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Work System Design and Network Planning Report

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Updated: Dec 5th, 2021

Introduction: Facilities layout

To begin with it is necessary to mention that facility layout and design is the significant element of business activity. This component is essential for both the terms of maximizing the effectiveness of business processes and meeting team needs and requirements. The layout generally includes physical arrangement of everything required for the product manufacturing or service providing, including machines, staff, raw materials, and finished goods.

Facility layout should be planned very carefully, as there is no desire and necessity to do the constant redesign adapting it to the changing circumstances. One of the key aims of the layout is to minimize the amount of materials usage, to avoid stoppages of the production, to decrease machine interference rate, ensure high morale, loyalty and safety among employees. Originally, there are two types of layout. Product layout is associated with the produced production. Process layout is aimed to improve the processes that are incorporated for making the products. It is emphasized that product layout is applicable for high-volume repetitive processes, while process layout is applicable for low-volume custom-made goods.

System Design

Small business managers often need to take into account lots of operational factors if they need to create the effectively working layout. The selected sphere of small business is a private bakery (or any other small private production line). The type of the layout, suitable for this type of business is the product layout. The facility design of such an enterprise should reflect the recognition of the significance of process smoothness. There is no need for a flow to be the straight line. These flows could be parallel, and provide the faster production: i.e. the preparation of raw materials may be performed along with the manufacturing of the ready production. Anyway, the backtracking and bottlenecks will be avoided, however, when raw materials and ready production move against or across the general production flow, personnel and paperwork may become confused, parts get lost, and the coordination becomes complicated.

The work system for the company is not less essential than the working layout. It should entail the skill training of the employees and compensation policy. The fact is that specific work places and practices may have restricted or even minimal impact if these practices are not the elements of the coherent working system. Thus, for instance, the participation of the employees in the decision-taking communities may increase productivity; however, workers should participate actively in order to solve the problems close to their particular sphere of the work. Guarantees of job security may increase the rate, to which employees share their ideas, which may lead to productivity improvements and probable layoffs.

Flexible assignments of employees may be required to make job safety viable. Moreover, this flexibility and long-term employment make the training more attractive both for employees and employers. If the working system is designed without taking into account such factors as job security and training, the workers may feel underestimated and become underutilized. However, the incentives will become absolutely inefficient without such mechanisms as flexible job assignment and participation of the employees in the decision making processes. This way, the working system will become effective, and all the mechanisms will function correctly.

According to these principles, the design process of the jobs will require individual approach to every employee. Thus, the technologist should be responsible for keeping the manufacturing line (or the part of the line) working properly, and use it according to the instructions. The decision making committee would negotiate on a monthly basis, and the technologist will be obliged to participate in it, and report the observed or experienced problems.

Executive manager is responsible for controlling the allover manufacturing process and defining the potential problems in the process. The feasibility of these jobs will be covered, if the employees work effectively, and perform all the required tasks. The standard times for all the employees would entail eight-hour working day and forty-hour working week. This timetable is justified by the world experience, and the necessity to keep workers fit.

Compensation

The compensation methods will be elaborated on the principles of bonus / fine system and include the bonus fund based on the withdrawn fines. The very notion that workers have an opportunity to increase their salary, which depends on their performance, is a great motivation that inspires to work overtime on a voluntarily basis.

The fine fund is formed of the fines, withdrawn during the previous months. Thus, the fined employee will have an opportunity to work off the fine, and even get the award. Such system appears to be the most effective, as it provides the highest rate of inspiration and motivation for effective and faultless work.

Network Planning

The planning of the network entails the calculations of the periods of performing every single stage of the project. Originally, the preparation period is the longest; however, it is often the most significant. This period entails actions, closely linked with financial, managerial, HR and PR spheres, and the necessity to plan every sub-sphere is beyond any doubt.

The planning process should include calculation of each period, financial costs, managerial efforts, the use of technical appliances, and the credibility of technical failure. Taking into account the previous experience is necessary and significant, as it would help to avoid common mistakes. Originally, the observance of all these conditions will guarantee the 80% probability that project will be launched in time, as there is still the credibility of unexpected obstacles.

If there is strong necessity to start the project with 95% credibility, the period will be increased at least up to 38 weeks. However, this period is the maximum that includes all the possible unexpectedness, and calculated with high rate of pessimistic estimates.

Activity Description of activity Optimistic time estimates Most likely time estimates Pessimistic time estimates
A Design general curriculum requirements 4 8 16
B Develop program Brochure 2 3 6
C Identify prospective students 3 6 9
D Develop advertising campaign 4 7 10
E Design specific curriculum content 8 16 20
F Send brochure and student application 2 3 4
G Evaluate applications 2 4 6
H Accept and notify students 1 2 3
I Schedule rooms for classes 1 1 7
J Designate professors 1 2 3
K Select texts 3 5 7
L Order and receive texts 6 8 17
Network Planning

Conclusion

The design of the facilities layout requires taking into account numerous factors that depend on the type of business activity and the type of the company. Originally, there are two general types of layout, though each entails several sub-variants, which are selected on the basis of previous experience and business environment. The layout of the selected small business sphere is product oriented, as there is strong necessity to control the quality (not the quantity) of the production.

System design should be properly planned, and guarantee working safety and assignment flexibility, otherwise, the working process and the system itself will fail sooner or later. The employees are obliged to participate in the decision making process, as it often touches upon the working conditions of the enterprice.

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IvyPanda. 2021. "Work System Design and Network Planning." December 5, 2021. https://ivypanda.com/essays/work-system-design-and-network-planning/.

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IvyPanda. (2021) 'Work System Design and Network Planning'. 5 December.

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