The rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) approach can be applied in dealing with most of the clients’ problems. The REBT approach rests on the premise that the events that occur in our lives do not upset us, but the beliefs held by each individual makes us anxious, unhappy, depressed, and enraged. The use of this approach, coupled with values and code of ethics, enables us to teach some of our clients on ways to become happy.
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While dealing some of the clients, it may be important to adopt both instrumental and terminal values. Instrumental values are permanent in nature and they form the core values of what an organization or a group believes in. Some of the instrumental values adopted include, ambition, sincerity, honesty, courageousness, responsibility, politeness, a keen sense of evaluation, confidentiality, trust and obedience.
All these values are applied while listening to clients and when deciding on the most appropriate plan that can be used in addressing the client’s issues. The instrumental values act as a gate pass to the terminal values. On the other hand, terminal values are defined as the goals that an organization, group, or an individual aim to achieve in the long run.
Some of the terminal values applied in our case include, seeing happy families, instilling happiness and inner harmony in our clients, a sense of accomplishment, true friendship with our clients, exhibiting degree of wisdom while addressing some of the clients’ problems, ensuring that our clients live comfortable and enjoyable lives, and social recognition. All terminal values are achieved when client problems are solved or assistance on the same is offered.
One of the applied theories of prejudice formation is the belief theory of prejudice. The belief theory of prejudice “suggests that prejudice results from an aversion toward individuals who hold beliefs which are incongruent with one’s own” (Dienstbier, 1972), p.146).
In relation to the study, the belief theory of prejudice is applied in a more positive way in addressing the issues and problems that most of our clients face in their day to day activities. Real life observations and the psychological evidence among clients aid in shaping how experienced problems can be solved.
While addressing the issues and problems of our clients, the group adopts some codes of behavior to enhance professional-client relationship. According to Bayles (1981), an appropriate ethical conception of the client by cultivating a professional relationship with him/her gives the client freedom to determine the extent to which his/her life is affected, thereby warranting the client to make some decisions.
The main focus of our group is allowing clients to express themselves. At the same time, we are also able to play the role of professionals. Since clients lack the professional knowledge and expertise required in addressing their problems, we assume fiduciary duty. Although the client assumes a significant responsibility and authority in decision making, as professionals we provide special care which is worthy the client’s trust.
Discretion is another code of ethical behavior that our group adopts while addressing the issues of our clients. To begin with, discretion is a broader concept of confidentiality and privacy (Bayles, 1981). This means that not only is the client’s information kept confidential but the value of privacy is observed keenly.
The implication made is that we do not meddle with a client’s business which is unrelated to the problem we were hired to undertake. A Client’s private life, welfare, and behavior are kept discrete thus gaining the value of trustworthiness. As noted by Bayle (1981), confidentiality is an element of responsibility of discretion. Therefore, confidentiality is highly safeguarded while dealing with our clients and so is their privacy.
Another element used is competence which has been considered as the highest moral characteristic. As a group, we take our clients request with high level of esteem, responsibility, and respect. In addition, the requests and the needs of clients are handled with potential competence to ensure a good reputation.
In cases whereby the issue is beyond our specialty, advice is offered to the clients since clients lack the ability to know when a different type of specialist is required. This has always acted as a driving force of the group in meeting the client’s needs and demands. Honesty also is applied in addressing the client’s problems and issues.
In summary, both terminal and instrumental values are adopted by our group while dealing with clients’ problems and in running the group. Some of the terminal values applied include seeing happy families, exhibiting degree of wisdom while addressing problems, instilling happiness and inner harmony in our clients, a sense of accomplishment, and true friendship with our clients among others. The instrumental values include trust, honesty, confidentiality, and a sense of responsibility among others.
The belief theory of prejudice is applied via the observation of the behaviour and the attitudes of the clients in a positive way. Some of the codes behaviour adopted from Michael Bayles includes discretion, honesty, trust, privacy, and confidentiality. Lastly, competence and fiduciary duty are applied while addressing issues affecting our clients.
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Bayles, M. D. (1981). Professional ethics (Obligation to clients). Belmont. CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co.
Dienstbier, R. A. (1972). A modified belief theory of prejudice emphasizing the mutual casualty of racial prejudice and anticipated belief differences. Psychological Review, 79(2), 146–160.