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Xopenex (Levalbuterol) is the respiratory drug discussed in this paper. This drug is usually used precisely in the treatment or prevention of varieties of respiratory diseases in adults and children; including bronchospasm and asthma.
Xopenex, also known generically as levalbuterol tartrate is a respiratory drug that treats a variety of respiratory diseases. According to (“Xopenex HFA: Levalbuterol tartrate” par. 1) the trading name for this drug is Xopenex (Levalbuterol).
Drug preparations and composition
Xopenex Levalbuterol is composed of a mixture of micronized levalbuterol tartrate, dehydrated alcohol USP, oleic acid NF and 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoro ethane; all mixed together forming a suspension (“Xopenex HFA: Levalbuterol tartrate” par. 5). Notable to mention is that during the preparation process levalbuterol component is highly pressurized and compressed into a metered-dose aerosol inhaler. This is to ensure that it produces aerosols that the patients inhale when orally administering the drug.
Mechanism of actions
Xopenex inhaler must first be sprayed into the air 4 times before using it; especially for the first time. This should always be done for all inhalers that have not been used for more than three days. Xopenex contains an active ingredient called adenylate cyclase (“Xopenex HFA: Levalbuterol tartrate” par. 3). This active component is activated by beta 2-adrenergic receptors lodged at the airway smooth muscles. After activation, the adenylate cyclase increases the intracellular concentration of the major cyclic-3’, 5’-adenosine monophosphate (“Xopenex HFA: Levalbuterol tartrate” par. 4). Moreover, this increase in cyclic AMP activates the cellular protein kinase inhibiting the phosphorylation of myosin. Finally, muscles relaxation is retained.
It is clear that all beta 2-adrenergic agonist drugs are always accompanied by similar and significant cardiovascular effects. The indicator for such effects includes; an increase in pulse rate, body blood pressure, and even body electrocardiographic changes (“Xopenex HFA: Levalbuterol tartrate” par. 4).
Medically, when using Xopenex, it is important to put into consideration all possible side effects and precautions to be followed. Users must be warned not to exceed the recommended dosage, especially for asthmatic patients. Overdosage of Xopenex can lead to the development of cardiac arrest, which might lead to death (“Xopenex HFA: Levalbuterol tartrate” par. 4).
The other side effect associated with Xopenex is immediate hypersensitivity development. It is important for patients to know immediately after administering Xopenex, hypersensitivity reactions might develop. They appear in form of; rashes, angiodema, oropharyngeal edema among others.
Xopenex interaction with other substances
Xopenex should be used with great caution especially when being interacted with other substances. The doctor’s recommendation is very important. This is vital to avoid the later development of cardiovascular effects due to drug-substances interactions. For example; Xopenex when is used in presence of beta-adrenergic receptors, the beta-blockers automatically block the pulmonary effect of a beta-adrenergic agonist. This results in the development of symptoms like severe bronchospasm (“Xopenex HFA: Levalbuterol tartrate” par. 1).
Contrary, for patients with asthma, cardioselective beta-blockers must also be handled with great caution. Interacting both oral and intravenous racemic albuterol has been proved to decrease the body serum digoxin (“Xopenex HFA: Levalbuterol tartrate” par. 4). This decreases body serum digoxin by 16% to 22%. Nevertheless, Xopenex should also be medically administered with great caution. This must be done to protect the vascular systems from being potentiated by albuterol. This is precisely common in patients being treated for tyricyclic antidepressants.
In summary, Xopenex is widely used locally and internationally in the treatment of most respiratory diseases and the prevention of asthma attacks. Moreover, the involved procedures must be recommended medically.
Xopenex HFA: Levalbuterol tartrate 2012. Web.