screening

The term recruitment refers to the procedure of identifying the need to employ someone. This is followed by then choosing subsequent to coming across, drawing, evaluating and finally deciding on the most eligible individual.

Purpose and Importance of recruitment

All companies require an unlimited supply of qualified people to run the operations. This is because the company may require workers later on. It is also used to cut costs. It is used to ensure that the most qualified people are employed and that the most qualified people will be chosen (Bregman, 1922, p. 44).

As pert the policies, it makes sure that it adheres to certain obligations. It helps to identify the candidates who can effectively work in the organization. It also helps in making sure that the employees will not leave the company after a short duration.

The process of recruitment

The first process of recruitment is job analysis and planning. This entails coming up with a comprehensive job specification for the vacancy (Fagbohungbe & Longe, 1994, p. 111). It includes outlining the skills, experience, qualifications and responsibilities. It should also include the grade and the salary, the starting date and whether the job is temporary or permanent.

The next step is to develop a carefully analyzed strategy that is aimed at picking the most qualified candidate for the organization. This could include issues like whether to train a candidate themselves or pick one from outside. Other issues may include the preferred type of recruitment method to be adopted, the areas to be considered and also from which source the candidate should be chosen.

Searching follows the strategy step. It involves attracting the candidates to the organization. This will involve the use of either one or both of the external and internal sources.

Screening- This plays a big role in recruitment after the potential candidates have been attracted. It is done based on the skills, experience, knowledge and other factors in the job specification. After this stage the candidates are shortlisted based on their performance and skill set.

The last stage is the selection stage which is where the shortlisted candidates are invited for interviews and seminar presentations before the final decision of hiring is made by the company representatives.

Link between recruitment and screening

The recruitment criterion is very important and a good strategy must be adopted for its full impact and results (Cooper & Locke, 2000, p. 255). Its main aim is to ensure that the company is up to standards by ensuring the hiring of the most qualified personnel.

Screening and recruitment go hand in hand as recruitment employs this strategy as a way of short listing the potential candidates before the selection process. This assists in the filtration of candidates; hence, having a better chance of choosing the most qualified person (Furnham, 2005, p. 807). On the other hand, screening can only be effective through the strategizing part of recruitment, which lists the qualifications and skills needed for the job which serves as the basis of the elimination process in screening.

Summary

Screening is a key component of recruitment because without it, the process will not be able to pick out the most qualified candidate or even simplify the process, and screening cannot be effective without the evaluation in the strategy adopted in the early stages of the recruitment stages which includes the job analysis, specification and description.

The impact of screening on selection

Screening is an assessment of job candidates based on a carefully spelled out criteria which include the qualifications and skills (Kalat, 2007, p. 25). The qualifications are assessed using resumes, job applications etc.

Methods of screening

Interviews: The potential candidates are asked a number of questions so as to determine if they fit into the organization based on specific details they are looking for. This form of assessment is effective as a form of preliminary screening.

Job application: It entails information that shows the qualifications and skills of the applicant.

Background checks are also used to determine the candidates’ credibility (Pearle, 2007, p. 55). Tests can also be given to the candidates to determine their skills and strengths. The most common tests are the ability tests, medical tests and personality tests.

How to evaluate applicants

Job applications can be used to evaluate whether the candidate is qualified enough to work in the company and whether he or she possesses the necessary skills. Contacting the former employer is also very useful as it proves the competence of the candidate as well as the conduct.

Background checks are evaluated based on information like if the employee has a criminal record which may not put him or her in a position of doing a particular job. Some jobs are restricted by law to be accessible to people with criminal records (Sadsad, 1969, p. 180).

Tests are used to determine the candidate’s abilities in which, without them, he or she cannot be able to effectively work in the company. Ability tests are used to determine the knowledge and cognitive skills of the candidates. These tests should however not be discriminative to some of the candidates. Personality tests are used to test the candidates’ honesty, preferences and habits. Medical tests are used to test physical fitness, the psychology of the candidate, HIV status, drugs etc.

Link between screening and selection

The selection stage comes immediately after the screening stage. The screening stage simplifies the selection stage by short listing the number of candidates to be chosen and advance to the selection stage. It also ensures that the under qualified candidates are eliminated.

Summary

The choice of the screening method to be used depends on the employer and what the job entails. Screening is a very important stage of recruitment which makes the selection stage easier while at the same time ensuring its effectiveness. Screening evaluation depends on what the job entails and to what extent it will be effective to the company (Doyle, 2003, p. 393).

Screening is important in filtering out the unqualified candidates. The selection process is heavily influenced, simplified and boosted by the evaluation at the screening stage.

Analysis of selection methods

The whole idea about selection is to choose the correct individual who suits the job.

Methods of selection

Interviews are effective in facilitating the exchange of information between the employer and the candidate concerning the suitability of the applicant for the position applied for. Information contained in the applicants form can be dwelt on deeply as well as provide a platform for the coverage of various other questions.

Application forms are used to get information about an applicant (Arnold & Silvester, 2005, p. 701). The information includes the work experience, qualifications, skills, education and the former employer’s information in case any issues have to be verified.

