According to Madden (2011), smartphones were introduced into the market in the year 1996, and quickly spread to all parts of the world. This is contrary to other technologies like landline telephones that took longer time before reaching the local and international market.
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Before the introduction of smartphones into the market, most people including students could not believe that it was possible to use the gargets in learning. Later after it had been introduced, teachers and learners were able to accept the fact that smartphones can easily be used in various studies (Madden, 2011).
Additionally, people had been using the computer before for their studies and doing other jobs on the internet. This topic has been chosen following its relevancy, immensity, and vastness, which communicational gadgets and aspects enjoy in the current world. Additionally, these communication gadgets (Smartphones) are known globally following their competitiveness, novelty, modernization, variability, and appropriateness in the communication industry.
Individuals who need multipurpose gadgets, which can operate multiple tasks simultaneously, engage the mind, provide extreme entertainment services, possess other exiting provisions and appalling features should resort to these products. Precisely, the global fame, distinctiveness, technological variability, and convenience that these smartphones possess have necessitated the choice of the topics in the context of learning among students.
Mobile communicational and learning gadgets (smartphones) differ significantly globally and this claim is notable in the chosen topics. Globally, numerous students have introduced and embraced the use of these products despite the challenges. The aspects of competition, cost, convenience, and variability have played massive roles in the disparities noticed amidst these gadgets. Appropriateness similarly contributes to the choice of the topics (Nielsen & Webb, 2011).
The topic is understandable by majority following its suitability and relevancy indicated before. Additionally, the three Smartphone gadgets are comparable with one another. This provision gives opportunity to handle the assignment as demanded.
Since the gadgets differ significantly in various aspects, it is possible to compare and contrast them in the context of learning. Evidently, numerous touch-screen phones/Smartphone have rocked the mobile phone’s market. Nonetheless, this category of phones has outstood others in the learning arenas.
Recent history about the use of smartphones in learning
Currently, most students and teachers have embraced the use of smartphone devices to improve their learning standards. According to Shelly, Vermaat & Quasney (2011), the use of this garget has proved to be more convenient and reliable compared to other technological methods that can be used in learning.
It has been discovered that most students who are using smartphones are able to make a steady improvement in their studies compared to those who use ordinary learning materials in their studies (Shelly, Vermaat & Quasney, 2011). Besides, it was discovered that students from rich backgrounds were able to access the mobile device compared to those from poor families.
Learners were able to use their mobile applications to organize for group discussions. Moreover, applications like drop box were used by teachers to post assignments where students could also post back their homework. Consequently, this saved a lot of time since the students are able to submit their assignments online and at any time (Frederick & Lal, 2009). This is a critical provision in the context of learning and technological advancements.
Statement of the problem
There are a number of challenges that had been faced by teachers and students in their learning process. According to Stair & Reynolds, learners could spend a lot of money on producing copies of their assignments while teachers could also spend some money when printing out assignments or various exam tests (Stair & Reynolds, 2012).
Additionally, students took a lot of time before handing over their assignments simply because they did not have adequate facilities or equipment to do their homework. Both teachers and students entirely relied on the information from the books or journals hence they were not able to get enough information for their studies.
Learning institutions also had to spend increase their budget for buying computers that were used for studies. Consequently, introduction of smartphone usage in learning has reduced the costs that could have been spend on buying the computers as students can now obtain the vital information for their learning.
Purpose of the study
The study was majorly carried out to establish the importance of using smartphone devices as a learning tool. For instance, it should indicate how it has changed the learning standards of students using mobile devices in their studies as compared to other learning methods that had been used before.
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Additionally, the other reason for carrying out the study is to find out the rate at which learners and teachers use the smartphones and how it has changed their learning abilities. The study was also carried out to determine the historical background about the usage of smartphones in learning.
This will eventually show how it was introduced into the market and the way it has been accepted as a vital learning tool (MobileReference, 2007). Besides, the study majorly focuses on the technologies employed when operating smartphones and how to use various phone applications to enhance learning.
