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Unemployment Essay

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Updated: Apr 30th, 2020


Unemployment can be defined as the condition where citizens of a country are jobless and have in the recent past been involved in searching work without a success. Unemployment rate can be defined as the prevalence of unemployment opportunities in a country. The unemployment index is calculated by dividing the number of unemployed individuals by the number of individuals in the labour force (Arestis & John 15).

I have chosen the unemployment situation because of the increasing and prevalent unemployment rates in various countries.

Recent statistics indicate that, the rate of unemployment is on the increase and there is a lot of information to cover the complex area of unemployment. There are various reasons which cause unemployment in a country. The following are some of the reasons that cause unemployment rate in a country (Arestis & John 20).

  • Advances in new technologies. New technologies to a large extent replace the human labour force which renders most human beings as unemployed.
  • Population increase. The level of unemployment is believed to go up as population in a country increases. Increase in population leads to an increased pressure on the available resources. These limited resources are few and cannot accommodate the increasing demands of the population
  • National policies. Some countries have stringent national policies that favour the increase in the unemployment levels in a country. These national policies will always restrict the participation of certain gender groups in specific employment sectors. For example, some countries restricts the participation of women in many employment sectors especially the building, and construction sector.
  • Political environments also play a major role towards increasing the rate of unemployment. Political environments that increase the rate of unemployment are quite dominant especially in the developing countries. Such environments will enhance political vices such as nepotism and corruption which undermines the possibility of having fair distribution of employment opportunities to citizens.
  • Economic depression. Economic depression is a form of economic recession that is long-term which is characterized by a downturn in the various economic activities in a country.

In analyzing this complex situation of unemployment, it is of vital importance to consider the application of various system analyzing tools such as “tools, methods, methodology and many techniques”. This will make the analysis of the complex situation being analyzed to be understood easily.


In my research I will analyze the complex process of unemployment with the aim of creating a sustainable environment in the employment sector.

The research will encompass the various causes of unemployment rates, the challenges being encountered in the process of reducing unemployment rates. The research will critically analyze the various types of unemployment and, the mechanisms which can be adopted in order to reduce the prevalent rates of unemployment.


Unemployment is a complex problem facing many countries presently. The process of reducing unemployment rates can be a daunting process fraught with disappointments. As a summary of the major findings of the research, the major cause of unemployment is lack of information among citizens, and poor governance policies in a country (Arestis & John 30).

Various citizens are ignorant on how to effectively utilize the available natural and human resources to create employment. They lack a sense of creativity which could possibly create employment opportunities. Also, most citizens are ignorant on how to effectively participate in democratic governance process.

This ignorance eventually creates autocratic governance regimes which fosters nepotism and corruption. These political vices reduce the availability of employment opportunities in a country, leading to unemployment (Arestis & John 15).


One key requirement of a good system practitioner is the ability of the system practitioner to apply the various models, methods and theories of system practitioner into the real life.

My undertaking of this project will assist me to apply the various system practitioner concepts learnt in class to the real life complex scenario of unemployment (Jacques & Stephen, 1994, pg. 21). In analyzing the complexity associated with unemployment, I will consider the various theories of complex management which I will discuss along with the development of this paper.

Applying hard systems method

Before analyzing the complex process of unemployment, it is important to make a distinction between hard and soft systems. Hard systems can be defined as those problems that deal with the “how” questions. For example, the question of how to increase the rate of employment is an example of a hard problem.

A hard problem is always characterized by the fact that there is a distinct solution, and there are a number of defined goals that are well defined which should be accomplished. On the other hand, a soft system is a problem that encompasses both the “how” and “what” questions (Jacques & Stephen, 1994, pg. 27)

The complex process of unemployment could be well analyzed using the hard system method of approach. The hard system method tries to analyze a complex problem through many stages which will be discussed in this paper.

