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Unit Plan for English Biliteracy Learners Coursework

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Updated: Sep 23rd, 2022

Introduction

Fuller and Unwin (Opcit: 132) have stated that the expansive approach brings with it valuable insights onto the domains of apprenticeship. The works of Fuller and Unwin (opcit) have helped unveil the features of different learning environment. The insights presented by the scholars recognise two fundamental categories of the expansive as well as restrictive feature; the ones that come from comprehension about organisational context and culture (for instance work organisation, job design, control and the distribution of knowledge and skills) and those tied to comprehensions of the manner in which personnel acquire knowledge through exposure in various participatory activities.

The scholars leverage on the conceptual aspect of the expansive learning model to outline that work place individual development and organisational development will be based on the understanding of the relationship between the character and composition of an individual learning territory and how they relate to it. The scholars state that the understanding impacts on the means in which the learner will perceive and engage with the opportunities and barriers encountered in learning at work. “Expansive and Restrictive continuum thus lays a formidable framework for the assessment of the workplace learning.

The Situated Learning Theory is closely tied to this conceptual paradigm.” (Schugurensky, D. 2000)The theory holds in its core that learning as participation equates to the degree and worth of the given opportunities to participate.

Expansive features entail the exposure of personnel to available opportunities as they get to be involved in various groups of practice and acquire broad and deep knowledge across organisational domains. The process also enlists the pursuit of knowledge-based and competence oriented qualification. Schugurensky, D. (2000) adds that the contributions of Fuller and Unwin have shed light of the features of the restrictive-expansive continuum which include for instance off-the-job and on-the- job participatory learning activities for the personnel in workplace environs who must strive to build recognised status as a dynamic leaner privileged with access to advancement and diversification. In other terms the scholars perceive the significance of tapping learning opportunities for the personnel as constituents of personnel branding. Restrictive features are viewed as those aspects that stand on the flip side of the foregoing.

Fuller and Unwin (Op.cit) indicate that in educational institutions that have embraced a restrictive approach, learners or the apprentices find it difficult to make inroads in terms of obtaining formal qualifications while on the end they have limited opportunities available for advancement and development. From another angle the scholars present that an expansive learning environment enhances a wide ranging spectrum of “key skills” through encouraging learners to go beyond borders and expose themselves to various academic advancement avenues.

Researches conducted in the subject of second language acquisition and socio-educational models have spurred the intent into a detailed probing of motivation as a significant contributing factor in learning paradigms. Although the paper focuses pre-eminently on the links between student involvement motivation and retention, nuances from studies conducted for learning processes for particularly language multi-cultural classes.

The studies present a valuable conceptual confluence of the merits of student involvement in social integration endeavours in multi-cultural learning environments. In the conceptual and theoretical precinct within which cited studies motivation is defined the student’s inclination with regard to the goal of learning or acquiring new knowledge. Cited studies have taken particulate thrusts in exploring the dynamics and aspects of the motivation factor in for instance in multi-cultural domains where in second language acquisition is a major feature for students in culturally diverse learning environs which constitute multi-cultural linguistics variables.

Hudson G. (2000) notes that in socio-educational domains as well as in language studies motivation denotes the learner’s propensities or orientations with regard to the goal of acquiring new knowledge. According to the scholar, motivation in the mentioned study and bodies of knowledge can be dissected into tow key types which are integrative and instrumental motivation. The scholar presents that Integrative Motivation entails the learner’s positive attitudes and disposition in the direction of the language group as well as the desire to integrate into the desired knowledge community. (Hudson G. 2000)

The scholar further outlines that instrumental motivation underpins the intent to appropriate some social or economic reward after knowledge acquisition and thus the definition relates to the more functional sources of motivation for the learning endeavours in various learning processes. The consulted studies present a particulate relationship between certain forms of student motivation and student achievement as well aspects of student retention.