The other reason for carrying out the study is to determine the challenges being faced by students and teachers who are using smartphone devices in learning. It also indicates how it has affected the performance of students who are using the smartphones in their learning compared to those relying on learning materials provided by their teachers (Stair, 2011).
The study also tries to give a clear description of smartphone and its features. The other purpose of the study is to understand the recent developments that have been made to the smartphones and how people are able to adopt the changes. This is a critical provision in the context of learning and technological advancements.
Recent statistics regarding the use of smartphones in learning
According to various statistics, the use of smartphone devices in learning has greatly and inevitably changes the student’s behavior. Consequently, learners using this mobile device have improved in their performance at a faster rate compared to those who are not using smartphones (Stair, 2011). The number of learning institutions that have accepted the use of mobile devices in learning is steadily increasing.
Currently, most students cannot do their homework without the use of their smartphones. Most students do not only use their smartphones for learning but also checking into social websites like Facebook and twitter. According to various researches carried out, 60 percent of learners use smartphones for their learning purposes where 70 percent have the feeling that they are hooked to their phones (Chao, 2011).
Additionally, 90 percent use the mobile device for social networking where as 50 percent of the students were found to be using their mobile devices to study for exams and tests. According to Shelly, Vermaat & Quasney (20011), Institutions have also reduced the cost that could have been used in buying computers for studies by allowing students to use their smartphones in school for their learning purposes.
Moreover, most of the learning institutions have adopted the use of smartphones in doing their operations. For instance, an individual can get information regarding an institution through their internet enabled smartphones.Conversely, the use of mobile devices in learning has not been fully implemented hence most schools still do not allow their students to use the phones.
New and advanced technologies such as WI-FI offer very fast and steady connection. The rate of data transfer is much quicker compared to 3G. This technology can be a predicament to all other investments in education as well as content providers within the intervention of mobile network.
The mobile phone builder Nokia and Cisco, wireless network creator, are already adopting this technology to make the Wi-Fi phone to enhance learning provisions. WiMax is another good technology that will help smartphone users to get into the industry at a cheaper cost. This is a wireless connectivity system that enables two operators to have an uninterrupted communication with no routing over a central switch.
Besides sending data, the operator on the other end can also act as a repeater or a router. Lastly is the Power line broadband technology. It provides fast internet connection through electrical grids. All these technologies are appropriate for mobile network operators.
During the research, various questions have been raised about the effectiveness of using smartphones in learning. Additionally, the research is trying to find out the effectiveness of the mobile applications and how the students are ready to learn on how to use the applications. The other question is whether the use of smartphones in learning will make the students improve in their performance or not.
Precisely, major questions incorporate;
- How do smartphones influence the behaviors of young students in the context of learning?
- Which age group majorly use smartphones in learning
- What are the impacts of the smartphones on learning among students?
- What are the smartphone techniques employed by students to learn in schools?
Significance of the topic
The topic reveals various applications that are fitted in the smartphone and how they can be used. It also shows the rate at which students are able to use the smartphones in their studies. The topic is relevant since it shows how people are much involved in improving the academic standards.
Otherwise they could have not bothered to carry out some research concerning the use of smartphones in learning. Another significance of the topic is that it provides more information on regarding the people’s views concerning the usage of smartphones in learning.
The meaning of smartphone and its applications are some of the key definitions in the topic. The other definition is how the various applications of the smartphone are used for different purposes.
There are numerous assumptions that had been made regarding this study. It has been assumed that the smartphones are only being used by the students for their learning and not to do any other work. For instance, it has not discusses how students can use them to communicate to each other.
It has not discussed how smartphones have negatively affected students. For instance, students can use their smartphones to cheat in exams and eventually affect their academic standards. The other key assumption is that the phones are not internet enabled hence it has not discussed about how to connect the phones with internet. The realization of the absolute scope of the project requires immense resources that most students are deficient of.
