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The Prevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Among Adolescents Research Paper

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Updated: May 4th, 2022


The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) epidemic has remained one of the greatest problems facing people all over the world since it was detected three decades ago. It has been difficult to establish accurate data on HIV prevalence because a significant proportion of individuals infected with the virus have either not been diagnosed or have not cooperated with the various surveillance programs. The spread of HIV the United States of America has been on the rise especially among adolescents and young adults (Carrie, 2008).

According to data released by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), on the prevalence of HIV in a few sampled states in 2003 were 994,000 people representing an increase of about 112,000 between 2003 and 2006. The bulk of this population is in Africa. The highest percentage of people living with the virus in Africa has been recorded to be in the sub-Saharan Africa (Kates & Carbaugh, 2006)

Nationally, the CDC report reveals that the number of Americans who were undiagnosed decreased significantly from 25% in 2003 to 21% three years later. Although there has been a spirited fight against HIV infection in the Lynn, MA, statistics are showing that there is still an increase in the rate of infection at national level. According to Carrie (2008) a good number of those being infected are the adolescents. Please have someone read your paper to address the grammatical and structural errors.

In Massachusetts, there has been an increase in HIV infection among adolescents and young adults between age 15 and 19 from about 7% in 2000 to 12% in 2009 (CDC, 2011). HIV has had a negative impact on the adolescent and young adults in the state of Massachusetts. In 2005, the same report shows that a total of 842 cases of HIV were newly diagnosed in MA indicating that about 2.3 people were diagnosed with the virus daily.

In the city of Lynn, adolescents aged between 15 and 19 accounted 18.4% of people newly diagnosed with HIV infection between 2007 and 2009. Although the community has a number of health officers who have tried to sensitize the locals on the importance of being tested of the various, many people have are still shying away from the tests (Carrie, 2008).

This research sets to look into the epidemiology of HIV, its prevalence and infection rate as well as the value added by public health nursing focusing o n the Lynn, MA and dthe world in general. This will include the provision of international, national, state and local statistics to show the magnitude of HIV. The author will also explain the concept of “Healthy People 2020” as well as a Web of Causality which will define non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors that contribute to the spread of HIV. The researcher will be providing a community assessment and analysis of the community of Lynn, MA which will identify specific demographic data and health resources that are relevant to the problem of HIV in Adolescents. Lastly, the added value of the Public Health Nurse (PHN) in primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention will be presented along with specific examples of possible strategies for intervention.

Epidemiology of the Problem

The HIV virus was first tested among homosexuals in New York City in the early 1980s. The homosexual reportedly had strange white cell structure that medical personnel had not witnessed before. It was realized through diagnosis that their CD4 counts were very low making them easily vulnerable even to simple diseases like flu. This disease would later spread to other parts of the US, Europe, Asia, Africa and the rest of the world. The HIV virus does not kill, but it eats the white blood cells responsible for fighting disease causing micro-organisms in the body making it prone to even minor diseases which leads to the death of the victim (CDC, 2011).

HIV prevalence in Lynn has been on the rise over the past few decades. Lynn is a small city within Massachusetts with a population of about 92,000 people. Lynn is a city that has a high population density (Carrie, 2008). Unfortunately, it has been realized that this rise is mostly in the teenagers in the region due to lack of early counseling and sex. Teenagers at the adolescent stage are very active sexually and curious to know, experience and understand new things resulting from the different changes that occur in their bodies. Many lose focus in life at this stage if they lack a serious mentor to advise them accordingly.

Lack of health education on HIV amongst the teenagers in Lynn has also greatly led to the rise of the disease as reported by Thomas, Haour-Knipe, & Aggleton, (2010). At this age, children are still under the care of their parents, entirely depend on them significantly and also need a direction. They expect their parents to inform them on how to handle their feelings; but instead these parents shy away from their responsibility as Bourke (2006) asserts. This leaves them completely at loss with no idea of how to react to such feelings. They, therefore, indulge in early sexual behaviors exposing them to the risk of contracting the disease (Thomas, Haour-Knipe, & Aggleton, 2010). Listening and watching explicit materials exposing the teenagers to adult materials inappropriate for their naïve minds. Teenagers have a propensity to want to try everything they hear or see without caution (Thomas, Haour-Knipe, & Aggleton, 2010).

