Hindus have a strong belief system in the existence of Atman who is invisible, external, immortal. The latter cannot be grasped at all. In simple terms, the term Atman means breath of life. This concept can also be referred to as the state of being “self” since it refers to the remains of an individual after all the external components have been taken away.
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This means that Atman is a key aspect in the life or soul of a man which controls breath, intellect and overall well being. Moreover, Atman gets into the body of an individual during the creation process. It is believed that it exists in living beings including animals and plants (Molloy 321).
Dharma refers to the righteousness path or the “law of human beings” that helps in the process of binding people together in the world. This concept is essential among Hindus. Individuals are able to achieve good outcomes just by being able to fulfill the requirements of Dharma.
This concept is related to a course of conduct or duty that an individual has to undertake. There are several life stages, spiritual and moral developments that an individual has to go through. The concept mainly involves the ability of an individual to do the right thing both in the family and beyond the universe (Molloy 322).
The literal meaning of Karma is deed or action. A broader definition of Karma is “action and reaction” or the law that relates causes and effects. These include the physical actions and the actions conducted through the mind of an individual (Molloy 322).
Prominent deities in Hinduism
The three most prominent deities in Hinduism are Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. These gods represent the universe creator, universe preserver and the god of reproduction and destruction respectively. Additionally, these deities are married to Saraswati, Laxmi and Parvati respectively.
Important concepts in Jainism
Jiva and Ajiva
Jiva (soul) and Ajiva (non-soul) are the foundation of the seven concepts of Jainism. Furthermore, these concepts are regarded as the basis of five magnitudes and six substances in the tradition of Jainism (Molloy 411).
This refers to the actual soul by Karmic matter. The physical condition that facilitates this process is known as Bhava-Bandha. The actual interaction of the karmic matter with other particles is commonly known as Dravya-Bandha. This bondage appears in four different ways depending on the nature of karmic matter, the period of attachment and the quantity of karmic atoms (Molloy 412).
This concept refers to the fall of karmic matter away from the soul. During this process, the fetters disappear gradually until the soul is left free.
Four Noble truths in Classical Buddhism
The first truth in classical Buddhism relates to the avoidance of suffering. This involves rightful living with regard to beliefs, actions, meditation, speech and feelings. The second truth is based on avoidance of suffering through elimination of desires.
This provides a peaceful and calm existence. The third truth is that life involves a lot of suffering. The final truth asserts that individuals usually suffer because of failing to get what they want (Molloy 455).
Concept of impermanence
The impermanence concept in classical Buddhism is temporal. The concept simply means that all the constructed items are impermanent. It is important because all the constructed things are termed as impermanent.
“Emptiness” in Buddhist tradition
The term emptiness is used to mean that all properties cannot have an intrinsic value since they are relational. If the latter happens, there is no being that has value.
The main function of the KOAN in Zen tradition was to undertake religious training.
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The concept of compassion in Tibetan tradition means helping others and avoiding harm. This means that the actions of an individual should be non violent and less harmful.
I was particularly surprised by the roles of some prominent deities in Hinduism. Specifically, I was amazed by the destruction of Shiver. I would like to learn more about the functions of KOAN in Zen tradition.
Molloy, Michael. Experiencing the World’s Religions: Tradition, Challenge, and Change. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2009. Print.