There are various advantages that are associated with the use of the hard system methodology of concept analysis. The following are some of the advantages of using the hard system method (Jacques & Stephen, 1994, pg. 35)

  • It provides a deeper understanding and analysis of the problem of unemployment and answers the question of how to mitigate the unemployment problem.
  • Hard system analysis provides answers to other complex problems related to unemployment like how to use technology to increase the rate of employment.

The following diagram indicates the application of hard system in the analysis of unemployment.

the application of hard system in the analysis of unemployment

The above diagram indicates the various processes that will be undertaken in the analysis of the unemployment problem.

Stage 1. System description

System description will always indicate the current position and status of the problem being analyzed. Currently we are experiencing a high rate of unemployment which is characterized by the increasing population rate. The world population is estimated at 7 billion people.

The available limited employment resources are not sufficient to carter for the demands of the 7 billion individuals. This eventually piles up pressure on the resources that could be used to create employment opportunities, hence leading to an increased level of unemployment (Steger, Maznevski & Wolfgang 39).

The following table illustrates the world population by continent by 2011.

Population by continent

Population by continent

Retrieved from<> on [19/07/2012] at 1:45 p. m

The alarming increase in the level of unemployment creates a need for analyzing the complex concept of unemployment with the aim of unmasking the strategies to be adopted in order to reduce unemployment rates (Arestis & John 55).

The following table indicates the world top ten countries by unemployment rate

Country Unemployment rate in % year
Zimbabwe 95 2009 estimate
Nauru 90 2004 est.
Liberia 85 2003 est.
Burkina Faso 77 2004
Turkmenistan 60 2004
Djibouti 59 2007
Namibia 51.2 2008
Senegal 48 2007
Nepal 46 2008
Kosovo 45 2009

The above data directly underpins the fact that unemployment is a complex prevalent issue. If much is not done to contain the issue, then, the issue will become out of control and cause adverse effects to the limited human, and natural resources available (Arestis & John 60).

Stage 2. Identification of constraints and objectives

The main objective of this sturdy is to identify the various causes of unemployment and any relevant measure that can be adopted to mitigate the problem of unemployment. Also, the sturdy is aimed at identifying the reasons as to why there is a huge gap between the unemployment rates in developed countries and the developing countries (Steger, Maznevski & Wolfgang 40).

The major projected constrain is the political environments and government policies and ideologies governing the utilization of resources, and the creation of employment opportunities.

Stage 3. Generation of routes to objectives

  1. Governments and relevant stakeholders should ensure that, there is gender equity and equality in the allocation of employment opportunities.
  2. Governments should adopt various strategies that will involve the citizens in the creation of employment opportunity for self-sustainability. A self-sustenance economy should be adopted which can be achieved through promotion of innovation and creativity.
  3. Removal of political and governance ideologies that promote nepotism, and corruption.
  4. Creation of public awareness and increased public participation in the governance process.

Stage 4. Formulating measures for performance

Measures of performance will measure to what extent has the research objectives been met. In order to measure the performance, the unemployment index will be recorded for the next five years after the activities stipulated in the routes to objectives have been undertaken.

The unemployment index obtained will then be compared to unemployment index done before undertaking this research. The comparison will give vital information as to whether there is been an improvement in the unemployment index after the adoption of the routes to objectives (Zimmer & Jake 44).

Stage 5. Modeling

The modeling process will involve those activities that are geared towards determining the outcomes of the research (Zimmer & Jake 51). In order to identify the outcomes, a survey will be carried out after every year for the next five years to find out the rate of unemployment.

This will be calculated by dividing the number of employed individuals by the number of unemployed individuals. The index obtained will then be compared in order to determine whether there is an improvement or a decline in the unemployment rate (Arestis & John 31).

Stage 6. Evaluation

The evaluation stage is the most important stage in the analysis of the complex issue. Evaluation will involve the analysis of the outcomes obtained from the modelling stage. The evaluation will involve the analysis of the disparities that will be recorded in the research.