Global trends in the magnitude of HIV

At a global scale, an estimated 40 million people have contracted and lived with the virus. However, the highest percent of people living with HIV is in Africa with a record of 29.4 million people living with the virus (Wagt and Connolly, 2003). Wagt and Connolly assert that the highest number of cases of HIV is recorded in southern Africa. In Africa, most of the children who are orphans are as a result of deaths caused by the HIV pandemic (UNAIDS, 2011). Nonetheless, according to UNAIDS report released in 2011 the total transmission of HIV reduced by 17% between the year 2010 and 2011. An estimated 2.5 million deaths as well were averted since 1995 (UNAIDS, 2011)

Graph showing the magnitude of HIV/AIDS globally

Nationally, the CDC report reveals that the number of Americans who were undiagnosed decreased significantly from 25% in 2003 to 21% three years later. In Massachusetts, there has been an increase in HIV infection among adolescents and young adults between age 15 and 19 from about 7% in 2000 to 12% in 2009 (CDC, 2011).

Graph showing the trend of infection of HIV in adults and adolescent

Graph showing the trend of infection of HIV in adults and adolescent

HIV has continued to affect the state of Massachusetts especially the young adults. In 2005, the same report shows that 842 cases of HIV were newly diagnosed in MA indicating that about 2.3 people were diagnosed with the virus daily. Even with the government’s efforts to try and control the situation by investing in treatment and research in HIV, the spread of this pandemic is overwhelming. This translates to approximately 40,000 new infections per year.

Lynn, MA celebrates each year the worlds HIV day in the city hall every first day of December with a gathering of young adults and adults’ in attendants. This event aims at not only a commemorating the dead victims of this deadly disease but also to inform the young on methods of prevention (McConvey, 2011). Adolescents in the city of Lynn, MA aged between 15 and 19 accounted for 18.4% of people newly diagnosed with HIV infection between 2007 and 2009 (CDC, 2011)

Healthy People 2020

Healthy people 2020 are a national wide campaign aiming at promoting health and disease prevention initiative by the government of the United States of America. This initiative was a constitutional engagement that involved the best scientific input in approving the process. The policy aims at eradicating human sufferings before 2020. It was designed to improve the living standards of American people, Lynn residents included. The policy has various provisions including birth control, eradicating HIV and other deadly diseases in society, enhancing people’s security, which included economic and social security, among others. A number of reasons facilitated the designing of Healthy People 2020 policy and they include the following:

  • Access to health services; the goal is to provide quality and competitive health care services to all to ensure a healthy nation. This is an important engagement to ensure fairness in health care for all. The government’s objectives are to see the rise in number of people with health insurance. In the year 2008, the national health survey indicated that 83.2 percent of people had medical insurance. A healthy person 2020 targets 100 percent coverage with every person under a health insurance plan.
  • Adolescent Health; the importance to secure medical well being of the adolescents and the young adults cannot be overlooked considering that they take up to 21 percent of the total population of the united states of (America Reproductive Health and Healthy People, 2020). For teenagers to escape the infection web, adequate health information should be deposited in their mind. This should be done right from early childhood to adulthood. This is mainly to increase the chances for a child to grow up in values and morals that he or she might not comprise his or her health irresponsibly. 75.7 percent have adults in their lives that they can talk to when confronted with health issue (America Reproductive Health and Healthy People, 2020). It is also necessary to enable them to react positively to changes in their bodies during adolescence and sexual feelings and challenges in their future lives (Banerjee, 2007). Tremendous results can be realized if all the parties involved play their respective roles for the good upbringing of the child. The government targets a ten percent growth in healthy people 2020.
  • Educational and community based programs; the goal is reach and avail effective information through community programs to improve health among the young people. Community programs go a long way in preventing, improving and enhancing quality of life (America Reproductive Health and Healthy People, 2020). According to the America Reproductive Health and Healthy People, (2020) these programs are meant to reach out the youth through schools, worksites, healthcare facilities and communities. The government is seeking a 10 percent improvement from the current 39.3 percent to 43.2 percent by the year 2020.
  • Family planning; prevention of unwanted pregnancies and having planned spacing of the children would assure us some level of healthy people 2020. Use of contraceptives to control births, breast examination, screening for cancer of the breast in good time are some of the objectives. Promoting abstinence is the only 100 percent way of averting unwanted pregnancies. This will help in avoiding some negative aspects brought about by unwanted pregnancy. Fifty percent of the pregnancies in 2002 were intended (America Reproductive Health and Healthy People).

