Emotions play a key role in human survival (LaVelle, Bore, Aslinia & Morriss, 2013). However, the reactions may cause harm. Anger is a sentiment that ranges from mild infuriation to intense frenzy. Generally, the state has both positive and negative effects on an individual (LaVelle et al., 2013).
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Anger is one of the most basic human sentiments (Reilly, Shopshire, Durazzo & Campbell, 2002). It is associated with three reaction states. The states include fight, flight, and freeze. It keeps the human body and mind stimulated and ready to react. The reason behind the stimulation and reaction is because it triggers the sympathetic nervous system.
When angry, various body processes are altered. Individual experiences increased heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing. The changes compel a person to work hard both mentally and physically so as to respond to the issue causing the anger (Schinnerer, 2010).
When angry, people have three choices (Rempel, 2012). They can either be aggressive, passive-aggressive, or assertive. An aggressive reaction results when anger is expressed openly. The primary aim of the reaction is to hurt the other person. The reaction involves threats, verbal insults, and physical actions, such as hitting. The cause of anger is blamed on someone else. The individuals feeling dishonored believe they need to react to the violation (Morland et al., 2011).
A passive-aggressive response involves repressing anger (Willner et al., 2013). The individual will keep their feelings to themselves until they blow up. An assertive reaction is experienced when the rage is expressed directly in a non-intimidating manner. The reaction results in no harm. The individual considers the feeling to be tolerable. Such people use the emotion to determine the best approach to deal with the issue (Breiner, Tuomisto, Bouyea, Gussak & Aufderheide, 2012).
Process of Anger Management
Anger management involves learning to identify the signs associated with rage and the strategies that one can use to effectively calm down (Schinnerer, 2010). The individual is taught how to approach situations in a positive manner. The procedure is not meant to encourage people to repress their feelings.
Anger is normal and healthy. As a result, people are helped to express them appropriately. Individuals with a severe problem take part in rage management classes. Other persons visit mental health professionals. In addition, there are those individuals who gather information on how to deal with the condition from various sources. The sources include books and the internet (Reilly et al., 2002).
The process of anger management involves specific steps and stages (Willner et al., 2013). Each phase is a building block for the next one. It is very important to follow all of these stages without skipping any. Failure to go through each step as required makes it hard to achieve the desired results (Morland et al., 2011).
Identifying Triggers and Thoughts
It is a normal occurrence for a person to be angry at one point or another (Schinnerer, 2010). Most individuals report that they become slightly or moderately furious several times in a day or in a week. Trigger thoughts are the reflections that cross people’s mind, causing the reactions. For example, one can think they are being ridiculed in instances where the other person laughs looking directly at them. The perception triggers anger.
The person involved in the cases needs to make critical judgments before they act. The reason behind the need for critical appraisal of situations is because their perception may be based on misinterpretation. Trigger thoughts are influenced by two elements. The first is the belief that one has been harmed or ill-treated. The second is the perception that the other person intends to commit a victimization act (Reilly et al., 2002).
The Need for Alternative Behaviors
Alternative behaviors to express anger are employed to help manage the condition and maintain calmness (Rempel, 2012). Furious persons need to substitute negative actions with positive ones. Different people portray varying traits. Some need to be quiet and inactive to maintain their cool. Others turn to physical activities.
Inactive behaviors of anger management include reading a book, listening to calm music, resting in bed, and looking at pictures. On the other hand, active methods may include such acts as punching a pillow or a punching bag, riding a bicycle, and throwing items around (Flanagan, Korrie & Donna, 2010).
In South Australia, secondary schools use Take 5 card to help affected students reduce stress and manage anger (Willner et al., 2013). In instances where the student feels overloaded, they request permission for Taking 5. The teacher allows them to go to a quiet place and stay there until they are calm enough to return to class. Tutors keep records of students with genuine anger problems to ensure the cards are not used as an excuse to avoid classwork (Rempel, 2012).
Potent Strategies of Anger Management
In most instances, outbursts ruin relationships between friends, family members, and colleagues (LaVelle et al., 2013). To help control anger, a number of strategies can be used. One approach involves exploring the primary reason behind the feeling. When employing the plan, the individuals are required to be in touch with their emotions. The client should figure out whether they are truly angry or the rage is masking other sentiments, such as shame or embarrassment (Willner et al., 2013).
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Individuals with anger issues are required to be aware of warning signs and triggers (Rempel, 2012). One does not just burst out in fury. There are personal and physical indications that show temper is rising. Some of the indicators include knots in the stomach, need to walk around, and clenching of jaws and fists. Others entail difficulties with concentration and feeling clammy (Flanagan et al., 2010).