Key assumption is that, learning would only succeed or meet its target if computer literacy is enhanced among students, proper planning is executed, right software(s) is/are procured, adherence to timelines maintained, and appointing a responsible leadership executed. As assumed, learning might fail if proper performance strategies and identification of pertinent learning provisions are not embraced in regard to smartphones.
Limitations of the study
One of the disadvantages of the study is that most of the students are not able to afford the smartphones hence a research on using smartphones in learning will not be accurate.The study also needs some enough money to carry out various researches concerning the smartphones.
The study does not include non-students who are also using smartphones for their learning purposes like finding some relevant information they require. Additionally, the study does not include the disadvantages of using the smartphones as a learning tool. The regulation of technology in learning can be attained through different avenues.
Some of these may not be instituted by the concerned institutions. This study concerns itself with how students use Smartphones in learning. When policies are enacted, they ignore other governmental actions that could influence the use of smartphones in schools.
Historical background on the use of smartphones
Smartphones are cellular telephones that are fitted with some important applications and internet access. Besides, the current smartphones do not only provide digital voice services to the people across the world but also e-mail and sending text messages.
Through the phones, people can listen to their favorite music, watch videos, take cameras and make calls. Over the recent years, the number of people using smartphones has drastically increased across the world. Additionally, people of different gender, young and old are able to use the smartphones.
Conversely, most individuals using this type of phone are not able to understand how the technology has advanced. Specific technologies designed to develop the product had been invented. For instance, the know-hows has introduces some clear presentation that shows how the phone has steadily evolved since it was introduced into the market.
In addition, it also shows some of the old mobile phones that had existed before. In the early days, phones were considered to be huge machines that slowly evolved to become smaller with time. The introduction of iphones has created a massive change of mind as people have now put more focus on the phone’s screen.
Besides, phones have increasingly become bigger than before to accommodate larger displays. Mobile phones were invented in the year 1973 by Martin cooper. Moreover, smartphones were later introduced into the market in the year 1996. Since its introduction into the market, people were able to easily communicate with each other without any challenges.
Different smartphones were introduced into the market at different times. For instance, Blackberry was introduced into the market in 1999 while the standard Motorola was introduced in the year 2004. This is a critical provision in the context of learning and technological advancements. This is a critical provision in the context of e-learning and promotion of technology in the learning arenas.
This has greatly improved people’s living standards as many individuals can now read and write using their mobile phones. Consequently, smartphones have now become a device that can be used for both private digital help and a mobile phone.
Various mobile phone manufacturing companies have been introduced into the market hence there is a stiff competition within the local and international markets. Consequently, most of the companies are not coming up with some unique inventions to ensure that they actively and successively compete with other organizations.
For instance, the American market has been flooded with approximately nine technologies with different products. Unlike landline phones and mobile phones which has reached their saturation points, smartphones has steadily gained popularity and is still believed to move at a faster rate. For instance, their market share has been doubling each year.
Statistics indicate that this represents more than three quarters of the total sales in the United States mobile phones sales. In addition, approximately fifty percent of the American population is now in possession of smartphones. The pace at which it has evolved in the American market can only be compared with that of the television.
Consequently, other companies and businesses have resolved to the use of the smartphones to advertise their products and carry out some transactions. Smartphones including the iPhone 4S is a derivative of iPhone 4. The phone has additional features added to it making it exemplarily magnificent.
This gives it a massive competitive advantage over other contenders in its category. Being a product from Apple Inc., the company uses numerous segmentation variables unique to the phone in order to promote it within the learning environments and beyond. This renders the phone quite potable and convenient to use for learning purposes. For example, Apple Inc.
managed to reduce the bulkiness of iPhone 4S compared to the former iPhone 4, which is its predecessor. These features have impressed students thus giving the phone a massive market share compared to other phones in its category or below. It measures 115.2 x 58.6 x 9.3 mm in dimensions indicating how slim, portable, and convenient it was at the time of its inception.
