Home > Free Essays > Economics > Finance > Abu Dhabi Stock Market and Profitability Ratios
Cite this

Abu Dhabi Stock Market and Profitability Ratios Research Paper


Background of the Study

Corporate finance

Corporate finance entails the various sources of funds available to a company. Primarily, the concept involves maximization of the wealth of shareholders through long-term and short-term planning. Various indicators are used to measure the success of an organization with regards to the achievement of its financial goals. Consequently, profitability ratios are used to measure the success of an investment.

Return on Investment (ROI) is used to evaluate the efficiency and worth of a portfolio. It compares returns on investment with the cost.

ROI=(Gain from Investment-Cost of Investment)/Cost of investment.

Return on Equity (ROE) measures profitability of a firm (Aljifri & Hussainey, 2007). It shows profits made by shareholders in terms of equity.

ROE=Net income/shareholders’ wealth.

In this paper, the author will analyze ROI and ROE for 10 of the most active stocks in Abu Dhabi Stock Market (ADSM). Financial data for the 2011-2014 trading period will be used.

A Historical background of the 10 most active stocks in ADSM

10 of the most actively traded stocks in ADSM include Sharjah Group Company P.S.C. The company invests in financial instruments, industrial projects, rental properties, and real estate. The second organization is Agthia Group PJSC. It is the leading Abu Dhabi-based food and beverage company. The third entity is the First Gulf Bank. It offers financial services to businesses and individuals. The fourth FOODCO Holding P.J.S.C. Company. It offers the best technologies in packaging in UAE. The fifth is the National Bank of Fujairah PJSC. The company offers commercial banking services to the residents of UAE.

The sixth company is the National Bank of Abu Dhabi. It is the largest lender bank in Abu Dhabi and second largest in UAE. The seventh listed firm is the Oman and Emirates Investment Holding Company. It provides banking services. The eighth organization is Manazel Real Estate PJSC. It develops homes for the middle class in UAE (Zarour, 2006). The 9th company is the Union Cement Company. It manufactures construction products. At number 10 is the Emirates Insurance Company. It offers life, property, and other forms of insurance cover.

Markowitz’ efficient portfolio model

Markowitz’ Efficient Portfolio Model of 1952 is a concept associated with the portfolios generating the maximum expected returns for various levels of risks (Edmans, 2011). It helps investors to understand the ROE and ROI of different projects. In addition, it helps companies to measure the progress of different portfolios in various markets. Markowitz’ model will be used to gauge how different securities for the 10 companies have performed. The analysis will take into consideration the expected rates of return for the entities.

Data and Methodology

Capital Market Trend

National Bank of Abu Dhabi

The lowest price of stock was 6.07 AED in 2012. The highest was 7.74. The average was 6.905 AED. On January 2013, the price was 7.78 AED. The highest price for 2013 was 10.87 AED. The average was 9.325 AED. The highest price in 2014 was 15.68 AED. The lowest was 11.00 AED. The average was 13.34 AED. The price has been falling and today it is at 9.00 AED, the lowest for 2015. The average price of stock is 10.865 AED. According to the audited reports for the period ending 31st December, the total equity was 31,133, 091,000 AED. Net income was 4,332,228, 000 AED. ROE for the year will be 4,332,228/31,133,091=14%. ROI is 318,182,000-143,987,000/318,182,000= 55%.

Total equity for 2013 was 34,678,541,000 AED. The net income was 4,773,125, 000 AED. ROE for the year would be 4,773,125,000/34,678,541,000=14%. ROI for the period was (311, 022, 000-135,260, 00)/311,022,000=57%. For the period ending 2014, total equity was 38,800,000,000. ROE was 14.6% by the end of the 4th quarter. ROI was 15.9%. The capitalization for the bank is currently at 47.148.

Agthia Group PJSC

The highest price for 2011 was 2.13 AED. The lowest was 1.61AED. Average was 1.74 AED. The lowest stock price for 2012 was 1.75 AED. 2.19 AED was the highest for the year. The average for 2012 was 1.97 AED. The lowest in 2013 was 2.20 AED. The highest was 4.25. The average price was 3.225 AED. 4.24 AED was the lowest price in 2014. The highest was 7.20 AED. The average was 5.72 AED. The lowest for 2015 was 6.0 AED. The current and the highest for the period is 7.55 AED. The average up to the current period is 6.775 AED. Total equity for the year ending 31st December 2011 was 1,035.5 AED. Net income for the same period was 86.3 AED. ROE for that year was 86.3/1035.5= 8.33%. ROI was 10.23%. ROI for 2012 was 11.53%. ROI for 2013 was 13.46%. ROI for 2014 was 14.70%. ROE for 2012 was 124.47/1128.9=11.02%. ROE for 2013 was 158.7/1249.8=12.7%. ROE for 2014 was 193.3/1379.9=14.0%. ROE by 30th June 2015 was 15.64% and ROI 15.3%. Market capitalization for the year 2015 is 4.530 billion AED.

