- The research question is to determine the quantity of the impact that different levels of alcohol ingestion combined with smoking behavioral patterns make on men and women in terms of the risks of cancer.
- The variables used are different. Some of them are independent, such as demographic characteristics (gender, age), past-related issues (family health history, body mass index), and current health indicators (the results of the mammogram and prostate specific antigen tests). The cumulative average consumption of alcohol is the dependent variable. The majority of the variables are ordinary (physical activity, the usage of vitamins) and ration (the level of alcohol consumption). They may be either continuous (the variables pertaining to individual health history, for instance, the history of colonoscopy, or alcohol ingestion – the authors emphasize that they consider it to be a continuous variable) or discrete (the number of pack years, alternate healthy eating index).
- As the researchers stated, they used Spearman correlation, Cox proportional hazards models, and likelihood ratio tests (Cao, Willett, Rimm, Stampfer, & Giovannucci, 2015).
- In the context of the conclusions, it is stated that lower levels of alcohol consumption are associated with minimum risks of cancer in both men and women. However, the gender differences are also registered: male subjects demonstrate almost equal relative risks of alcohol-related cancer on condition that their drinking is light or moderate, but female subjects who have never smoke differ since the risks of cancers (especially breast cancer) increase significantly when a woman consumes one alcoholic drink per day. Therefore, the authors insist on the idea that smoking history should be taken into account when the level of alcohol ingestion is examined.
The researchers touch upon a very significant issue since early intervention is a matter of primary concern in relation to any disorder. The early Parkinson’s disease treatment is urgent, and one should justify the usage of a certain medicine prior to making a final decision. Under these circumstances, antidepressants become an important instrument: they not only delay the need for dopaminergic therapy but also help reduce the level of motor impairment and disability which is beneficial.
We will write a custom Article on Alcohol and Smoking Impact on Cancer Risk specifically for you
301 certified writers online
This article is a good example of research. It is well-structured and informative since it contains all significant elements in the correct order, and the headings and subheadings give the opportunity to orientate oneself within the text. Another advantage of the present paper is the wide coverage of studies conducted earlier: several clinical trials are included. Later on, it is necessary to underline that the time-dependent Cox regression models are employed: in comparison with the ordinary model, this approach seems preferable because it relates to the particular research: attention is drawn to the covariates connected with time.
Overall, the research is credible and relevant. However, I would like to focus on some issues. As the researchers themselves point out, they distributed patients in accordance with the classes of antidepressants, and it “made the sample size too small to detect significant differences between the groups” (Paumier et al., 2012, p. 884). Do you think it would be more appropriate to include fewer classes of antidepressants and investigate their impact? There is one more question I would like to ask: what are, in your opinion, the necessary steps that should be taken in future in order to expand the topic and achieve more detailed results?
Cao, Y., Willett, W. C., Rimm, E. B., Stampfer, M. J., & Giovannucci, E. L. (2015). Light to moderate intake of alcohol, drinking patterns, and risk of cancer: Results from two prospective US cohort studies. BMJ: 351. Web.
Paumier, K. L., Siderowf, A. D., Auinger, P., Oakes, D., Madhavan, L., Espay, A. J.,… & Collier, T. J. (2012). Tricyclic antidepressants delay the need for dopaminergic therapy in early Parkinson’s disease. Movement Disorders, 27(7), 880-887.