Web of Causality

A web of casualty refers to the several factors that contribute to the incidence of a certain ailment. These include all the contributing circumstances that cause one to contract any form of disease. HIV is a public health problem that has numerous contributing factors to its infection. These factors include contraction through sexual intercourse with an infected partner passing on the deadly virus to the uninfected individual. Drugs abusers are the next very vulnerable lot as far as contracting HIV is concerned. This is mainly through the use and sharing of objects to inject themselves disregarding healthy clinical measures while doing so. This puts them at high risk of pass on and contracting the virus through exchange of body fluids.

In addition, at birth a child can contract the virus from its mother if attention is not paid in the process of delivery though the chances are minimal compared to the above mentioned ways. In the different factors contributing to contracting HIV sexual transmission is the most common in Lynn, MA. With sexual relations among themselves and also with older men and women, the chances of transmitting and spreading the virus are so high. This forms the web of contracting HIV that has over the years been so challenging and almost impossible to control. The rate of HIV/AIDS spread is shown above using a web of casualty diagram.

Non-Modifiable and Modifiable Risk Factors
Figure 1: Non-Modifiable and Modifiable Risk Factors

Data Source: Unpublished paper by Jennie Sanchez, Prevention of HIV among Adolescents in Lynn, MA and the Added Value of the School Nurse

Factors affecting the rate of HIV

The factors affecting the rate of HIV infection as shown above include modifiable and non-modifiable factors. They include the following:

Non- Modifiable Risk Factors


These factors may lower or heighten chances of one contracting this virus, but are not within his or her control. Age comes not by choice but naturally. As one grows, there are stages where one is exposed to the dangers of this infection. In Lynn, several past researches have supported that those aged from fifteen to twenty-four are at a very high risk of getting this infection. Young people do not have enough data regarding the disease and its spread owing to the record lack of sex education. The community does not have mechanisms put in place that would help the youth withstand new challenges in society. With the economic challenges facing the young people, it has become a trend for them to finding alternative ways to achieve their economic goals and mostly they will indulge in drugs and prostitution for money.


One cannot choose gender. The past research have shown that young girls are twice more likely to get into premature sexual relationship with older men than young boys appear to interact with the older women (America Reproductive Health and Healthy People, 2020) In most cases, women are discriminated in society. They cannot find jobs that satisfy their needs. In fact, some ethnic groups and races do not educate women. This means that women are not empowered academically to fight for their own survival. They are forced to rely on men for basic needs such as provision of clothing, food and shelter. The community views women as weak meaning that they must always depend on men for everything. In Lynn, the situation is not any better. Women forced to fulfill the desires and wishes of men. Some are even forced to engage in sex without their consent. This puts them in a bad state as far as HIV infection is concerned. Insufficient education shows that women are not able to protect themselves from HIV infection appropriately. It is observed that lack of control of one’s body and the right to say no to forced sex exposes women to HIV infections.


A major factor in the spread of HIV is ethnicity. This has affected the interaction of Americans and has promoted behaviors that have provided a positive spreading ground for HIV among the youth. The African-American are mostly affected by the spread of HIV because of the poverty level in highly populated regions where poverty leads to prostitution and drug engagements.

Inadequate healthcare

Many people obtain information regarding HIV control from their healthcare providers. In Lynn, it is established that many people do not have health insurance cover. Furthermore, they lack finances to cater for healthcare services. The government does not have a sufficient scheme that may cushion citizens from health risks. People do not have money to go for private services. Government services are very limited. For instance, health clinics are scarce. Few people know their HIV statuses. People cannot access relevant information regarding prevention and cure. Therefore, this factor enhances the spread of the disease.

Modifiable Risk Factors

Formal Education and Drop- out Rate

Formal education has been found to play a great role in shaping one’s life. Dropping out of a school at an early stage may increase chances of an adolescent being infected with HIV. This is because if such an individual fails to go to school, there will be a lot of idle time that may lead to engagement in high risk factors, increasing the dangers of HIV infection. The young people with formal education have a better understanding of the consequences of unprotected sex, and, therefore, may avoid such practices (Kuhn, 2008). Educated persons have a higher worldview regarding disease infection. Education increases an individual’s worldview, which is also important in shaping lives (Anderson, 2004).