Oman and Emirates Investment Holding Company

The lowest price of stock for 2011 was 0.91 AED. The highest was 0.99 AED. Average price for the year was 0.95 AED. The lowest price for 2012 was 0.72 AED. The highest for the period was 0.74 AED. The average price was 0.73 AED. The lowest price for 2013 was 0.70 AED. The highest was 1.45 AED. The average was 1.075 AED. The highest price for 2014 was 1.85 AED, while the lowest was 1.17AED. The average price for the year was 1.51 AED. The lowest price for 2015 is 1.17 AED, while the highest is currently at 1.38 AED. The average price is 1.275 AED. ROI for 2011 was -5.13% while for 2012 it was 9.92%. For 2013, ROI was 7.31%, while that for 2014 was -1.59%. ROE for 2011 was -17.25%, while that of 2012 was 15.17%. ROE for 2013 was 16.96%, while that of 2014 was 2.38%. Market capitalization for the year 2015 is at 168.188 M AED.

Emirates Insurance Company

The highest stock price for 2011 was 6.5 AED, while the lowest was 6.0 AED. The average was 6.25. The highest price for 2012 was 6.5 AED, while the lowest was 6.0 AED. The average stock price for the period was 6.25 AED. The highest stock price for 2013 was 6.55 AED, while the lowest was 6.05 AED. The average stock price for the period was 6.3 AED. The highest in 2014 was 8.0 AED, while the lowest was 6.8 AED. The average was 7.4 AED. The highest stock level for 2015 is 7.50 AED, while the lowest currently stands at 6.80 AED. The average stock level for this period is 7.15 AED. ROI for 2014 was 5.12%, while that for 2013 was 4.52%. ROI for 2012 was 6.1%, while that for 2011 was 7.13%. ROE for 2014 was 54.32%, while that for 2013 was 53.73%. ROE for 2012 was 49.45%, while that for 2011 was 52.09%. The market capitalization for 2015 is 918.000 million AED, while that for 2012 was 18.700 million AED.

Manazel Real Estate PJSC

The lowest stock price for 2011 was 0.23 AED, while the highest was 0.33 AED. The average for the year was 0.28 AED. The highest price for 2012 was 0.46, while the lowest was 0.34 AED. The average for the period was 0.4 AED. The highest stock level for 2013 was 0.47AED, while the lowest was 0.46 AED. The average was 0.465 AED. For 2014, the highest stock level was 0.54 AED. The lowest was 0.48 AED. The average was 0.51 AED. The lowest price for 2015 is 0.65 AED. 0.67 is currently the highest. The average is 0.66 AED. ROE for 2011 was 0.11%. ROE for 2012 was 0.22%, while that for 2013 was 4.82%. ROE for 2014 was 6.03%, while for 2015 it is 7.18%. ROI for 2012 was -7.34%, while that for 2013 was -2.47%. ROI for 2014 was -2.57%, for 2015 it was -3.32%. Market capitalization for 2015 is 1.675 billion AED.

National Bank of Fujairah PJSC

The highest stock price for 2011 was 4.37 AED, while the lowest was 2.56 AED. The average was 3.465 AED. The highest price for 2012 was 5.21 AED, while the lowest was 3.81 AED. The average was 4.51 AED. The highest price for 2013 was 4.87 AED, while the lowest was 2.51 AED. The average was 3.69 AED. The highest price for 2014 was 4.32 AED, while the lowest was 3.02. The average was 3.355 AED. The current stock price is 3.87 AED. ROE for 2011 was 9.34% and 9.93% for 2012. ROE for 2013 was 10.01%, while for 2014 it was 11.34%. ROI for 2011 was 7.34%, while for 2012 it was 7.67%. ROI for 2013 was 8.23% and 9.03% for 2014. The current market capitalization stands at 4.576 billion AED.