Tests can also be carried out to find out the applicants skills, aptitude and his or her abilities. The tests should be in line with the job description and should only be carried out if they are necessary.

Participative selection is a method where the subordinate staff takes part in the choosing of their co-workers and supervisors.

Employee leasing is where instead of an employer going through the whole recruitment process, he/she can just get an employee from a third party on a long term or even permanent basis.

Process of selection

Application

This is where the candidates are invited to give out their applications, either through mail or telephone.

Selection methods

These methods are determined by the panel in charge of hiring. They may include panel interviews where the applicants are invited and asked questions meant to access their qualifications. Presentations are used to evaluate the candidates. Selection tests are also given so as to determine the abilities, skills and conditions of the candidate that can either harm or benefit a company. Work samples and portfolios are also evaluated based on the strengths and weaknesses.

Short listing

This is where the candidates are eliminated due to their weaknesses and others are chosen due to their strengths.

Interviews

Interviews are done for all candidates before they are employed. This is a very important stage in the selection process (Straub, 2002, p. 688).

Job Offer

This is where the appointment is made.

Challenges of selection and how to overcome them

Some managers are not capable of picking qualified personnel for their companies because they are not trained to do so. This can be overcome by providing training to all managers who are in charge of hiring employees about effective techniques for employing.

The tests given to the candidates in some cases may discriminate against some groups e.g. based on race, sex etc. Careful consideration and study should be put into these tests before they are administered.

The process of selection can be costly as it entails activities like advertising etc. This can be minimized by applying less expensive methods of selection.

Summary

Good selection translates to a more efficient company as the quality of the workforce will inevitably lead to quality output. Selection methods are effective only if they are applied well and given thorough consideration. If not well administered, methods like those involving tests could prove problematic to the company due to factors like the fact that some imply the company is discriminating against certain groups.

Staff retention

It basically boils down to the ability of an organization or company to maintain its employees (Aamodt, 1991, p. 167).

Recruitment, selection and staff retention

Good salaries should be allocated to the employees to ensure that they are comfortable in the company (Riggio, 2009, p. 476). This is done in the recruitment phase of salary allocation. A good salary shows appreciation, hence, making the employee comfortable.

There should be good diversity policies meant to cater for the different needs of the employees (Krumm, 2000, p. 511). Strict policies can make the employees to feel uncomfortable, hence, develop the urge to leave the company.

The candidates before being employed should have a clear picture of what the company entails, the responsibilities of the job should be clearly stated from the start so as to maintain loyalty and satisfaction after one is employed.

Managers should be given leadership training so that they may know how to effectively deal with the employees, and to ensure that they are comfortable in the company (Ainsworth-Land & Jarman, 1992, p. 201).

The right employees should be given the right positions i.e., an over qualified employee should not be given a lower position and salary as this will make them to leave the company immediately a better spot opens up in another company.

Benefits of staff retention

The company will have a good supply of skilled and qualified personnel who are comfortable at the company, hence, maintaining effective running of the company. Without skilled personnel, a company is put at a bad position.

It safeguards important company strategies and secrets such as if an employee leaves and goes to the competitor he/she is likely to divulge the information, hence, putting the company at a disadvantage (Lowman, 2002, p. 696). It boosts the morale of the company by giving them surety of a good future and company stability (Aamodt, 2009, p. 317).

Methods of staff retention

Offering good salaries and bonuses is effective as rewards make the employees to feel good (Robbins, 2001, p. 588). It also gives the employees a sense of loyalty hence, making them to stick to the company (Jex, 2002, p. 279).

The company can also give out favorable terms like small loans to new employees with a lot of potential so as to build a sense of loyalty and to enable the company to retain them for a longer period (Spector, 2003, p. 276).

More time and effort should be put in ensuring that the employees are treated better, this could be achieved through an understanding of the employees to help in giving them a sense of job satisfaction. This could include knowing their goals, concerns, value, skill level etc.

If an employee leaves the company, steps to finding out the reasons should be put in place and measures should afterwards be put in place to prevent more employees from leaving the company (Levy, 2009, p. 416).

Employees should also be given freedom such as casual days so as to improve the working environment in the office (Riggio, 2007, p. 498).

Summary

Staff retention helps to ensure that a company is able to run effectively and in the best way possible. Poor staff retention strategies results in the slow down and decrease in terms of the quality of a company. Recruitment and selection go a long way in influencing staff retention as they control, and lay down employee structures in things like pay, bonuses, positions given and skill of the employee among many other factors that influence it, hence, good policies and strategies should be implemented at this stages so as to favor staff retention.

References

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Aamodt, M G 2009, Industrial/organizational psychology: an applied approach, Cengage Learning, Stamford.

Ainsworth-Land, G T & Jarman, B 1992, Breakpoint and beyond: mastering the future—today, Harper Business, New York.

Arnold, J & Silvester, J 2005, Work psychology: understanding human behavior in the workplace. Prentice Hall/Financial Times, New Jersey.

Bregman, E O 1922, Studies in industrial psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville.

Champoux, J 2010 Organizational behavior: integrating individuals, groups, and organizations, Taylor & Francis, New York.

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