Health Education and Literacy

This refers to having the right knowledge about HIV. The adolescents need to have the right information about HIV. This is necessary to ensure that they understand the consequences of some of their activities. Their teachers, parents and those in parental positions (Magnus, 2009) can do this literacy. The most important individual to this category of persons is the health worker, who could be a nurse. The health worker should always ensure that relevant information is disseminated to the community. Many youths opt to engage in unprotected sexual behavior because they lack relevant information as regards to HIV infection. Others have a misconception that the disease is not always contracted through sexual intercourse. Shockingly, a section of society believes that the disease is a result of a curse. Not all members of society appreciate that HIV is a reality in the community. Furthermore, drug abusers tend to believe that the disease is not transmitted through sharing of sharp objects such as needles (Anderson, 2004). It is the role of the health worker to educate each person in society concerning the possible ways of infection.

Income and Poverty Rate

Previous reports have shown that poverty is one of the major reasons that lead to the spread of HIV, especially among young women. These females lack for financial strength that can make them meet some of the basic needs. They, therefore, resort to such activities as prostitution in order to be able to meet their financial obligations. The problem is that the people who are able to support them financially are the older men. These are people with families, which are eager to have a relationship with such young women because of pleasure (Thomsen, 2007). This creates a web, as discussed above, where the man exposes himself and the wife to infection of HIV. The teenagers are at risk of contracting this virus because these male adults have other multiple sexual partners. The infection of HIV more prevalent in populations with lowers economic status due to lack of other forms entertainment leaving sex to be the only activity hence the spread. Congestion in the areas of low economic status also provides a good condition for irresponsible behaviors to thrive

Occupations and Unemployment Rate

Socio-economic status and HIV transmission are closely related. For instance, the transmission of the disease is high in places where people have low incomes. This leads to engage in commercial sex as their source of livelihood due to unemployment. In most cases, people who engage in prostitution are also drug addicts. In fact, many researches confirm this claim. Someone under an illicit of a drug is incapable of engaging in protected sex. Moreover, clients are reluctant to use protection because they claim that it is not pleasurable. The poor have high risks of contracting the disease. It is not surprising that married individuals engage in prostitution. Once a family member is infected, there is a high chance that the whole family might be infected. It is therefore the role of the health worker to ensure that relevant information is given to the community.

Access to preventive services and health care

With the complexity of the HIV virus infection, careful medical attention is required for infected patients. HIV/AIDS destroys the entire immune system of a patient hence vulnerability to contract and yields to any disease. It is the role of the health worker to offer counseling and guidance to the affected. The young people must be informed and preventive services be availed to them if the rate of HIV is to be control. With such initiatives like seminars for young adults in places to offer them training on ways of preventing themselves against infection is a big step in trying to contain the situation.


The social environment plays an important role in determining the rate of infection. The political, socio-cultural and economic facets are some of the determinants. If a society keeps the culture of self-respect and respect for the others, the spread of this virus can be controlled. However, those who have lost family virtues are prone to increased infection with the virus. ???


Religion also has a role to play in the spread of this infection. Those liberal religions help less in mitigating this pandemic (Juma & Klot, 2011) However, such strict religions as Islam have been found to be vital in reducing the spread of this virus (Juma & Klot, 2011). Some activities are also dangerous. Engaging in sexual intercourse with multiple partners may heighten chances of one getting this disease.

Political legal issues

Political influence in the extent to which the rate of transmission of HIV can have cannot be undermined. Political leaders have a big role to play in the fight against this pandemic because they influence the country’s resource. With the control of resources channeled to the right direction and public health given the first priority the prevalence of the disease can be largely averted. Putting in place effective policies regarding the fight against the spread of HIV is the prerogative of the political leaders.