FOODCO Holding P.J.S.C

The highest stock price for 2011 was 2.79 AED, while the lowest was 1.44 AED. The average was 2.115 AED. The highest for 2012 was 1.97 AED, while the lowest was 1.30 AED. The average was 1.635 AED. The highest for 2013 was 3.00 AED, while the lowest was 1.26 AED. The average was 2.13 AED. The highest stock price for 2014 was 6.00 AED, while the lowest was 3.00 AED. The average was 4.5 AED. The current stock price is 4.00 AED. ROI for 2011 was 6.28%. ROI for 2012 was nil. ROI for 2013 was 10.21% and for 2014 10.49%. ROE for 2011 was 8.96%. ROE for 2012 was nil. ROI for 2013 and 2014 was 6.13%. Market capitalization is 400.000 million AED.

Sharjah Group Company P.S.C

The highest price for 2011 was 2.21 AED, while the lowest was 1.43 AED. The average was 0.91 AED. The highest for 2012 was 1.54 AED. Lowest was 1.01 AED. The average was 1.275 AED. The highest for 2013 was 1.09 AED. Lowest was 0.99 AED. The average was 1.04 AED. The highest for 2014 was 1.20 AED. Lowest was 0.81 AED. The average was 1.005 AED. The current stock price is 1.01 AED. Market capitalization is 597.25 million AED. ROI for 2011 was 7.23%, while that for 2012 was 2.34%. ROI for 2013 was 5.34%, while that for 2014 was 2.23%. ROE for 2011 was 6.23%, while that for 2012 was 5.32%. 2013 had an ROE of 3.07%, while 2015 had 4.23%. Market capitalization for 2015 is 123.23 million AED.

First Gulf Bank

The lowest stock price for 2011 was 4.80 AED. Highest was 6.27 AED. Average for the year was 5.535 AED. The highest for 2012 was 7.63, while the lowest was 5.31. The average was 6.47. Highest price for 2013 was 12.17. Lowest was 7.80. Average for was 9.985. The highest price for 2014 was 16.73. Lowest was 12.80. Average was 14.765. The current stock price for 2015 is 13.45 AED. ROE for 2011 was 14.60% and that for 2012 14.84%. ROE for 2013 was 15.76% and 16.98% for 2014. ROI for 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014 was 3.32%, 4.54%, 6.01%, and 6.79% respectively. Market capitalization for 2015 is 60.525 billion AED.

Union Cement Company

The highest price for 2011 was 1.60 AED. Lowest was 0.95 AED. Average for the year was 1.275 AED. Highest for 2012 was 1.20. Lowest was 0.79. Average for the period was 0.995 AED. Highest for 2013 was 1.44, while lowest was 0.78. Average was 1.11 AED. Highest for 2014 was 1.89, while lowest was 1.14. Average for the period was 1.515. The current price is 1.14 AED. ROE for 2011 was -2.02%, while for 2012 it was 0%. ROE for 2013 was 1.02%, while for 2015 it was 1.1%. ROI for 2011 was -1.88%, while for 2012 it was 0%. ROI for 2013 was 1.00%, while for 2014 it was 1.03%. Market capitalization for 2015 is 763.159 million AED.

Comparative Assessment

The 10 companies above can be roughly clustered into 2 industries. The first is finance and banking, while the second is construction and manufacture. A comparative analysis of the two industries reveals significant variations. For example, one can compare the First Gulf Bank and Union Cement. The industry average price of stock for 2013 for Gulf was 9.985, while it was 1.11 AED for Union Cement. The difference is brought about by the market share that each company commands in its industry.

Analysis

ROE may be influenced by market prices and the equity invested. A high market price will command a high ROE. Portfolios are collection of assets. They are represented by ROI and ROE. Some of the alternatives to cash include hedge funds and managed features (Shah & Dubey, 2013). From the ROI and ROE figures above, it is apparent that most companies have invested in cash and stock. It is a disadvantage to the company if the stock prices go down. The prices are at times affected by market volatilities. If they decline, then ROE and ROI will be affected. Alternatives to cash investment should be applied by the companies to ensure safe returns.

ROE for the ten companies (2011-2014)
Figure 1: ROE for the ten companies (2011-2014)

The graph below shows the changes in ROE over the four years (from 2011 to 2014). One can deduce that the changes in stock prices have an effect on ROE. 2011 recorded the lowest ROE because the economy of UAE was in turmoil (Hammoudeh & Choi, 2006). The development affected the stock prices. The economy grew gradually and the prices rose steadily. The ROE also went up from 2013.

