How Technology Is Destroying Jobs
- Scope: The scope of the article is to analyze and overview the connection between productivity and employment figures in the US.
- Method: The method used by the researcher/author is nationwide calculation and combination of data from unemployment indexes, the number of robots sold, and household income.
- Context: The worldwide automation has brought a polarization of the workforce, which leads to the decline of the middle class.
- Findings: The hourly wage graph illustrates that workers with average skill percentile are at the highest risk of job loss, whereas high skill percentile occupations are experiencing the fastest growth.
- Conclusions: There are two conflicting elements, which are productivity and employment. The nation’s struggle to raise productivity levels causes painful side effects for people with less skill percentile jobs.
Robots at Work
- Scope: The scope of the article is to analyze the automation’s effect on the economy through statistical tools.
- Method: The data from the International Federation of Robotics (IFR) in combination with a survey conducted by Sky News, which is a British TV station. Two factors were considered, which are replaceability, and reaching and handling.
- Context: Technological advancement is an essential part of the economy; therefore, its rapid growth causes substantial consequences, such as removal of sophisticated industry-related jobs.
- Findings: The robot market is experiencing a price decline due to the improved production rate, which leads to an increased replacement of people by technology.
- Conclusions: The fear of unemployment among people possesses substantial evidence because robots are becoming cheaper workforce per hour.
Technological unemployment: Educating for the fourth industrial revolution
- Scope: The scope of the article is to address the warnings of technological unemployment problem by attempting to focus on educating people for possible changes.
- Method: The method used by the researcher/author is a collective analysis of the current data and reviews of lead experts concerned with the given issue.
- Context: The fourth industrial revolution possesses a great deal of chance of happening because there is a historical pattern for innovative outbursts in the economy.
- Findings: Although the opinions of experts vary, there is one commonality. The next industrial revolution can be more substantial than previous ones because it will involve cyber-physical systems.
- Conclusions: The necessary educational campaigns should be made in order to make solid preparations for the future.
The Risk of Automation for Jobs in OECD Countries
- Scope: The scope of the article is to address the debates between the US and Europe, where the topic of concern is the risk of computerization.
- Method: The method used by the researchers/authors is a task-based approach for estimation of job automatability by taking into account the heterogeneity of worker’s skill.
- Context: The given paper possesses two main purposes, which are to calculate the job risk rates across OECD countries and discuss adjustment measures plausible for firm and organizations.
- Findings: The main result is that the computerization process both destroys and creates job opportunities in the market.
- Conclusions: The authors conclude that automatization and digitalization will not eliminate a large portion of jobs, because it will create more career opportunities for workers.
Why Are There Still So Many Jobs? The History and Future of Workplace Automation
- Scope: The scope of the article is to overview and analyze the reasons for workplace dynamics.
- Method: The method used by the researcher/author is a review of the current knowledge and information on the given issue.
- Context: Working class and job market experience substantial changes due to the automation, but the amount of available jobs does not decrease.
- Findings: There are three main factors influencing the job market, which are task complementation, the elasticity of labor supply, and the output flexibility of demand.
- Conclusions: The process of automation does not directly lead to job replacement, because some occupations are simply complemented and enhanced by digitalization, which allows concluding that the computerization improves job conditions of some workers.
Autor, D. H. (2015). Why are there still so many jobs? The history and future of workplace automation. American Economic Association, 29(3), 3–30.
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Rotman, D. (2013). How technology is destroying jobs. MIT Technology Review Magazine, 116(4), 29–35.
Arntz, M., Gregory, T., & Zierahn, U. (2016). The risk of automation for jobs in OECD countries. OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers, 1(189), 4–25.
Peters, M. A. (2017). Technological unemployment: Educating for the fourth industrial revolution. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 49(1), 1-6.
Graetz, G., & Michaels, G. (2018). Robots at work. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 100(5), 753–768.