Community Assessment


Lynn is a city in Essex County, Massachusetts. Since it is an older industrial hub, Lynn is the home to many luxurious recreational facilities such as Lynn Beach and Lynn Heritage State Park. Lynn is approximately 7 miles (11 km) north of Boston. In the late 1990s, a few improvements to the city’s projects were witnessed. Officials anticipate that this would be the town’s rebirth. Commercial structures that were previously unoccupied have been rehabilitated into attic spaces by real estate investors. Youthful homebuyers, who are after the city life of Boston, have brought this change

Colonists from the New England Company in Salem established Lynn in 1629. Early colonists depended on family agriculture and fishing even though a manufacturing was embraced in the municipality in 1643. Even though predominantly a farming community, Lynn citizens were experts in manufacturing leather shoes that were used to acquire other requirements of life. A Quaker by the name Ebineezer Breed convinced other Europeans to inhabit Lynn. This was would make the city an essential shoe center of the new world. Breed was furthermore triumphant in persuading Congress to institute a defending duty on the shoes produced in Lynn, which facilitated the development of the town. Lynn, currently the main town in Essex County, is a metropolitan industrialized and business hub, densely inhabited and ethnically diverse. People are proud of the city’s extensive history, which is equivalent to the history of New England.


Lynn is located in Essex County in Massachusetts. Based on the United States survey agency, the town has a total area of 13.5 square miles (35 km2), of which 10.8 square miles (28 km2) of it is terrain and 2.7 square miles (7.0 km2) of it, (19.87%) is water. Lynn is situated next to Massachusetts inlet and the Atlantic Ocean. Lynn’s beach is separated by the township of Nahant, which partitions Lynn port to the south from Nahant inlet to the north. The metropolis lies north of the Saugus stream, and is also home to some streams, as well as numerous pools, the major being Breed’s pool and Walden pool. Over a quarter of the city’s territory is sheltered by the Lynn Woods Reservation, which assumes much of the territory in the northwestern regions of the municipality. The municipality is as well home to two seashores, Lynn Beach and King’s sand. It is situated in eastern Massachusetts on the northern coast of the Massachusetts inlet and is surrounded by Saugus and Lynnfield on the west, Peabody and Salem on the north. The town has grown to be one of the leading commercial and business centers. Due to population density, social problems tend to increase. People engage in other forms of behaviors that can easily cause health complications. It is not surprising that HIV infection is rampant in the city. The history of the town is important to the health worker because it gives him or her relevant data.

Demographic Data

Table 1: Population

United States Massachusetts Lynn
313,000,906 6,547,629 90,329

This data is important because the health care worker can utilize it in disseminating services. The data shows that the population size of the city is small. This becomes easy for the worker to execute his or her duties.

Table 2: Age Breakdown (all ages)

Age United States
# %
# %
# %
Under 5 Years 20,201,362 6.5 367,087 5.6 6,700 7.4
5 to 9 Years 20,348,657 6.6 385,687 5.9 5,991 6.6
10 to 14 Years 20,677,194 6.7 405,613 6.2 5,838 6.5
15 to 19 Years 22,040,343 7.1 462,756 7.1 6,671 7.4
20 to 24 Years 21,585,999 7.0 475,668 7.3 7,018 7.8
25 to 29 Years 41,063,948 13.3 441,525 6.7 7,005 7.8
30 to 34 Years 403,616 6.2 6,342 7.0
35 to 39 Years 41,070,606 13.3 418,195 6.4 6,088 6.7
40 to 44 Years 468,954 7.2 6,210 6.9
45 to 49 Years 45,006,716 14.6 515,434 7.9 6,319 7.0
50 to 54 years 497,001 7.6 6,339 7.0
55 to 59 Years 19,664,805 6.4 432,822 6.6 5,325 5.9
60 to 64 Years 16,817,924 5.4 370,547 5.7 4,188 4.6
65 to 69 Years 21,713,429 7.0 264,459 4.0 2,974 3.3
70 to 74 Years 192,001 2.9 2,328 2.6
75 to 79 Years 13,061,122 4.2 162,592 2.5 1,869 2.1
80 to 84 Years 138,473 2.1 1,549 1.7
85 Years and over 5,493,433 1.8 145,199 2.2 1,575 1.7

The age group that is mostly to be affected by HIV is 20-24. (Census bureau, 2010). The age bracket 20-24 accounts for over 7.8 percent of the total infection rate. The Individuals aged between 24 to 29 years are also at risk of being infected with HIV. The prevalence rate of ages 15 to 54 is very high. This is because individuals at these ages are active sexually. Massachusetts state percentage for ages 45 to 49 is 7.9 percent. The data demonstrates that age is certainly a risk factor for HIV infection. The health worker should formulate policies that target the youths because they are the majority in the city. Services offered should correspond to the demands and wishes of the youths.