Evaluation

Table 1: ROE for the ten companies (2011-2014)

Company/Year 2011 2012 2013 2014
National Bank of Abu Dhabi 13.1% 14% 14% 14.6%
Agthia Group PJSC 8.33% 11.02% 12.07% 14.0%
Oman and Emirates Investment Holding Company -17.25% 15.17%. 16.96% 2.38%
Emirates Insurance Company 52.09% 49.45% 53.73%. 54.32%
Manazel Real Estate PJSC 0.11% 0.22% 4.82%. 6.03%
National Bank of Fujairah PJSC 9.34% 9.93% 10.01% 11.34%
FOODCO Holding P.J.S.C 8.96% 0% 6.13% 6.13%
Sharjah Group Company P.S.C 6.23% 5.32% 3.07% 4.23%
First Gulf Bank 14.60% 14.84% 15.76% 16.98%
Union Cement Company -2.02% 0% 1.02% 1.1%

Table 2: ROI for the ten companies (2011-2014)

Company/Year 2011 2012 2013 2014
National Bank of Abu Dhabi 53% 55% 57% 15.9%.
Agthia Group PJSC 10.23% 11.53% 13.46%. 14.70
Oman and Emirates Investment Holding Company -5.13% 9.92% 7.31% -1.59%.
Emirates Insurance Company 7.13% 6.1% 4.52% 5.12%
Manazel Real Estate PJSC -7.76% -7.34% -2.47% -2.57%
National Bank of Fujairah PJSC 7.34% 7.67%. 8.23% 9.03%
FOODCO Holding P.J.S.C 6.28%. 0% 10.21% 6.13%.
Sharjah Group Company P.S.C 7.23% 2.34%. 5.34% 2.23%
First Gulf Bank 3.32% 4.54% 6.01% 6.79%.
Union Cement Company -1.88% 0 1.00% 1.03%

ROE measures the gains made by shareholders for investing in a company. The changes shown in the table above are signals of strong and weak financial performance (Edmans, 2011). Operating expenses, revenue channels, and financing activities are some of the factors that affect ROE. The stock price also affects earnings from investments. The ROI is also affected by the stock price. ROI and ROE are profitability ratios that depend on the market prices.

Conclusion

ROE is affected directly by the stock price. When the price is low, profitability goes down (Al-Tamimi, 2006). ROE is a profitability ratio that reflects the market status and profitability. However, profitability can also be affected by poor decisions. Out of the 10 companies above, National Bank of Abu Dhabi appears to have performed the best in the last five years given its ROE and ROI.

References

Aljifri, K., & Hussainey, K. (2007). The determinants of forward-looking information in annual reports of UAE companies. Managerial Auditing Journal, 22(9), 881-894.

Al-Tamimi, H. (2006). Factors influencing individual investor behavior: An empirical study of the UAE financial markets. The Business Review, 5(2), 225-233.

Edmans, A. (2011). Does the stock market fully value intangibles?: Employee satisfaction and equity prices. Journal of Financial Economics, 101(3), 621-640.

Hammoudeh, S., & Choi, K. (2006). Behavior of GCC stock markets and impacts of US oil and financial markets. Research in International Business and Finance, 20(1), 22-44.

Shah, S., & Dubey, S. (2013). Market orientation and organizational performance of financial institutions in United Arab Emirates. Journal of Management and Public Policy, 4(2), 17-26.

Zarour, B. (2006). Wild oil prices, but brave stock markets!: The case of GCC stock markets. Operational Research, 6(2), 145-162.

This research paper on Abu Dhabi Stock Market and Profitability Ratios was written and submitted by your fellow student. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly.
Removal Request
If you are the copyright owner of this paper and no longer wish to have your work published on IvyPanda.
Request the removal

Need a custom Research Paper sample written from scratch by
professional specifically for you?

Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar

301 certified writers online

GET WRITING HELP
Cite This paper

Select a referencing style:

Reference

IvyPanda. (2020, June 13). Abu Dhabi Stock Market and Profitability Ratios. Retrieved from https://ivypanda.com/essays/abu-dhabi-stock-market-and-profitability-ratios/

Work Cited

"Abu Dhabi Stock Market and Profitability Ratios." IvyPanda, 13 June 2020, ivypanda.com/essays/abu-dhabi-stock-market-and-profitability-ratios/.

1. IvyPanda. "Abu Dhabi Stock Market and Profitability Ratios." June 13, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/abu-dhabi-stock-market-and-profitability-ratios/.


Bibliography


IvyPanda. "Abu Dhabi Stock Market and Profitability Ratios." June 13, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/abu-dhabi-stock-market-and-profitability-ratios/.

References

IvyPanda. 2020. "Abu Dhabi Stock Market and Profitability Ratios." June 13, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/abu-dhabi-stock-market-and-profitability-ratios/.

References

IvyPanda. (2020) 'Abu Dhabi Stock Market and Profitability Ratios'. 13 June.

More related papers