Urbanization and sub-urbanization
Urbanization and sub-urbanization are closely connected and even interrelated concepts. Sub-urbanization is the shift of the population of urban areas (city centers) from city centers to the suburbs. There are various reasons for these processes that may include socio-economic factors (lack of employment, cheaper land in suburban areas), environmental issues (natural disasters), cultural aspects (the focus on healthier environment), and so on.
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The major reasons for sub-urbanization in the United States
After the WWII, the US government invested funds in the development of a network of highways (for military and civil purposes) (Ammons 33). The economic growth of the country enabled many people to buy cars so people could commute to city centers (working places) more easily. Suburban areas provide more opportunities for companies as there are different zoning rules, financial regulations, land prices. Companies choose these areas as their employees can easily commute.
Urban planning: political aspects, roles, types and styles, local agencies
It brings some consistency with existing political, social and cultural norms (Weaver et al. 149). Federal and state government create rules and regulations that are often related to private property issues. Social norms often shape cities’ layout, and the US segregation of the first part of the 20th century affected city zoning rules. Cultural aspects should be taken into account as it is crucial to create spaces for people’s gatherings.
How do planners use Kevin Lynch’s design ideas?
Lynch stressed that people developed mental maps that made their living in a certain space clear (to them) and comfortable (Major 152). Modern designers and city planners use his ideas and make sure that all the five elements he mentioned are present in their spaces. According to the famous urban planner, cities should have clear paths (routes), edges (boundaries such as rivers, walls or buildings), districts, nodes (places for gatherings), and landmarks (famous points often used for reference).
1893 World’s Columbian Exposition in planning history
1893 World’s Columbian Exposition had an immense impact on the development of city planning. The exposition occupied a large territory, and the creation of the space was associated with the effective collaboration of officials, architects, designers, landscape architects, and so on (Tate 305). The exposition resulted in the creation of a beautiful urban space, and people acknowledged the benefits of city planning as well as the cooperation of different professionals.
Social aspects of planning
The social aspects of planning include functionality, perceptions, social norms changes, community networks, and so on. Without addressing these aspects, city planning will be ineffective. It is vital to make sure that people will have areas for satisfying their needs (places of employment, places of recreation, services, spaces for gatherings). Of course, transportation should also be characterized by effective routes that unite all these areas.
A way station is an area where immigrants can meet. Many countries (including the USA) are characterized by a significant ethnic diversity due to the flow of immigrants who often form communities in a new country (Ring, Watson and Schellinger 351). City planners have addressed the needs of these people through creating way stations where newcomers share their culture, speak their language, celebrate their festivities and so on.
NIMBY is the phenomenon that involved residents’ opposition to some changes. The acronym stands for “not in my back yard” and reflects the nature of the opposition (Brinkmann 231). Residents often agree that the incentive is important, but it should be implemented in a different place. For instance, building a road or a plant may lead to such opposition. They understand the benefits of the change but are not ready to sacrifice their comfort or habits.
Comprehensive plan in local areas
A comprehensive plan can be regarded as a guideline for the development of a community. The plan is developed in accordance with goals formulated. The comprehensive plan usually includes such aspects as environment, public welfare, people’s health and safety, and so on. The plan is often developed for 10 or even 20 years. The plan is always agreed with the public, and the necessary changes are included. This ensures people’s satisfaction with their community’s development.
Ammons, David. Municipal Benchmarks: Assessing Local Performance and Establishing Community Standards. New York: Routledge, 2014. Print.
Brinkmann, Robert. Introduction to Sustainability. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2016. Print.
Major, Mark. “London: Light + Dar = Legibility: An Approach to Urban Lighting.” Cities of Light: Two Centuries of Urban Illumination. Ed. Sandy Isenstadt, Margaret Maile Petty and Dietrich Neumann. New York: Routledge, 2014. 152-159. Print.
Ring, Trudy, Noelle Watson, and Paul Schellinger. The Americas: International Dictionary of Historic Places. New York: Routledge, 2013. Print.
Tate, Alan. Great City Parks. New York: Routledge, 2015. Print.
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Weaver, Russell, Sharmistha Bagchi-Sen, Jason Knight, and Amy E. Frazier. Shrinking Cities: Understanding Urban Decline in the United States. New York: Routledge, 2016. Print.