Table 3: Gender Breakdown

Gender United States
# %
# %
# %
Male 151,781,326 49.2 3,166,628 48.4 44,225 49.0
Female 156,964,212 50.8 3,381,001 51.6 46,104 51.0

All over the country, regionally, and locally, most residents are females. Furthermore, their population is the highest. The frequency of HIV infection among residents of Lynn among females is slightly higher than males. From the above data, Women should be given the first priority as far as health service delivery is concerned. Establishing gender distribution is important because it enables the health worker to design suitable methods. Some techniques are not applicable to men. Furthermore, some services are only offered to women, such as pre-natal care.

Table 4: Race Breakdown

Race/Ethnicity United States# % Massachusetts# % Lynn# %
White 196,817,552 63.7 5,176,400 78 52,019 57.6
Black 37,685,848 12.2 407,700 6 11,540 12.8
Hispanic 50,477,594 16.3 571,700 9 29,013 32.1
Other 23,764,544 7.8 457,300 7 15,204 16.8

From the above data, the school nurse should observe the ethnicity and HIV rates in the different diversities since the city is multilingual. Cultural disparities should be put into consideration when approaching the situation in the school. Each culture has its own values and principles. It is the role of the school nurse to satisfy the desires and dreams of each person in society. Whites are the racial/ethnic group with the highest rates. The school nurse can provide these individuals with information pertaining to health and prevention of HIV.

Table 5: Educational Attainment for the population of 25 years and older and High School Dropout Rates

Education United States
# %
# %
# %
Less than 9 years of education 12,452,952 6.1 220,010 4.9 6,933 12.0
9th to 12th grade, no diploma 17,010,063 8.3 265,391 6.0 5,654 9.8
High School education 58,225,602 28.5 1,168,464 26.2 20,423 35.3
Some college, no degree 43,469,168 21.3 728,540 16.3 10,484 18.1
Associate’s degree 15,553,106 7.6 337,594 7.3 4,195 7.2
Bachelor’s degree 36,244,474 17.7 992,307 22.3 5,967 10.3
Graduate or professional degree 21,333,568 10.4 746,592 16.7 4,253 7.3
High School Dropout 1,200,000 25 7,894 2.7 4,003 4.6

Disease contraction is closely related to educational level. People with high levels of education are less prone to disease infections (Hersh, 2003). In this case, this data is important because the school nurse can plan where to concentrate. Hispanics are less educated because their levels of drop out are high. (Cichoki, 2009). They are prone to diseases because their worldview is constricted. Whites are more educated because their level of drop out is low. The school nurse would not concentrate more on offering services to them. Each class of ethnic group has its own demands as regards to health services.

Table 6: Income Breakdown and Poverty Level

United States
# %
# %
# %
Less than $10,000 8,757,190 7.6 185,397 7.4 4,042 12.2
$10,000 to $14,999 6,668,865 5.8 133,225 5.3 2,148 6.5
$15,000 to $24,999 13,165,380 11.5 223,902 8.9 3,833 11.6
$25,000 to $34,999 12,323,322 10.8 201,880 8.0 4,383 13.3
$35,000 to $49,999 16,312,385 14.2 288,080 11.4 4,683 14.2
$50,000 to $74,999 20,940,859 18.3 429,339 17.0 5,370 16.3
$75,000 to $99,999 13,526,500 11.8 323,455 12.8 2,909 8.8
$100,000 to $149,999 13,544,839 11.8 403,171 16.0 4,396 13.3
$150,000 to $199,999 4,809,998 4.2 165,224 6.6 795 2.4
$200,000 or more 4,518,081 3.9 166,746 6.6 441 1.3

Health Resources

The township had a project that aimed at improving health care in the region. The community health centers were established in various places within Lynn. There are 33 health facilities in Massachusetts. All health centers aim at improving the lives of citizens. They have experience in delivering patient-centered care. Partners Healthcare and GE Healthcare are some of the health facilities available in this locality. Others include East Boston Neighborhood health center and Lynn Community Health Center.

Community Diagnosis

Given the demographic data analysis and all the risk factors identified in the causality web, the researcher can confirm that the community of Lynn is at risk of increased infection of HIV of its adolescents. This is because many young people are in high risk of being infected. Unless urgent measures are taken to counter this, Future generation is at risk of being deprived socially, economically and socially. The school nurse has therefore planned to conduct HIV awareness campaign among the high school students in this community. This will be made possible with the help of other colleagues at Lynn Community Health Center.