It is worthy making nuances of the work on Gardner who has made valuable contributions in the domains of motivation. The scholar advances that a child’s success when learning may be ascribed to the profound inclination and desire to gain identity within the knowledge family enclosure and then to the broader knowldge community. This basis has been; and can be used in other researches related to knowledge acquisition and motivation and as such will be tapped in the proposed study. (Alston M et al 2003) The underlying perception is that , in concurrence with Gardner’s perspectives who went on to probe the aspect of motivation as a significant influencing factor in knowledge acquisition, primary education learning processes and concepts established on first language learning desire can be analysed in light of the bearing the similar aspects have on L2 acquisition.

Considerations have been made on the paradigm of the social or cultural milieu. The dimension is key to the concepts and scope of the study as it denotes the context where-in the individual learning process is located. Benson, M.J. (1991) concurs that this has bearing on the individual’s beliefs about other cultures and languages. This is particularly relevant to the research intent which seeks to explore the motivation factor in knowledge acquisition or instance second language acquisition within multi-cultural language precincts. (Berwick, R., & Ross, S 1989)

Cultural Diversity, student retention and student success

Cultural diversity begins in the development of the educational program. Powers Wendy, (2006) notes, “In contemporary learning domains learning institutions have under more challenge to be committed to encourage diversity in the campus by first providing resources that will lead to the establishment of an academic program as well as in attracting foreign staff, faculty, and students to the university.” Cultural diversity will obviously impact the following aspect of university life:

  • Learning Environment;
  • Extracurricular Activities;
  • International Faculty and Staff; and the
  • Courses that will be offered in the said university

Quality of Education

There has been no clear cut definition of what comprises quality higher education. Still there has to be some standards that exist in guiding administrators and regulators whose main task is to monitor the performance of colleges and universities. Marcus Henning, (2007) presents that parents and students will also demand for some kind of a mechanism to determine what university will provide a good return of investment. Some of the widely accepted standards are as follows:

  • The percentage of graduates able to hurdle licensure exams e.g. civil engineering and medical licensure exams etc.;
  • The existence of a program that will ensure that graduates will readily make an impact in their chosen field; and
  • The existence of a program that will help students contribute to the sciences and the arts.

The following will help deepen the understanding on what is exactly the meaning of quality education. Quacquarelli Symonds or QS is an education organization that sets standards for global higher education. It comes as no surprise that QS works with multinationals and global recruiters such as Goldman Sachs, Morgan Stanley, AT Kearney, Bain, Eli Lily, GE, Shell and McKinsey. This simply means that QS helps these companies to hire the best and with their connections with top universities it is easy for them to network with educational institutions and employers to facilitate in hiring the most competent individuals suited for the job. Quacquarelli Symonds is also the producers of the world renowned QS University Rankings making them an expert in assessing quality higher education.

Quacquarelli Symonds use of the following indicators reveals much about how to assess the relative strengths of the world’s leading universities; these indicators are listed as follows:

  • Employer Review
  • Faculty Student Ratio
  • Number of international faculty
  • Number of international students

The last two indicators are crucial to this discussion. This simply means that a learning institution cannot experience significant improvements if it will close it will close its doors (by its education model sand theoretical approaches) its doors to the outside world. In the 21st century isolation is an unacceptable policy. The whole world is interconnected. What happens in the New York will reverberate in many parts of the globe. In the same way the behavior of Saudi Arabian firms will greatly impact the rest of the world. Therefore one way to keep updated about recent developments in the global arena, academic institutions must strive to increase the number of international faculty and international students.

But it has to be pointed out that quality higher education can also be measured in different ways. It can also be gauged by the quality of the graduates in terms of their ability to work and serve in a real world setting. Quality higher education can also be measured apart from the technical skills learned in college. This means producing graduates who will work not only for profit but also striving to make the world a safer place and ensure its survival for generations to come.

In short quality higher education must not only produce technically proficient graduates but also men and women who will make contributions that will in turn improve the plight of humanity. In the context of the 21st century this means, among others, the ability to comprehend the consequences as well as opportunities of globalization. In a paper submitted to the 1st European forum for quality assurance, it has been pointed out that universities are evolving due to the emergence of markets as tools for public policy as well as the impact of globalization.( Amaral, Alberto, 56)

There are many educational institutions all over the world whose core values reflect the above-mentioned sentiments. The University of Melbourne in Australia for instance believes that universities should, “…develop bilateral relationships with government, business and the community and become increasingly visible, relevant and accessible to society’s changing needs. The faculty and staff of the said university believe that quality higher education is not simply about mastering math, science, and language skills. These are graduates who do not shy away from the challenges of globalization and continually working toward the attainment of world peace, the eradication of poverty and the lessening of the impact of deadly diseases and other epidemics. These are graduates who wisely understand that everyone is interconnected and that this earth that they call home will perish if its inhabitants will not work hand-in-hand.

