Acute renal failure is one of the most common kidney diseases. According to Makris and Spanou (2016), acute kidney injury (AKI), earlier known as acute renal failure, is divided into three types: prerenal, intrarenal (intrinsic), and postrenal. Researchers emphasized that prerenal AKI usually happens as a result of cardiac malfunctions, such as impaired cardiac function, hypovolaemia, systemic vasodilatation, and increased vascular resistance (Markis & Spanou, 2016). Alkhunaizi (2018) also noted that it might be caused by “decreased renal perfusion” (p.3). Therefore, in the case of severe cardiac diseases, the possibility of developing prerenal AKI needs to be considered.
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Similar to prerenal acute renal failure, postrenal AKI does not develop as an outcome of kidney disease. Makris and Spanou (2016) explained that the condition happens after “obstruction of the urinary flow” (p.89) in the urinary collection system. Specific examples of this condition, as mentioned by Alkhunaizi (2018), would be stones, prostate hypertrophy, and retroperitoneal fibrosis. Both pre-and postrenal acute kidney failures are diagnosed by the diminished GFR rate and may lead to an intrinsic kidney injury if not addressed promptly (Makris & Spanou, 2016). On the contrary, intrarenal acute renal failure is associated solely with the processes in the main parts of the kidney, such as glomeruli, interstitium, intrarenal blood vessels, and tubules (Makris & Spanou, 2016). The injury may be caused by certain viruses, medications, or chronic kidney infections (Alkhunaizi, 2018). Thus, in the case of diagnosing the individual with any of the diseases mentioned above, the health care professional needs to remember the risks of a patient developing acute kidney injury.
To prevent the development of AKI, the patient needs to consider risk factors associated with the disease. According to the American Kidney Fund (n.d.), risk factors include diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, chronic kidney condition, and peripheral artery disease. In addition, those who are older than 65 and already hospitalized in the intensive care unit are more likely to develop AKI. General rules to avert acute renal failure are eating a healthy diet, low in salt and fat, and managing chronic diseases (American Kidney Fund, n.d.). Alkhunaizi (2018) also named several specific prevention strategies to address AKI, such as resuscitation with fluids, usage of inotropic agents, and vasopressors. Since instances of developing acute renal failures differ, dependent on the circumstances, the best preventative measures can only be determined on an individual basis.
Alkhunaizi, A.M. (2018). Acute kidney injury. In A. Karkar (Ed.), Aspects in continuous renal replacement therapy (pp. 1-17). Web.
American Kidney Fund. (n.d.). Acute kidney injury. Web.
Makris, K., & Spanou, L. (2016). Acute kidney injury: Definition, pathophysiology and clinical phenotypes. The Clinical Biochemist Reviews, 37(2), 85–98. Web.