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Schooling institutions are regarded as the primary grounds to certify and empower human development (Kohn, 2011). The teachers have the responsibility of certifying, socializing educating and empowering the learners (Lovitt, 1991).
However, the teacher can only archive these obligations if s/he is supported by creation of a good learning environment. Furthermore, the teacher is a key factor in sustaining the education system.
Therefore, the role of ensuring that education system delivers full baked graduates does not fall entirely on the teacher’s competencies but the general schooling environment (Meece & Eccles, 2010).
Government schools are predominantly occupied by people from the lower social status in life. In addition, these schools are characterized by inadequate funding’s that leads to poor teaching and consequently higher dropout rates (Lovitt, 1991).
Methods that are certain in determining potential school drop outs have not been established. Furthermore, there is lack of risk factors that has a direct correlation to the rate of drops. This means that drop out is caused by a combination of factors across multiple domain (Lamb, 2011).
There is a higher chance that a student will drop out due to multiple situations compounding on each other (Milliken, 2007). To understand this phenomenon further, the study will review the three forms of drop out.
Status dropout rate refers to percentage of individuals who are between the ages of 16 to 24 but do not have any formal education.
They could be people who have not been enrolled in the formal education system at high school level, without high school accreditation certificate, without a diploma or a certification that can be equated to a general education development certification (Randall, 1999).
Status dropout is measured using two methods namely American community survey and current population survey. Data that relates to these types of population have been collected over few decades.
This data is being applied in analyzing the finer details of this educational misfortune especially in civilian population (Randall, 1999). This form of drop out pays no attention to the time. This means that it pays no regards to when a person was schooling.
In addition, this method separates immigrants from other populations. This is because immigrants are deemed to have little experience in United States education system as compared to their counterpart citizens of the United States (Ehlers, 2010).
In general, those individual who are born outside the United States have higher dropout status than those who are born and raised in the United States.
Cohort dropout rate relates to determination of dropout rates with a group being the base (Kohn, 2011). This means that cohort by definition means a group of student who joins the ninth grade with the hope and expectation of graduating after a four-year curriculum.
Students who transfer from one institution to the other are included in the calculation since the number is subtracted from the initial school and added to school they are joining (Lovitt, 1991).
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The cohort dropout rate is calculated by computing the number of students in a group that dropped schooling with a number of similar cohorts joining the school in a particulate period. The opposite is known as cohort graduation rate (Milliken, 2007).
Event dropout rate
This refers to the rate of student dropout in a school annually without completing their 12th grade education (Schargel & Smink, 2001). This measure yields a small rate since it is computed on a yearly basis as opposed to the other two methods which are cumulative in nature.
Event drop out has been used in determining the legal age where youths can drop out of school (Gordon, 2005). This is because the analysis can easily determine where majority of the youths drop out of school.
In addition, the event dropout has been used to study high school experience during a given period in time (Wentzel, & Wigfield, 2009). Furthermore, this method has been used to evaluate the educational policies that exist among the various states since the event dropout rate is different in each state.
The teacher’s perceptions of the dropout rate
Teachers agree that the adult-student relationship is fundamental in accessing and understating resilience (Gilman, Huebner & Furlong, 2009).
A student is most likely to succeed in gaining and sustaining resilience considering the challenging environment if there is an adult who takes a personal and dedicated initiative to offer guidance, recognition and support to such a student (Seligman et al, 1995).
The presence of at least one concerned individual can make a lifetime impact on the development of a child. The role of a school comes in this situation since the school is a place for supportive environment (Christenson & Reschly, 2010).
This occurs because the teacher-student relationship is supportive in nature. The teacher plays the role of a concerned adult who recognizes and supports the efforts of students who are learning (Shaul, 2004).
Students have a role to play in minimizing the dropout rate (Provenzo & McCloskey, 1996). The secret to success is the ability to define goals and set a mechanism that will help the learner archive the set goal.
The teachers should play their professional role of guiding the students through the technicalities of life and the education system. However, student must remain committed to the path of success through hard work and self-discipline (Porter, 2008). Parents, also, have roles to play.
They should complement the teacher role in instilling virtual and morals in the student. The education process is a triangle that involves the parent, student and the teacher.
There are various reasons that are associated with drop out cases. 35% of students feel that failing in school will make them drop out, 43% will drop out of school if they missed too many classes, 45% feel they were not prepared for high school education and 32% will drop out of school if they are compelled to repeat a grade (Franklin, Harris & Meares, 2008). These are the leading issues that are associated with school dropout.
Prevention in rural school district
Teachers, student and policy makers should form part of the system that is capable of building student’s confidence through provision of success opportunities, empathizing the need of education in relation to the future, developing student’s internal motivation, nurturing student’s problem solving skills, identifying and responding to student personal and family issues, and establishing a safe, supportive and caring environment for the youth (Porter, 2008).
The system is meant to rationalize the student’s thinking capacity which will enable him/her to make better decisions especially in teenage and early adulthood years (Smink & Schargel, 2004). This will facilitate their abilities to perceive information and digest it towards their own benefits
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