Why did the framers of the Constitutions include the purpose of government in the Preamble?
The Preamble for the US Constitution is very eloquent from the point of view of all goals and principles on which the newly created country was grounded and which were considered the founding rules on which the country’s existence would be further on grounded. As everyone knows, the main principles outlined in it are to form a more perfect union, to establish justice, to ensure domestic tranquility, to provide for the common defense, to promote the general welfare and to secure the blessings of liberty (US Constitution). They are all secured by the US Constitutional provisions and are considered as the basic law governing the United States of America and its nation. However, it is surely necessary to look deeper into the matter and find out with what purpose the choice of the founders of the Constitution fell on these principles, outlining the main concepts of the US existence for many further centuries.
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The desire to form a more perfect union is fully understandable, taking into consideration the historical events that preceded the emergence of a new country in the world political map in 1787. All American colonies were ruled by the British government and the inhabitants of America knew only suppression, absence of liberty and all human rights. This surely caused continuous dissatisfaction of Americans and led to the War for Independence that successfully brought about the establishment of the United States of America on the ground of freedom, equality and liberty. This is why the wish to establish a more perfect union was meant to surpass the quality of relations in all other countries and between their subdivisions – to implement the experience Americans received from the British dominance and to arrange their lives in a completely different way. This concept is implemented in the Article IV of the US Constitution, as this article stipulates laws and procedures under which each state is governed, what liberties the states possess and how they should be addressed on the national level. The example of the rule being still kept to in modern times is the way states are governed, take part in the life of the country and successfully cooperate in federal matters still remaining autonomous. Of course it needs to be mentioned that sometimes the highest autonomy states possess may cause some complications in legal or criminal proceedings, but in the rest of aspects it seems that the union’s form is still beneficial for such a large country.
Establishing justice is surely also the consequence of injustice that dominated the human and legal relations in the USA in the times of the British reign. People were exhausted by the inequality and ferocities of British officers so they appreciated justice most of all upon the end of the War for Independence. Article III of the US Constitution deals mostly with the establishment of the judicial branch of power, the responsibilities entrusted to it and limitations it has to observe not to violate the human freedom and equality (US Constitution). Nowadays justice is one of the issues that interest the US citizens most of all – it is enough to recollect the official figures of legal proceedings and lawsuits registered in the US per annum. The US citizens seem to be most protected nation, if one compares the provisions of the US Civil Code and other countries’ legislation. Thus, it is possible to state that this principle is secured to the fullest extent in the USA even at the present period of time.
Ensuring domestic tranquility is also one of the central issues of the country’s policies, both on the national and the international level. Article III, amendments about the right to bear arms, search and seizure procedures, excess bail of fines, cruel and unusual punishment etc. serve as a wonderful example of provisions that secure tranquility and ensure the rights of US citizens being protected (US Constitution). Of course with the increase of terrorism directed at the US, especially 9/11 that brought chaos to the country and made everyone doubt the security they have been provided with throws shade on the extent of provision of this principle. However, during recent years the government has learned much and now much stricter control and prevention measures are provided for the USA to remain secure.
Provision of the common defense is very much like the previously discussed issue of tranquility – it goes without saying that a country may remain secure and calm only under the conditions of properly arranged defense. This purpose may have been chosen as an attempt to secure the US population against the turbulent situation in the world, changes and shocks that countries experience as well as possible actions of violence. In this respect Amendment III on quartering the troops may be mentioned – there are no other articles in the US Constitution that stipulate the defense measures which are discussed in other legislative documents.
Promotion of the general welfare is surely one of the main directions of activity of any country’s government. This principle is first of all secured by the constitutional articles related to taxation, abolition of slavery and prohibition. Many other examples can be named as an example of provision of the population’s welfare, so there are no doubts that it is provided at the present period of time as well. Even under the reign of the present President, Barack Obama, one can see continuous work of the government on the provision of welfare for the population, including changes in taxation, the health reform etc.
Security of the blessings of liberty is on the foreground of the US policy, both in domestic and international issues. Liberty has always been paid particular attention to, which can be seen on the example of Amendments I, II, IV, VIII and IX taking care about the basic rights and freedoms the US nation is entitled to. Nowadays these freedoms are also carefully observed, but the historic example of violation of rights by Richard Nixon that led to intensification of caution in this respect.