There has been established a link between cultural diversity, student motivation, retention and overall success. This has entailed figuring out what cultural diversity and quality higher education mean and entail. This also requires understanding the standards that will help assess if the university can deliver quality higher education or not. In this regard an organization that is world renowned in networking with universities proved useful in providing the indicators of quality education.

International faculty and international students bring different perspectives into the discussion table. They will help enrich the learning experience as they will be able to provide insights and information that could not be gleaned from books or websites. The presence of foreign students will also help others deal with people of other ethnic backgrounds. This ability will undoubtedly help future graduates deal with real world conditions especially in a time when globalization is an important aspect more so in business realms.

It has to be underscored that quality education is not only about producing graduates that can easily hurdle licensure exams. Quality education also means producing graduate that will be able play functionally active roles in the societies they function in. It is important for an educational institution to prepare students for a demanding workplace thus teaching them the necessary skills to make contributions in their chosen field.

Cultural Diversity, student retention and student success

Cultural diversity begins in the development of the educational program. Powers Wendy, (2006) notes, “In contemporary learning domains learning institutions have under more challenge to be committed to encourage diversity in the campus by first providing resources that will lead to the establishment of an academic program as well as in attracting foreign staff, faculty, and students to the university.” Cultural diversity will obviously impact the following aspect of university life:

  • Learning Environment;
  • Extracurricular Activities;
  • International Faculty and Staff; and the
  • Courses that will be offered in the said university

Quality of Education

There has been no clear cut definition of what comprises quality higher education. Still there has to be some standards that exist in guiding administrators and regulators whose main task is to monitor the performance of colleges and universities. Marcus Henning, (2007) presents that parents and students will also demand for some kind of a mechanism to determine what university will provide a good return of investment. Some of the widely accepted standards are as follows:

  • The percentage of graduates able to hurdle licensure exams e.g. civil engineering and medical licensure exams etc.;
  • The existence of a program that will ensure that graduates will readily make an impact in their chosen field; and
  • The existence of a program that will help students contribute to the sciences and the arts.

The following will help deepen the understanding on what is exactly the meaning of quality education. Quacquarelli Symonds or QS is an education organization that sets standards for global higher education. It comes as no surprise that QS works with multinationals and global recruiters such as Goldman Sachs, Morgan Stanley, AT Kearney, Bain, Eli Lily, GE, Shell and McKinsey. This simply means that QS helps these companies to hire the best and with their connections with top universities it is easy for them to network with educational institutions and employers to facilitate in hiring the most competent individuals suited for the job. Quacquarelli Symonds is also the producers of the world renowned QS University Rankings making them an expert in assessing quality higher education.

Quacquarelli Symonds use of the following indicators reveals much about how to assess the relative strengths of the world’s leading universities; these indicators are listed as follows:

  • Employer Review
  • Faculty Student Ratio
  • Number of international faculty
  • Number of international students

The last two indicators are crucial to this discussion. This simply means that a learning institution cannot experience significant improvements if it will close it will close its doors (by its education model sand theoretical approaches) its doors to the outside world. In the 21st century isolation is an unacceptable policy. The whole world is interconnected. What happens in the New York will reverberate in many parts of the globe. In the same way the behavior of Saudi Arabian firms will greatly impact the rest of the world. Therefore one way to keep updated about recent developments in the global arena, academic institutions must strive to increase the number of international faculty and international students.

But it has to be pointed out that quality higher education can also be measured in different ways. It can also be gauged by the quality of the graduates in terms of their ability to work and serve in a real world setting. Quality higher education can also be measured apart from the technical skills learned in college. This means producing graduates who will work not only for profit but also striving to make the world a safer place and ensure its survival for generations to come.

