Validity refers to a study that is accurate and assesses given areas of study that the researcher should understand. Validity may be internal or external. This depends on the aspect of the study that the researcher wants to measure.
Internal validity is the design of conducting research and how the decision making process is undertaken to get the best results. External validity explains the depth of study and the level of generalization and comparison with research studies that different authors conduct. Reliability refers to the extent to which a given research project can give consistent results and outcome.
This is achieved when several experiments are done using the same procedure. In this case, the experiments are done using the same research tools and procedures even if conducted by different researchers. However, the outcome should be similar. Reliable data from a research study should be relevant to the problems that the researcher should solve to help in the decision-making process (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2007).
Validity measures how an instrument can measure a given characteristic in a research field accurately. In this regard, similar results are expected when using a common procedure. When the experiment is done, and the results are compared, they should indicate the same outcome.
For a research to be valid, the results should be verified by a peer in the same doctrine of study. A peer is a person who shares the same legal status in terms of education or even age. A peer can also be a person who shares qualifications or abilities with another researcher. Thus, in a health and medicine field, it is important for researchers to undertake peer review of a given study.
Peer review is important because it helps to check the validity of any results derived from a research study. In the field of medicine, the researcher should consult widely with peers to find solutions to health issues that affect people. Peer review help to compare the best approach to a given ailment and thus better drugs are provided to people (Gerrish & Lacey, 2010).
On the other hand, reliability can be enhanced by conducting peer review among different people in the same field of study to find the best result and outcome that can be relied upon by all. Having peer review helps in determining the consistency of results in the area of study.
Two health officer researchers can review one another’s work on a given topic to expound on the topic. This helps to eradicate any errors that might have occurred during the initial stages of research. Peer review helps in comparing the analysis of each health officer and to gauge the consistency of the data used in the research.
Test and retesting can be done on the data to bring out the consistency in results while following the required procedure. The review can be done by a committee to ascertain consistency of the data because human decisions are classified as reliable if different people come to the same conclusion and results. Peer reviews that are done by committees should be supervised so as to achieve the objectives of the research.
Thus, the committee should have access to information from other professionals in the same field of study who can check for consistency of the information. Therefore, for a given health and medical information to be considered valid and reliable, it should have undergone a peer review. In this case, it is crucial to certify the information given by the researcher on the topic (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2007).
Gerrish, K. & Lacey, A. (2010). The research process in nursing. Chichester, West Sussex, U.K: Wiley-Blackwell.
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. (2007). Best practices: Evidence-based nursing procedures. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.