These provisions have rendered smartphones quite competitive in the learning realms. Another notable variable in this phone is the language recognition provisions that it possesses. Most Smartphones have the software provision named SIRI (Speech Interpretation and Recognition Interface), which is able to recognize and interpret voices, answer inquiries, compose recommendations, and execute actions, and connect to the internet by a set of delegated request.
For example, this feature forms the selling point of iPhone 4S. It is the only gadget with these provisions hence can be used by numerous categories of customers. The fact that it recognizes voices and interprets them into functional commands is a fascinating provision of its era. This has rendered the phone quite magnificent besides other provisions it has in its functionality.
This indicates the valuable use of smartphones in learning. Another variable used by smartphone to target its clients is memory provisions. The phone has no memory card slot but contains considerable internal 16/32/64 GB storage and a 512 MB RAM. This means that it has a faster processing unit and internal data storage capacity commensurate to storage provisions provided by the external storage devices.
In their data variables, smartphones have WLAN (Wi-Fi hotspot) making them capable of accessing wireless internet connections during learning sessions. They also possess Bluetooth for local transfer of information and a USB pot provision where they can be connected directly to computers for direct exchanges. This exhibits the important use of smartphones in learning.
Another variable that has rendered smartphones quite competitive in the learning provisions is their high resolution inbuilt camera (Touch focus, geo-tagging, face recognition, HDR, VGA, LED video light) capable of recording videos, capturing snaps, and offering image editing provisions. These factors have offered a considerable selling point for smartphones compared to other phones in its caliber and in the context of learning contexts.
These segmentation variables give the phones the psychographic and benefits sought. Students have a number of benefits they attain from the phone. This indicates the valuable use of smartphones in learning. For instance, this gives iPhone 4S a competitive advantage against other rivals in the market. The phone has a stronger brand name created by Apple allowing it to sell globally.
In features, as one of its segmentation variables that differentiates iPhone 4S from others, the phone has an operation system of iOS 5, sensors, Dual-core 1 GHz Cortex-A9 processor, and varying messaging provisions namely iMessage, SMS (threaded view), MMS, and Email among others (GSMArena.com.).
Other features include Google Maps, Audio/video thespian and editor, and variability in colors (Black and White), which are all important in the learning provision. This demonstrates the credible use of smartphones in learning. The market is saturated with numerous products of similar category; however, these commodities still thrill the market with novelty and appropriateness required in the currently changing world.
The marketers of these products have managed to bring them to the global limelight. In the context of e-learning, the products have attained a reasonable market share, global visibility, massive customer response, and considerable returns.
Discussions of theoretical framework for the study
According to Diane D’Amico (2012), over the past years, a number of schools did not accept the fact that cellphones can be used in various studies. For instance, most schools and institutions have barred the students from using the mobile phones arguing that students can use the gargets to steal their exams.
But currently, with the improved technology, most schools and learning institutions have accepted the fact that use of smartphones is a vital technology that should be embraced by the students (D’Amico, 2012). Besides, studies reveal that the use of smartphones will reduced some costs that can be incurred by the students when using the old technology in their studies.
Consequently, the use of the phones in their studies has become part of their life as they cannot easily do their homework or any other tasks without the involvement of the smartphones. The gadgets are able to access internet, take pictures, store information, record voices, and perform other numerous tasks demanded by their users.
However, they vary considerably from the services they offer, technological endorsement, physical structure, performance, and value among other provisions in the context of learning. The mentioned gadgets have considerable disparities ranging from their manufacturers to functionality and other provisions. This has rendered them quite considerable in this write-up.
Additionally, they belong to the same industry. Mobile phones, wireless communication, entertainment, pleasure, information storage, and variety are some of the lucrative provisions considerable in these products. The smartphones have rocked the global market and learning provisions since their inception several years back.
According to D’Amico (2012), the most interesting part is that the students themselves have realized the importance of using smartphones in their studies hence most of them are able to quickly learn and operate the gargets without the assistance of their lecturers or teachers. For instance, they (teachers and lecturers) do not have to show learners how the technology can be applied.
