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Chronic diseases that have to be fought by different patients cause many troubles for doctors. Some ailments are not easy to diagnose, and some have a long and complicated course of treatment. Today, one of the illnesses that still worries many patients is chronic kidney disease developing in people of different age and sex. Timely intervention and the search for appropriate treatment can help to reduce the impact of the ailment on the human body, and the use of various methods to combat the disease can be effective in finding the best course of treatment.
Clinical Presentation of Chronic Kidney Disease
Chronic kidney disease is a prolonged progressive decrease in renal function. According to Delles and Vanholder (2017), symptoms develop slowly and include anorexia, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and other unpleasant manifestations. Diagnosis is based on laboratory tests of renal function, which is sometimes supplemented with the kidney biopsy. Treatment is primarily aimed at the underlying disease but also includes the normalization of water and electrolyte balance, the restoration of erythropoietin level in anemia, dialysis, and transplantation (Delles & Vanholder, 2017). With more severe renal failure, neuromuscular symptoms may appear. Concomitant diseases accompanying chronic kidney disease are pericarditis, peptic ulcer, arterial hypertension.
Features of Chronic Kidney Disease Diagnosis
In patients with a family history of kidney disease, such visualization studies as ultrasound should be performed. Anemia, which is typical for the ailment, causes weakness and decreased exercise tolerance. Therefore, a series of exercises aimed at testing the activity of patients can be useful in determining the type and stage of the illness. Also, as Belcher et al. (2014) note, the disease should be identified by conducting screening studies because, for many years, the ailment can flow without objective or subjective symptoms. Appropriate clinical tests can help identify a dangerous illness at an early stage and reduce possible dangerous manifestations.
Implications of Potential Treatment Options
Medical intervention can be based on the use of different methods of treatment. Thus, for example, Barnett et al. (2014) mention the correction of diet as one of the ways to normalize patients. It will help to reduce the burden on kidneys and prevent the aggravation of the disease. Drug treatment allows coping with the illness even at later stages of its development. At the very least, in the fifth phase, it is required to resort to the help of substitution therapy. Belcher et al. (2014) claim, hemodialysis is the most well-known procedure, and as a last resort, transplantation is performed. All these methods of treatment can have positive results in case of their timely application.
Impact of Patient Factors
In case the patient has a predisposition to kidney disease, periodic tests should be performed to exclude the development of the chronic illness. Genetics is a significant factor that can affect the development of the disease. Also, gender should be mentioned because male and female body systems are different. When considering such a factor as ethnicity, it is possible to pay attention to the features of attitude to health and its maintenance. Different nations’ representatives may have distinctive ideas about the treatment process, which should be taken into account.
Age is another important criterion. According to Barnett et al. (2014), with a metabolic disorder, there is a risk of damage to the urinary tract and, as a consequence, problems with kidneys. Most often, this problem is observed in adulthood when the body is weakened. Moreover, the features of behavior are significant when observing the issue. Harmful food, bad habits, and other characteristics can be expressed in the form of problems with kidneys. All these factors should be considered to prevent the development of the disease and help patients.
Timely medical intervention and the use of optimal diagnostic methods can be effective in the treatment of chronic kidney disease. Patient factors can play an essential role and have a significant effect on the course of the illness. Treatment depends on the stage of the ailment and other characteristics, for example, complications caused by the disease.
Barnett, A. H., Mithal, A., Manassie, J., Jones, R., Rattunde, H., Woerle, H. J., & Broedl, U. C. (2014). Efficacy and safety of empagliflozin added to existing antidiabetes treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, 2(5), 369-384.
Belcher, J. M., Sanyal, A. J., Peixoto, A. J., Perazella, M. A., Lim, J., Thiessen-Philbrook, H.,… Parikh, C. R. (2014). Kidney biomarkers and differential diagnosis of patients with cirrhosis and acute kidney injury. Hepatology, 60(2), 622-632.
Delles, C., & Vanholder, R. (2017). Chronic kidney disease. Clinical Science, 131(3), 225-226.