In short quality higher education must not only produce technically proficient graduates but also men and women who will make contributions that will in turn improve the plight of humanity. In the context of the 21st century this means, among others, the ability to comprehend the consequences as well as opportunities of globalization. In a paper submitted to the 1st European forum for quality assurance, it has been pointed out that universities are evolving due to the emergence of markets as tools for public policy as well as the impact of globalization.( Amaral, Alberto, 56)

There are many educational institutions all over the world whose core values reflect the above-mentioned sentiments. The University of Melbourne in Australia for instance believes that universities should, “…develop bilateral relationships with government, business and the community and become increasingly visible, relevant and accessible to society’s changing needs. The faculty and staff of the said university believe that quality higher education is not simply about mastering math, science, and language skills. These are graduates who do not shy away from the challenges of globalization and continually working toward the attainment of world peace, the eradication of poverty and the lessening of the impact of deadly diseases and other epidemics. These are graduates who wisely understand that everyone is interconnected and that this earth that they call home will perish if its inhabitants will not work hand-in-hand.

There has been established a link between cultural diversity, student motivation, retention and overall success. This has entailed figuring out what cultural diversity and quality higher education mean and entail. This also requires understanding the standards that will help assess if the university can deliver quality higher education or not. In this regard an organization that is world renowned in networking with universities proved useful in providing the indicators of quality education.

International faculty and international students bring different perspectives into the discussion table. They will help enrich the learning experience as they will be able to provide insights and information that could not be gleaned from books or websites. The presence of foreign students will also help others deal with people of other ethnic backgrounds. This ability will undoubtedly help future graduates deal with real world conditions especially in a time when globalization is an important aspect more so in business realms.

It has to be underscored that quality education is not only about producing graduates that can easily hurdle licensure exams. Quality education also means producing graduate that will be able play functionally active roles in the societies they function in. It is important for an educational institution to prepare students for a demanding workplace thus teaching them the necessary skills to make contributions in their chosen field.

Learning Assessment English Biliteracy

First Assessment

To assess learner Biliteracy listening skills listening skills the unit plan entailed the use of a learner initiated literacy approach on the listening skills testing dimension. The listening skills testing entailed the detection of some text to the learner in Spanish and required the learners to decipher and write down in English what they were getting.

Second Assessment

The second Biliteracy testing assessment entailed the exposure of learners to a Spanish Language based video movie clip. Students were exposed to the clip and then required to relate to each what they can get in the story line of the clip to their colleagues. The second assessment was highly structure and conducted through step by step instruction from the teacher.

Reflection on assessment and results

Results of the two methods showed that the second assessment which was more structured and instructional as opposed to first which was keener initiated showed more fruitage from the Biliteracy learning process. The outcomes indicate that consideration of a thrust into contribution made on the English Biliteracy theories presents valuable nuances on the dynamics of student motivation and achievement. There can be drawn useful insights in exploring the contributions that have been made into the debate over English teaching approaches and teaching techniques; the child numeric and literacy–oriented “academic” approach versus the contributions from the child-initiated approach.

Views based on Jacobson (1996) as well as Katz (1996) hold that coming from the “academic” standpoint the young child must be treated as reliant on adults’ instructions “… in the academic knowledge and skills essential for a feasible beginning for later academic challenges”. The “academic” standpoint is in direct contrast to the child-initiated approach that holds the young children as active contributors of knowledge bodies not entirely and necessarily reliant on the didactic. The child initiated thrust favors the use of learning centers within learning environments like the classroom as well as the advocating of learning approaches based on play activities. This place greater emphasize on the variables of student involvement which has been proved to bolster student motivation and thus heighten chances of student achievement.

Steinhart & Weikart, (1997) ran the Louisville and Illinois empirical researches to establish the better of the two approaches, the “academic” and the leaner initiated Biliteracy approaches. According to the outcomes of the research children involved in direct instruction models outperformed those in the child initiated learning models. Inferences drawn from the research outcomes have been used to further validate and evaluate the curricula in some countries. The second evaluation and learning process was more succeed because learners were motivated by the nature of task, a vital aspect which lack in the first assessment.

References

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