On the other hand, teachers and lecturers in various learning institutions have also resolved to the use of phones to improve their lessons. Arguably, the issue is not about the availability of the iphones but rather how it can be used to improve the level at which students are being taught in class. Conversely, most of the students are using the phones as part of their games hence teachers have the responsibility of ensuring that the students stay focused and use the phones appropriately (D’Amico, 2012).
Otherwise, the smartphones will not serve their correct purpose. Possibly, students are able to discover and experiment themselves past the lessons that they are taught in class. Teachers are also supposed to ensure that they use online services that can be applicable to all the students as some may possess different types of phones.
Conversely, some of the schools do not allow the use of phones in normal classrooms but only when they are doing their computer studies. One of the biggest challenges is that most of the teachers had not accepted the fact that smartphones can be used by the students as their classroom tool.
Statistics indicate that most of the students are now able to do their assignments back at home with a lot of ease hence they do not find themselves on the wrong side of the school rules. Consequently, they are able to give their teachers some easy time to move ahead thus completing their syllabus on time. Most teachers and lecturers strongly believe that the use of smartphones in studies has created more opportunities and saved time that could have been wasted in classrooms when carrying out manual teaching.
It has also reduced costs that would otherwise be used to print out some papers for studies as teachers can now transmit all the needed information electronically. According to Bolkan (2012), most students using smartphones in their studies are majorly interested in STEM subjects. Arguably, there is a huge gap between the number of people using their smartphones back at home and in school.
According to various surveys that had been carried out, it was evident that a number of students (approximately 40 percent) use their smartphones to do their assignment back at home (Bolkan, 2012). In addition, approximately 30 percent said that they use their tablets to do their homework. Among the students questioned, 60 percent believed that they were able to acquire more knowledge in mathematics and science through the use of laptops and tablets.
The same tendency was seen with the students that were using smartphones in their classrooms. Conversely, 60 percent of students using tablets said that they were not allowed to use them in their classrooms. 80 percent gave similar report concerning smartphones.
Most student studying STEM lessons have easy access to the job market in the united states hence most students are using their mobile devices to improve their concentration in STEM studies (Bolkan, 2012). Consequently, the number of scholars graduating with a degree in STEM has steadily increased over the past years.
According to the interviews carried out, most of the students who were using smartphones and laptops in their classroom studies had more inclined to the study of STEM subjects. Additionally, they said they were happy and felt clever to go for the STEM lessons. Conversely, 80 percent of the students coming from poor families were not able to purchase the smartphones or laptops hence they entirely relied on what they were being taught in class (Bolkan, 2012).
Among the students who were interviewed 60 percent accepted the fact that the application of the smartphones has made them to have the desire of learning more. According to Cathleen, Hossain and Elliot, the use of computers and smartphones had changed the whole learning curriculum that had been used before they were introduced.
Consequently, the application of the mobile devices in their studies has led to a 40 percent improvement in their final grades. The market price of the smartphone and tablets is steadily decreasing hence most of the students are able to purchase the devices. Consequently, schools will only have to organize on how to provide internet to the students and not how to purchase computers.
This will eventually reduce the costs that could otherwise been used to purchase computers for students. Arguably, a number of students preferred using the smartphones compared to laptopssince they considered it to be readily available and cheap compared to other gargets that they can use in their studies.
Additionally, smartphones are able to actively cope with the rapid improvement in technology. Unlike computers, students preferred using the smartphones as it was portable and always obtainable. Additionally, students were able to switch the gargets off and on easily thus it were considered as a time consuming mobile device.
It was discovered that most students who had smartphones were able to use them both at home and in school hence it they were able to improve in the way they carried out themselves academically. Besides, the mobile device has assisted the teachers to organize a comprehensive lesson. It has also helped the students towards improving their lessons.
Cathleen, Hossain and Elliot believe that most schools are supposed to encourage their students to adopt the new technologies to make them cope with the daily changes in the learning patterns. According to Carey (2012), a number of students use the smartphones cheating in their examinations and cyber-bullying. Conversely, they believe the mobile device can be an important learning tool.