Added Value of the PHN

The researcher was concerned about the rising incidents of HIV infection among the adolescents in Lynn. There are previous researches that have been done on this field, and they have given good data that when implemented, can help solve the current situation in this locality. However, these reports have never been implemented because of various issues. One of the reasons why these reports have never been implemented is that the previous researchers have emphasized more the scholarly approach than the professional point of view. This has made many of these researches look irrelevant at professional point of view.

They do not have practical policies that could be implemented in a real life situation. This motivated the researcher to conduct a research in this field. The findings are utilized to respond to issues on the ground and provide solutions that would be practicable. HIV is a real pandemic that is changing fast the normal living condition of our societies. Once diagnosed, life can never be the same again with this disease. Although there are measures that ensure that, the patient stays healthy and leads as normal lifestyle as it is possible. The mental implications have very far reaching consequences. Due to the help of other professionals within Lynn Community Health Center, the researcher decided to develop comprehensively some techniques that would help master the spread of this disease and how it could be countered, especially among the youth. The researcher suggests various strategies to ensure the study’s success.

Primary Prevention Strategy

The major way through which HIV is spread, is through engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse with someone who is positive with the virus. This accounts for over 95% of the infections (Cichoki, 2009). It is, therefore, very important for measures to be taken to control the infection through this approach. Many scholars have recommended abstinence as the best approach to avoid this virus among the adolescents.

Through this research, it has been noted with a lot of concern that young individuals are very active sexually. Because they are not given the right guidance, they engage in this practice without taking proper preventive measures (Mayer, & Pizer, 2009). They further transfer the disease to others. This category of societal members is easy to entice through gifts. The researcher would therefore recommend that the adolescents should be introduced to sexual education as early as possible. It is necessary for them to be informed of the importance of using contraceptives, specifically condoms, when they cannot avoid sex.

Safe measures should be used with every person they find themselves involved in sexually. Because of their tender age and the fact that they may not be in a position to buy such contraceptives, dispensers should be put strategically in place they can easily access without fear of intimidation. This should not be a way of trying to encourage premature sexual relationships. This is a measure intended to address the assumptions that are always held by the society that the teenagers do not engage in such activities. The increase of the rate of infection among the teenagers explains this fact better; therefore, the primary way of mitigating this issue is to emphasize the need for safe sex to the young people if abstinence fails to be an option.

Secondary Prevention Strategies

Different from the above mentioned primary strategy, the researcher has a number of secondary strategies that are needed to be considered as a way of addressing this problem. The researcher, therefore, recommends the following:

  • There should be a proper follow up of sexual molestation of the under aged individuals by the senior members of the society (Hakim, 2000). There is already a law that defends them from this, and everything that is needed to be done is its strict implementation. Those found guilty of this offence should be punished according to the law.
  • There should be a general awareness of the dangers of engaging in such activities among all the members of the society, and specifically the adolescents. This should be incorporated in their syllabus.

Tertiary Prevention Strategies

Additionally, the researcher recommends the parents and guardians to take care of their children discussing issues related to this virus at an early stage. They should be informed of the purpose and importance of sex by their parents. This will make them appreciate the need to wait until the right time before engaging in sexual intercourse. The school administration should always make an effort to avail documentaries or films of those who were infected about how they are managing their current new statues, their experience in the society in terms of prejudice, and other difficulties that they have to undergo. This will deter those who intend to engage in irresponsible sexual relationships from doing the same.


This research created a forum through which the school nurse could offer a solution to the community of Lynn towards the rise of HIV infections. This community, though comparatively small, has experienced a great rise of infection among the adolescents, especially those in high schools. The health practitioners have reported several cases of deaths of these adolescents in the recent past. This can be attributed to the rise of engagement in sexual activities among the young people. At this age, they know very little about HIV and the implications of the same in case one is diagnosed of that virus. The older members of this society who are expected to guide the adolescents towards the right moral living are the ones responsible for most of the cases involving the illicit sexual affair. The researcher has therefore laid down several measures that would help regulate the rate of infection of the virus. This project proposes a multi-faceted research that is intended to offer a piece of advice to parents, teachers, and adolescents themselves.


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