Stressful events cause anger (Schinnerer, 2010). However, they should not be an excuse for outbursts, which can be controlled. People should determine how certain events affect them in relation to rage. The best way to do this is to analyze their daily routine and identify possible triggers. Consequently, it becomes easier to avoid places or people who cause the feeling. In addition, an angered individual can view situations from a different perspective (LaVelle et al., 2013).
Tips on Anger Management
Coping and anger expression styles
When angry, people can express their emotions in a wide range of healthy ways (Willner et al., 2013). One technique is pointing out the real reason behind the rage. Proper judgment is vital before acting out of anger. In addition, it is best to work towards resolution by use of proper channels (Breiner et al., 2012).
If the situation worsens, the best way to control anger and avoid a confrontation is getting out of the room (Schinnerer, 2010). Under such circumstances, one should take as much time out as possible to calm down. When alone, the person can take a brisk walk, release pent up emotion, or listen to music. The acts help an individual to return to the meeting feeling more relaxed and cool (Reilly et al., 2002).
Health, relationships, self-esteem, and liberty
Failure to cope and express anger in positive ways ruins one’s health and relationships (LaVelle et al., 2013). In addition, failure can result in low self-esteem and liberty issues. Chronic and intense anger is associated with various health conditions, such as coronary heart disease. People who are persistently furious die at a younger age compared to others who lead a calmer life (Flanagan et al., 2010).
Poor expression of anger is linked to difficulties in maintaining relationships (Rempel, 2012). Such relationships include those to do with family, work, and social life (Rempel, 2012). When furious, some people become uncontrollable. Also, they become disrespectful to others.
Such actions result in reduced levels of social support. The final outcome of the lack of friends has increased levels of stress and anger. Chronic anger leads to poor decision making. Constant wrong choices, especially when in a group of people, can result in self-esteem issues (Reilly et al., 2002).
Methods of Anger
Understanding the biochemical processes of anger helps people to control outbursts (LaVelle et al., 2013). Methods of anger include the following:
Understanding trigger factors
Individuals with full knowledge of elements that generate anger can plan on ways of dealing with their rage (LaVelle et al., 2013). The process allows them to be in control of their emotions (Morland et al., 2011).
The familiarity of biochemical reaction in the brain when furious and aggressive
The knowledge helps an individual to understand the processes that take place when other people are angry (Morland et al., 2011). The study helps one to manage their condition in a better way (Breiner et al., 2012).
Realizing the importance of being ‘more’ in the cortex
An individual should focus less on the limbic part of their brain (LaVelle et al., 2013). As a result, the person becomes familiar with the methods required to attain certain goals (Breiner et al., 2012).
According to the cognitive behavior theory, anger is caused by various factors (Willner et al., 2013). They include social and behavioral models learned from others, poor social skills, and genetic factors. The primary causes of rage include people’s illogical assumptions and failure to properly analyze situations.
One of the theories used to manage anger includes the Rationale of Emotive Behavior Therapy. The intervention was developed by Albert Ellis. According to this framework, anger is caused by irrational evaluative principles. In addition, it can result from low-aggravation forbearance (Reilly et al., 2002).
The intervention is based on successful practices of conduct modification (Rempel, 2012). Anger management therapy entails diverse techniques. They include relaxation, problem-solving, and cognitive streamlining. Generally, the process is not technical.
The reason is that it employs cohesive theoretical perspectives on learning theory and information processing. Medical experts use the procedure to make patients talk about their emotions. In the disclosure process, the client is helped to see the positive aspects of anger management (Willner et al., 2013).
Reviews on the treatment of anger and aggression
Effectiveness of anger and aggression treatment is measured by a quantitative procedure referred to as meta-analysis (LaVelle et al., 2013). The process involves calculating and comparing effect sizes. Different treatment techniques have varying effects on various aspects of rage. However, a program that lasts beyond the completion of treatment has better outcomes.
Generally, results improve significantly during the follow-up period. When dealing with fury suppression, cognitive therapies tend to work best. A study by the Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry revealed the use of CBT and Personal development (PD) therapy increased the patients’ desire to employ anger and aggression management methods (Rempel, 2012).
The program involves equipping patients with progressive relaxation and coping skills (Schinnerer, 2010). The skills touch on cued managed and non-controlled deep breathing, calming down without tension, and relaxation imagery. In addition, patients are equipped with restructuring skills. The skills involve preparing for a potential angering episode and confronting high levels of rage (Willner et al, 2013).
Another cognitive technique is autogenic training (LaVelle et al., 2013). Others are muscle relaxation. The former entails the use of both images and body awareness to help the patient calm down. The individual envisions a tranquil setting and homes on various physical stimuli. On its part, progressive muscle relaxation entails tensing gradually (Rempel, 2012).
