Problem solving entails formulation of new answers where you explore beyond the simple use of understood rules to come up with a solution or attain a goal state. Solving a problem involves thinking. The process is the most intricate of all the intellectual functions and entails the intonation and control of fundamental skills or more routine (Goldstein & Levin, 1987). It is necessitated when an organism is unable to proceed from a particular state to a targeted goal position. A problem process includes problem solving besides problem finding and shaping.
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In the case of Maria students, the task involves proposing and promoting a solution to protect and repopulate the endangered species. Therefore, in solving this problem, the use of Gestalt approach would be of significance to Maria students.
According to Gestalt psychologists, human beings are open systems that are actively interacting with the environment. In solving problems Gestalt psychologists argues that a solution is noticeable only after the person tackling the problem changes his or her view of the problem. It is worth noting that the problem solver might fail to recognize the level at which he is to getting a solution due to the sudden and unprecedented conceptual shift which come prior to creating a solution. The conceptual reorganization of the problem happens before the abrupt insight. Thus, the conceptual reorganization of the problem’s depiction can give the insight required in problem solving.
In this approach, incubation is necessary where time is allowed to pass so as to solve a problem. It provides the problem solver with a chance to select among the best suited concepts and leave the inappropriate ones.
The process of reasoning and problem solving
Reasoning is the mental process of seeking reasons for feeling, conclusions, beliefs, or actions. It relies on known factors to make judgments as well as draw inferences. Reasoning involves deductive reasoning where conclusions are curved basing on general rules but are used for a specific solution. In inductive reasoning, the premises of the dispute support the conclusion although it does not guarantee it.
Analogical reasoning entails the application of analogy to answer a problem using problems solutions from other areas. Therefore, with analogical reasoning and day to day knowledge, individuals are able to comprehend the less familiar concepts. For a successful analogical reasoning, an individual is able to transfer the appropriate quality of the known to the unknown in one-to-one communication.
Analogy is an argument or an inference from a specific subject to another specific one. It is used to evaluate two things that are basically varied but have some similarities. Hence it is useful in explaining as well as clarifying a concept.
Examples of analogies include the common metaphors and similes. Metaphors only imply the analogous relationship as opposed to overtly stating it. Together with analogies, metaphors are useful in learning. Equally, similes are comparisons used in speech but unlike metaphors use words such as “like” or “as”.
In processing analogies, selection, mapping, evaluation, inferences, and learning are the main components. Selection is the picking of a known item to assist in explaining an unknown item. Mapping entails transferring the meaning from the known to the target. Proper inferences and evaluation must be made in analogies. Lastly, learning advance from previous knowledge.
- Goldstein, C. F., & Levin, S. H. (1987): Disorders of reasoning and problem solving ability. Taylor & Francis Group, London.
- Goldstein, E. (2007): Cognitive Psychology. (2nd edn.) Thomas Wadsorth.
- Mayer, R. E. (1992): Thinking, problem solving, cognition. (2nd edn.). Freeman and Company, New York