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The question of what knowledge is has been crucial for numerous philosophers of human history. Some of them, including Homer and Hesiod, believed that it comes from gods who know everything in the world. Thus, multiple gods determine the most deserving individuals who can obtain this knowledge and transmit it to others. However, this idea was not welcomed because it diminishes the role of people in creating and acquiring information. At this point, Xenophanes developed his own theory of knowledge and tried to explain its complex nature in his Fragment 10.
To begin with, one should indicate that Xenophanes’ vision of knowledge was different from that mentioned above. He suggests that humans are free to decide on when and how to acquire knowledge without gods’ inspiration and participation. Furthermore, knowledge is not considered a gift or stroke of insight; it takes time for people to gain some new information. At the same time, Xenophanes mentions that there are no guarantees that this process will result in the truth.
The philosopher indicates that the process of acquiring knowledge only reveals what is close to the truth. This supposition reflects the difficulties and limits of knowledge, according to Xenophanes. He also stipulates that people should cope with challenging tasks and overcome a long path to reach new information. In addition to that, Xenophanes’ ideas are said to have a broader significance. It is so because the humans’ exceptional role in gaining knowledge that is emphasized by this philosopher makes their life more meaningful, which covers an essential topic of purpose in life.
The information above demonstrates that Xenophanes had a notable basis to continue his exploration of the given topic. The philosopher wanted to show that ordinary people had a significant meaning for the whole world and their own lives. Thus, Fragment 10 draws specific attention to the nature and limitations of the philosophical concept under consideration. In other words, Xenophanes’ vision of knowledge can be divided into three essential suppositions that become clear due to the analysis of his words.
Firstly, Xenophanes states that no one can reach complete knowledge of everything that exists in the world. Even though individuals are said to be creatures who can initiate seeking information, they do not have the possibility to discover everything they want. It refers to limited abilities, both physical and mental, of people. Irrespective of how hard they try or how many efforts they take, there exist some phenomena that people cannot comprehend. It is explained by the fact that people are only insignificant components of the Universe, and it is normal if they cannot understand some of its essential concepts.
The second supposition is closely connected with the first one but considers the topic from a different angle. Thus, Xenophanes states that it is impossible to have knowledge of everything since this concept is particularly limited. Since knowledge stands for some information that can be described and perceived by individuals, the thinker says that some phenomena do not have such explanations. In general, it deals with divine and the most challenging philosophical issues, including gods, the Universe, and others. Thus, no one can understand the truth about these concepts just because it does not exist. These two suppositions demonstrate that knowledge is of limited nature, and it is normal if people cannot understand some ideas or phenomena.
Finally, Fragment 10 reveals some differences between knowledge and opinions. In general, Xenophanes believed that the following ideas represented the discrepancies. On the one hand, knowledge was considered more precise than opinions. On the other hand, such views were the only ways for individuals to acquire some information about gods and other significant philosophical concepts.
However, the given text indicates that knowledge and opinion are different in the way as knowing and speaking are. It means that if an individual utters a true statement, it does not denote that they know for sure that this statement is correct. It relates to the fact that people can accidentally articulate the truth without knowing it. In this case, Xenophanes says that they express their opinions. On the contrary, knowledge appears when a person deliberately presents an idea that should be considered correct. As has been stated, there is a limited number of thoughts that can be presented in this manner.
Meaning of Fragment 10
Xenophanes’ ideas were essential both for his generation and the future development of philosophy, and this meaning included two areas. On the one hand, the Ancient Greek thinker introduced crucial distinctions to philosophy, which was represented by knowledge and opinion. In addition to that, it was a critical discovery that Xenophanes revealed the difference between stating something and knowing something.
It emphasized the idea that people, not gods, were responsible for their words, thoughts, and actions, which also referred to acquiring knowledge. On the other hand, the thinker’s description of the limited nature of human knowledge was the first attempt to explain this phenomenon. He based his theory on the suppositions that some aspects are difficult and even impossible to comprehend and that the people’s intellectual abilities are weak to understand various phenomena. Thus, one can say that Xenophanes gave a stimulus for his successors to explore the given topic.
Knowledge is one of the most challenging philosophical concepts, and various thinkers tried to explain it in particular ways. Among them, Xenophanes deserved specific attention since this philosopher was the first to indicate the limitations of this phenomenon. According to him, people cannot know everything about the world because both they have weak mental abilities and it is impossible to understand a particular number of events. It only means that a few areas are hidden from individuals. At the same time, people are free to form their opinions concerning such events, including gods and other significant issues.
However, one should note that there is a crucial difference between knowledge and opinion. Xenophanes states that knowledge in its limited nature only appears when individuals deliberately announce something and insist on the fact that it is true.