The term kidney stones or urolithiasis, is a term used by medical practitioners to describe a patient’s condition that is attributed to accretion of hard non metallic minerals in the urinary tract. Over the years, cases pertaining to kidney stones condition have been on the rise in general population. In North America and Europe alone, over 8 to 15 % of the people are said to be affected by this condition. Various stone removal techniques have been incorporated by the medical practitioners with some such as ureteroscopy as well as shockwave lithotripsy been regarded as expensive procedures. Procedures such as adrenergic α -1 antagonists as well as α -antagonists and calcium channel blockers have been incorporated over the years in the treatment of the kidney stones condition.
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Distinct nature of α -antagonists and calcium channel blockers procedure
According to the studies that have been conducted and evidence attained, α -antagonists and calcium channel blockers procedure of stone expulsion is attributed to spontaneous stone expulsion as well as improving the expulsion time for distal ureteral stones.
The α -antagonists and calcium channel blockers is an advantageous procedure in the sense that it is a simple stone expulsion procedure that makes use of the contraction of ureteral smooth muscle that is driven by increase in levels of intracellular calcium and its modulation is attributed to autonomic nervous system. It is indicated that it is through the α –antagonists as well as the calcium channel blockers that the ureteral muscle can be induced to contract in order to facilitate antegrade stone propagation through ureteral spasms.
The α -antagonists and calcium channel blockers procedure is however not a 100% percent perfect. This is because the procedure is accompanied with plenty of medications that may include gastroprotective agent and antiemetic.
Distinct nature of adrenergic α -1 antagonists procedure
Adrenergic α -1 antagonists procedure is a stone expulsion procedure that incorporates the inhibition of basal tone, ureteral contractions and peristaltic frequency. This procedure is also regarded for high rates of spontaneous stone expulsion as well as decrease in stone expulsion time. According to the evidence attained by studies that have been conducted, adrenergic α antagonists incorporates tamsulosin that is attributed to 54% possibility of spontaneous stone expulsion on the patients treated. In addition to this, painful episodes experienced by the patients are reduced as well as reduction in the need for additional analgesia.
The adrenergic α -1 antagonists procedure is however not 100% full proof according to the studies conducted in Turkey that incorporated 60 patients. In the study it was concluded that although tamsulosin is attributed to decreasing the pain intensity, it also does not increase the possibility of stone passage.
The two procedures are regarded as stone expulsion procedures that are prescribed to people suffering from urolithiasis. The results attained by both procedures include increased rates of spontaneous stone expulsion. The two procedures are based on the watchful waiting approach whereby the procedure is administered to the patient and the effects attained after a particular period of time.
According to the evidence attained in the various researches conducted, the adrenergic α antagonists is regarded as an efficient adjunct to analgesia while treating distal ureteral stones. On the other hand α -antagonists and calcium channel blockers are regarded as a procedure of dealing with urolithiasis in terms of expulsion of the stones spontaneously.