Smartphones have an unbelievable computing power and hence are most preferred by a number of students who are ready to improve in their studies (Carey, 2012). Statistics indicated that if the students are not able to properly use their smartphones, then there is high possibility of them using them inappropriately. Therefore, teachers should direct the students on how to appropriately use the smartphones in their study rooms as learning tools.
Jennifer acknowledges that she teaches in an independent school where most of the students come from rich families. Consequently, all of her students possess some brand of smartphone device. This does not apply to all the teachers. Most students are able to carry out their discussions in groups where they can only use a single device in each group.
Smartphone devices are being used by the students and teachers for supporting their lessons and any academic activities within and outside the school (Carey, 2012). For instance, the tools make the lessons to become more captivating and productive. Consequently, students will not be intrinsically captivated with the mobile device they continuously use when out of school.
If they are not able to enjoy using the smartphone devices during their studies, then they can be desirous to use them in a wrong way. The use of the phones has given weak students a chance to express themselves as they are now able to ask questions during their lessons (Carey, 2012). The use of smartphone is growing rapidly in the learning arenas. The technology has revolutionized the education sector in regard to learning behaviors.
This might in turn influence their behaviors as students in the realms of decision making and learning preferences. Notably, colleges and universities are some of the areas that have adopted the use of smartphones in learning. Research indicates that the use of smartphones for learning provisions has grown tremendously over the past years.
Discussion of learning theories in regard to Smartphones
Students and teachers have used smartphones in a number of ways during their studies.They (Students and teachers) are able to install software called poll everywhere which they can use to carry out class polling of quizzing. According to Rai (2011), the software is free hence every student using the smartphones is able to access it.
Quiz questions can be generated using the software whereby students will be able to deliver their respective answers by sending text messages using their phones. The process is very cheap and convenient therefore students do not need to purchase, set up or maintain the sticker systems (Rai, 2011). As a requirement, students should register their smartphone numbers with their class teachers.
Consequently, the teachers will be able to check their answers for some of the unprepared quizzes or reviews. This will also help teachers identify the academic records and trends of their students and find possible solution to areas with weaknesses. Students have also used the smartphone devices for in-class back-channeling (Rai, 2011).
Through this process, students and teachers are able to use their internet systems and social media to ensure that there is a constant online spoken remarks. In addition, there will be an easy communication through the social media. Baldauf & Stair (2011) states that, through social media like twitter, teachers are able to give homework to the students.
Consequently, students are also able to submit their homework online hence it saves time since they do not have to wait until they reach school. Due to the improved technology, students can now study and do their exams online by using their smartphone devices (Baldauf& Stair, 2011). Moreover, people are able to use some common programs like Today’s Meet to create some provisional rooms to organize for some student discussions.
Students can also use Poll Everywhere to organize for their group discussions and control some of the comments. According to Balacheff (2009), students can use the smartphone devices effectively in their reading rooms as e-Readers for handouts and their study books. They can always find some of the needed information for their assignments using their internet enabled smartphone devices.
Consequently, this will improve their reading and learning skills hence they are able to make an outstanding academic improvement (Balacheff, 2009). Students and teachers can use their Drop Box accounts to attach their handouts, assignments or recorded articles on their phones (Rosen, 2009).
They can use their internet enabled smartphones to access reference materials in their drop box accounts without having to photocopy them out. Additionally, they will not ask for fresh copies of the references since they can always obtain them in their Drop Box space. Learners can use their smartphone applications like Nook applications and iBooks to obtain their traditional reading materials (Rosen, 2009).
Besides, a number of the mobile applications have free information and students can easily upload the necessary information they need. Consequently, they are able to save a lot of money they could have spent in buying the books and making photocopies. By using mobile applications, students are able to highlight and annotate their work.
According to Morley, Parker & Parker, learners can always use their smartphone devices to carry out research. They can take notes and data that are useful for the research. Besides, the power of carrying out successful research is in the mobile applications. They can use the smartphone’s fitted camera to capture some information that is important for the research (Cho, 2013).