What provisions in the Constitution ensure that the purpose of government is achieved?
The 39th American President Jimmy Carter was a prominent figure in the US history even despite all misfortunes and failures he faced in the period of his Presidency. He established too high requirements and planned too grand changes that the country could not handle – this was the paradox of his reign that brought about much misunderstanding and discrepancies in evaluation of his contribution. However, it is still possible to say that he did much for the country, and even if he failed to accomplish some of his goals he still showed the directions of future work for the government that were pursued and appeared to be highly beneficial for the USA.
James Earl Carter, Jr. was born on October 1, 1924 in Plains, Georgia (Jimmy Carter). He was a Baptist, grew at the peanut farm and was deeply involved in political affairs that were intensely discussed in his family. In 1946 he graduated from the Naval Academy in Annapolis (Maryland). His family comprised his wife, Rosalynn Smith, and three sons, John William (jack), James Earl Ill (Chip) and Donnel Jeffrey (Jeff). The couple also had a daughter, Amy Lynn (Jimmy Carter).
His political career began in 1962, with the election to the post of Governor of Georgia in 1968. In 1974 he became the presidential candidate – his main rival was the President Gerald R. Ford (Jimmy Carter). He was the US President from 19474 to 1980 (Jimmy Carter).
Jimmy Carter was very active in conducting domestic affairs and managed to make much for the United States – it is enough to mention the creation of Department of Education, managing social security and fighting for equality of minorities, i.e. women, black and Hispanic people (Jimmy Carter). Among other achievements one should know about the national energy policy and deregulation of some significant industries of the USA.
Foreign affairs also were the sphere of intense activity of Jimmy Carter. He was an active fighter for the recognition of human rights, took part in the negotiations between Egypt and Israel. Nuclear limitations were also achieved by him during negotiations with the USSR (Jimmy Carter). These are only some of his achievements that should be remembered and appreciated.
Economic issues Jimmy Carter touched upon are not numerous, and it is true that he did not achieve success in all of them. One of the most successful undertakings was the intense work in the sphere of searching for alternative sources of energy to compensate oil shortage (Jimmy Carter on Budget and Economy). However, Carter did not succeed in the control of inflation and unemployment – these were the major pitfalls of the 39th President of the USA.
Judging from everything that has been said about Jimmy Carter it appears that the period of his reign was controversial and brought about much dispute. Carter failed in many spheres and did not manage to accomplish all his goals. Nonetheless, this fact may be explained by the complicated historical period in which he came to power. Anyway, his contribution to history, culture, economy and progress of the USA is undisputable.
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Examples in the present that show our government is still fulfilling the purpose today
The American nation is very secure because it is intensely protected by the law – the US legislation presupposes a set of occasions on which any US citizen can file a lawsuit in case he or she thinks about the possible violation related to them. It even has reached the ridiculous extent when people file lawsuits for any trifle happening to them, even managing to win the cases and get the retribution. However, in such cases this right may be violated – this usually concerned the vulnerable and discriminated groups of people, but now, under the conditions of full, protected equality, actually anyone can file a lawsuit for anything.
Analyzing the situation with the retribution the widow asked for her dead husband, the amount of money she required surely goes beyond any reasonable borders. Every person filing a lawsuit should consult the lawyer on what they can expect and whether it is generally reasonable to bring that case to the court. Nowadays people overuse this right and reduce its efficiency, thus producing the negative effect on the legal system. For this reason changes have to be introduced and amounts of money asked for certain legal misdeeds have to be correlated with the law and at least with the common sense.
The general opinion of three adults questioned about the described case was similar – people want to live calmly and not be disturbed by constant lawsuits. The matter is that under the conditions of excessive freedom and the overall right for lawsuits people have lost the sense of all measures, so anyone can become the victim of legal proceedings today or tomorrow. The situation, in their opinion, is unacceptable and gradually becoming immoral, this is why it requires close attention by the judicial branch of power.
Jimmy Carter, 2009. Web.
United States Constitution, 1787. Web.