Personality and emotional differences play a key role in anger expression (Rempel, 2012). Experts have established a connection between furious emotional stimulation and aggression. Emotional factors involve frustrations and perceptions of been hurt by other people. Disappointment results from failure to achieve the desired goals. Generally, high goals lead to increased frustration and anger.
In addition, they lead to a lack of confidence. The feeling of been hurt by a loved one or a friend results in anger. In the case of infidelity, the loyal partner feels betrayed after discovering the actions of their spouse (Willner et al., 2013).
Anger and aggression are conceptualized within a social-cognitive structure (Reilly et al., 2002). Social factors include any condition outside the individual. One major social aspect that triggers rage is getting stuck in traffic or in long queues. In such cases, the person feels inconvenienced, especially if they have an appointment. In queues, the rage may be more intense when the attendants seem to be operating at a sluggish pace (Breiner et al., 2012).
Prevalence of High Anger
In today’s society, the outward expression of rage is a common occurrence (Schinnerer, 2010). It is noted that 45% of people lose their temper at the workplace. Majority of these people react to computer predicaments by hitting or screaming at the machine. Others yell or insult their fellow workmates. More than 80% of drivers report having been involved in road rage accidents in the past (LaVelle et al., 2013).
According to a report by the Mental Health Foundation, approximately a third of all persons have a close friend or family member suffering from chronic anger (Morland et al., 2011). More than one in ten individuals have difficulties managing their own rage. In addition, more than one in four individuals claim to be worried about their levels of anger. One in five people has ended relationships due to the behavior portrayed by their friends when angry (Reilly et al., 2002).
Anger and Development among Children and Adults
Anger is part of development (Rempel, 2012). It is a typical response to a threat. The events that cause fury change as one grows up. During the formative years, infants have problems expressing anger. However, their vocals and understanding develop with time. As a result, the child acquires the capability to respond to different events.
They can act negatively in instances where they feel violated. Adolescents respond violently to threats directed towards self-esteem. Studies on domestic violence reveal that children who witness quarrels between their parents are likely to suffer from anger problems (Morland et al., 2011).
Adult attachment researchers argue that approximately 80% of childhood connection patterns continue into adulthood (Willner et al., 2013). According to the report, the anger management strategies are likely to persist into adulthood. Some of the means of expressing rage turn out to be complex (Flanagan et al., 2010).
Learning Theory of Instructional Design
People create knowledge and meaning from different experiences and ideas (Duke, Harper & Johnston, 2013). During the individual’s early stages of development, the theory focuses on the relations between human incidents and mannerisms. Jean Piaget referred to the classification as familiarity schemata.
Support for the constructivist approach varies. Some studies focus on the teaching methods employed. Others oppose the outcomes of the techniques (Breiner et al., 2012). One researcher in support of the theory is Geier’s. The scholar conducted a study on the success of inquiry-based science for middle school learners. The first group of students registered a positive improvement of 14%. The second group registered 13% (Rempel, 2012).
Method of Delivery of Instructional Design
Instructional design is the practice of developing experiences that help one to gain knowledge and create meaning (Duke et al., 2013). The procedure entails evaluating various related processes. They include the present state and desires of a student. Other processes involve explaining the importance of the instruction and developing ways to aid in the transition.
There are various methods used in the delivery of instructional design. Most of these approaches are based on the ADDIE model. The model is made up of five stages. The stages include analysis, design, development, implementation, and evolution (Breiner et al., 2012).
Best practices for learning modules
Learning modules are developed on the basis of events, which follow a precise logical sequence (Rempel, 2012). Omnicare Clinical Research, for example, employs a process with six steps. The steps include storyboarding, review, and module production. Other stages are analysis, testing, and final evaluation (Flanagan et al., 2010). There is a wide range of best practices that support learning modules (Flanagan et al., 2010). They include:
Partnering with subject matter experts
Partnering involves the use of devices to deliver online training to all people (Rempel, 2012). When creating learning modules, it is very important to provide an SME with sufficient details on the development process (Duke et al., 2013).
Defining the right learning objective
The process is the most vital in the development of a module (Willner et al., 2013). An ineffective component results in the creation of an unproductive training module (Duke et al., 2013).
Determining the best media
There are diverse problems linked to learning modules (Rempel, 2012). They include the overload of on-screen effects and dilution of primary messages. To avoid the challenges, proper messages should be formulated (Duke et al., 2013).
Anger is a normal but uncomfortable emotional response towards threat (Schinnerer, 2010). The reaction is not bad if it is controlled and expressed positively. It can be beneficial when used to set boundaries and escape from risky situations. For example, one can use anger to manipulate perceptions and status in society. Response to anger is meant to warn violators to desist from provoking the individual. However, in spite of rage being considered as normal, it is problematic to some people (Willner et al., 2013).
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