Over the years, environmentalists have intensified research on air pollution. Air pollution has been attributed to activities such as air travel, coal mining, and geological storage, among others. Consequently, this has increased health-associated risks in societies. The paper will summarize articles on human activities and their effects on human health.
International Air Travel and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Proposal for an Adaptation Levy
This article begins by recounting the benefits of air travel as well as its expansion throughout the world. According to the authors, Cameron and Benito, globalization was essential in driving commercial aviation. The article begins by exploring the nature and scale of challenges associated with greenhouse emissions in aviation. It argues that increase in emissions is a direct result of increase in growth of air travel since World War II.
Using various examples such as those from the European Union, the article cites increase in use of aviation fuel as a source of emissions in air travel.
Despite the fact that pollution from aviation forms about 4% of total air pollution by green house gasses, IATA has continued to pursue implementation of a proposal aimed at minimizing air pollution. The article cites inadequacies in current policies aimed at reducing carbon emissions. It suggests a proposal, which fronts for emission minimization incentives and charges, among others.
According to the article, aviation emissions are increasing at an alarming rate. In fact, it proposes major changes in policies to address potential challenges caused by air pollution. It also faults Kyoto Protocol for exclusion of policy changes aimed at reducing air pollution.
The article; therefore, put forward an IATAL to help tackle environmental issues arising from air travel. The authors believe that IATAL would provide stability in the industry more than the current scheme of auction. Moreover, they argue that IATAL would be accepted throughout the world since it addresses the repercussions of climate change (Hepburn & Müller, 2010, pp. 830-849).
Issue profile: environmental issues and the geological storage of CO2
This article relates environmental issues with carbon dioxide emissions. It begins by reaffirming the fact that increased carbon dioxide emission is likely to bring about oceanic acidification and climate change. These changes are expected to bring with them severe repercussions for humanity and ecosystems.
The paper explores strategies being sought to help minimize emissions, which include geological storage for carbon dioxide emissions. According to the article, existing studies only focus on gas and oil regulatory framework. However, the authors believe that if studies are also focused on non-oil reservoir formations, the frameworks utilized above may be inconclusive.
The paper goes on to state that the level of concern for uncontrolled carbon dioxide emissions is high in Europe. In fact, the authors also believe that release of such emissions from their storage sites are causing concerns among regulators. In essence, the paper calls for a new framework that would apply for both oil and non-oil reservoirs.
Moreover, the paper recommends that the effects of chronic and acute contact of ecosystems with carbon dioxide be evaluated. Additionally, it recommends inclusion of specific information addressing leakages from storage sites. The paper explores data to evaluate its capability in assisting regulators to implement these changes. Sadly, the amount of data is inadequate to help regulators.
It therefore exposes the gaps in assessing possible impacts of carbon dioxide leakages on subsurface, terrestrial, and marine ecosystems. The authors also believe that knowledge on impacts of carbon dioxide leakage would enable regulators to refine risk assessments.
Additionally, it would provide limits and data on recovery rates. Furthermore, it would also help in assessing ecosystem changes for CCS sites in future (West, Pearce, Bentham & Maul, 2005, pp. 250-259).
Opencast coal mining in India: Analyzing and addressing the air environmental impacts
This article explores air environmental impacts of opencast coal mining in India. It begins by arguing that opencast mining causes more environmental issues than underground mining. Among the concerns raised in the article is deterioration of air quality, among others, which affect not only the surrounding but also the mining area. Nonetheless, the paper describes opencast mining to be a success in India.
This, the article argues, is attributed to the rising need for energy. Moreover, increased concerns for underground mining have also led to shifting technologies on opencast mining. The paper utilizes factal analysis to provide an understanding of air pollutants and their effects in opencast mining. The paper recommends numerous ways of reducing air pollution in opencast mining.
Some of the recommendations pointed include monitoring of wind direction and pollution concentrations around the mines, use of green belt, dust control, and water spraying, among others. The paper also argues that opencast mining pollution is caused mainly by generation of dust. Moreover, the paper notes high levels of pollutants, which are hazardous to human health.
The article also explains the process of factal analysis as well as its outcome in analyzing pollution in India from opencast mining. Moreover, the article recommends a practical scheme for minimizing air pollution opencast mining. It also suggests that this methodology be extended to other site types (Ghose, 2007, pp. 71-87).
Article on Public Heath
This article explains how air pollution contributes to morbidity and mortality. It does this by estimating the effects of traffic related air pollution and impact of outdoor pollution on public health. This study was conducted in three European countries namely Austria, Switzerland, and France. Impacts of air pollution were quantified using epidemiology based exposure-response functions for an increase in particulate matter.
The cases that were attributable to air pollution were classified according to ages namely, 30 years, 25 years, 20 years, and 15 years respectively. This was then modeled for each square kilometer. Asthma attacks in both adults and children were explored, as well as restricted activity days, among others.
Findings indicated that over 40000 that represent over 6% of death cases (mortality) were caused by air pollution on a yearly basis. In addition, motorized traffic caused nearly half of all mortality arising from air pollution. Moreover, this attributed to 16 million person-day restricted activities, over 500000 of asthma attacks, over 290000 of bronchitis in children and over 25000 new cases of bronchitis in adults.
The paper estimated the impact of air pollution in public health. It suggests that although individual concerns from air pollution are minimal, public health concern are substantial. Besides, it affirms that public health targets air pollution as its main areas of concern in Europe.
Finally, it suggests that results from the study are resourceful in assessment of environmental health-policy options (Kunzli, Kaiser, Medina, Studnicka, Chanel, Filliger &… Sommer, 2000, p. 795).
Air pollution is an area of concern to the world at large. The paper explores various air pollutants such as dust, carbon dioxide emissions, and green house gas emissions. In this regard, the paper explores various articles on opencast coals mining, aviation emissions, and geological storage of carbon dioxide and public health concerns in air pollution.
Notably, each of the articles provides recommendations for reducing air pollution. For instance, change in policies is mentioned profoundly in the articles, among other measures. In essence, the articles show that studies on air pollution are important for its mitigation.
Ghose, M. K. (2007). Opencast coal mining in India: Analyzing and addressing the air environmental impacts. Environmental Quality Management, 16(3), 71-87.
Hepburn, C., & Müller, B. (2010). International Air Travel and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Proposal for an Adaptation Levy. World Economy, 33(6), 830-849.
Kunzli, N., Kaiser, R., Medina, S., Studnicka, M., Chanel, O., Filliger, P., &… Sommer, H. (2000). Public-health impact of outdoor and traffic-related air pollution: a European assessment. Lancet, 356(9232), 795.
West, J. M., Pearce, J., Bentham, M., & Maul, P. (2005). Issue profile: environmental issues and the geological storage of CO2. European Environment: The Journal of European Environmental Policy (Wiley), 15(4), 250-259.