Applications like Genius Scam+ can always be used to take pictures of books with large volumes, make them smaller and improve them for easy reading (Morley, Parker & Parker, 2010). They can always generate notebooks of documents by copying some pieces of books that contain the important information they need. Consequently, they can keep the information in their smartphones in a photo image or PDF format (MobileReference, 2007).
Learners can also use applications like Evernote to consolidate their class work and images. Stanza applications found in a number of smartphones can be used to change notes to word or PDF format. Generally, the dependence on investigation of most effective strategies would be applicable in enhancing the critical research outcomes of the study (Anderson & Little, 2004).
The appearance and perception of the teaching or instruction method when in application of the concise or accurate mathematical vocabulary within students’ written or outlined solutions would also be critical. The study will also analyze the effects of application of diverse proposed strategies in teaching the mathematical vocabulary.
There will be consideration of the most affected classroom grades within the education systems, most probably, the high school as well as the eighth grades. The proposed study remains of great importance to most other instructors, even those within other subjects. There will be provision of adequate information to these teachers, regarding the effect of basic languages on the particular subjects by the end of the proposed study.
Several studies in the past have majored and discovered basically the particular literacy methods that can be applied by instructors and teachers in the instruction and learning processes. These investigations have also majored on the ways of strengthening the conviction that literacy remains vital when students get to know the critical skills and comprehend the e-learning provisions. The students suffer difficulty in the application of concise language of smartphones.
Sections related to research question background
Numerous researches carried out indicate that approximately 80 percent of students from wealthy background are able to access and use smartphones. This is contrary to those coming from poor background whose figure was approximately 32 percent. Additionally, learners using smartphones were able to improve in their class work compared to those who entirely relied on their class work.
It was also discovered that a number of students preferred using the smartphone devices for doing their assignments and carrying out research. Conversely, more research should be carried out to establish how smartphone applications directly affect students who use them at school compared to those using them only at home. Research should also be carried out to establish the effectiveness of using smartphones.
Conclusively, given chapter one and two, it is necessary to carry out this research (Cho, 2013). Firstly, producers of the chosen smartphones have to deal with suppliers proficiently to ensure that they manage their production, operations, and marketing activities adeptly. Additionally, any hindrance in the supply chain process can cost the company massively in the realms of business and promptness.
Another issue is the raw ingredients/raw materials needed to prepare the concerned smartphones. These should be adequate, reliable and of higher quality enhance e-learning provisions. The providers of microchips, software, batteries, and assembly materials must be prompt in their services. The third aspect to be considered is the distributors in the sales and marketing chain to help student access smartphones in the market.
This must conform to the educational demands. Considerably, lives of individuals have been influenced positively through mobile phone infrastructures. Currently, mobile phone communications is quite prevalent and is applied in almost everywhere from businesses to government institutions and private entertainments. The applications are not only limited to elementary calls rather; different products and services are provided.
In all the applications, e-learning through smartphones has become very vital and feasible. The evolution of e-learning is influenced much by the progress and advancements in modern e-learning applications. Also, progression of main substructure constituents like fast wireless data networks like 3G plus mobile communication devices with multiple applications contribute immensely to improvements in the e-learning through smartphones.
This has numerous of benefits as already outlined in the above summery. The major factors that drive attractiveness to the e-learning through smartphones include easy usage, accessibility, and convenience. The implementation or integration of new IT systems in the learning institutions requires proper planning, coordination, and acquisition of the right software(s).
This is to ensure that every activity is undertaken within the scope of operation. The use of smartphones for learning among students might face the risk of poor planning and incongruence due to its expanded scope. The scope requires more time to aid the procurement of quality networks, infrastructure and strategic planning.
This is not achievable among some students and institutions they learn in. This may pose a serious risk that may compromise the expected quality standards in education. Major constraints appertain to lack of adequate resources including monetary provisions and IT specialists.
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