This will involve the sturdy of what factors are causing the disparity and how to re-align and reconfigure the process routes in order to achieve the research objectives. Evaluation process might also include the prototyping technique where the routes are tested, and retested in order to determine their viability before being fully implemented (Zimmer & Jake 71).

Stage 7. Selecting the best routes to objectives

After the evaluation process, the best route towards achieving the objectives should be selected. The route chosen should ensure that the research objectives have been met to a large extent. In the analysis of unemployment, the best route that was identified was the creation of awareness and involving the individuals in the governance process (Steger, Maznevski & Wolfgang 59).

This route will increase the level of democracy in a country hence creating equal employment opportunities for both women and men. Also, creating public awareness will ensure that citizens are well equipped with knowledge of how to effective utilize resources and create employment opportunities.

Also, public participation in the governance process will ensure that the governance policies adopted foster democracy which is a key ingredient towards reducing the rate of unemployment (Arestis & John 75).

Stage 8. Implementation of the selected routes

The implementation process will involve the process of adopting and enrolling the best selected route. In the case of unemployment, the selected route of creating awareness and increasing public participation in the governance process will be adopted.

Creating awareness will involve conducting of seminars to enlighten the public on how to effectively use the available resources, and how to create employment opportunities through innovation (Steger, Maznevski & Wolfgang 69).

Public participation in the process of policy formulation will be achieved through promotion of civic education among citizens on how to carefully vote and chose leaders with integrity.

Also, the civic education will be aimed at increasing public participation in government related projects, and governance processes starting from the grassroots government structures. Also, the civic education will aim at educating citizens on how they can get access to public funds and amenities.

Stakeholders involved

Stakeholders can be described as those people who are in one way or the other affected by the problem of unemployment. Also, stakeholders in one way or the other affect the entire problem of unemployment. Stakeholders can negatively or positively be affected by the unemployment concept.

On the other hand, stakeholders can positively or negatively influence the prevalence of unemployment concept (Jacques & Stephen, 1994, pg. 75)

The following tables indicates a summary of the how stakeholders are affected/affect the unemployment concept

Stakeholder Positive impact of reduced unemployment on stakeholder Negative impact of reduced unemployment rates.
  • High GDP
  • Increased manpower
  • High labour expenses
Private employers
  • High manpower output
  • Increased efficiency and effectiveness
  • Increased labour expenses
Unemployed citizens
  • Increased wages
  • High cost of living
Stake holder Stake holder activities Impact on unemployment rate
increases reduces
  • Corruption
  • Nepotism
  • Good governance and democracy
Private investors
  • Corruption
  • Nepotism
  • Innovation and creativity
Unemployed citizens
  • Corruption and bribery
  • Engaging in self employment
  • Creativity and innovation

Ethicality statement

As a system practitioner I fully commit myself to the various ethical guidelines that should be followed whenever undertaking any research work. I will consider the following ethical consideration I my research undertaking:

  • The data collected will be solely used for the purpose of the research, and no client data will be used for any other purposes not stipulated in the research.
  • The clients will be fully informed on the purpose of the research, and the duration the research is going to take.
  • The participation of subjects in the research will be voluntary, and out of consent. Where approval is required, then, the relevant approving bodies will be sought.

Conclusion and recommendations

In conclusion, it is evident from the research that unemployment is a complex issue that can be solved abstractly. With the increasing levels of unemployment, much has to be done in order to mitigate and reduce the rate of unemployment. This calls for public awareness, and participation in the entire process of creating employment. Such a complex issue should not be entrusted in the hands of greedy and selfish leaders.

Project log

The entire project will be spread over a period of six weeks with the first two weeks dealing with the preparation process and the last four weeks dealing with the data collection and analysis. The five weeks have been broken into three phases.

The following table indicates the project log phases.

Week 1 & week 2 Preparation and identification of sturdy areas
Week 3 & week 4 and Week 5 Data collection
Week 6 Data analysis and findings

Week 1 and week 2

During the first two weeks, I was involved in the process of consulting my colleagues and tutor to try and sought out their opinion about the topic. This gave a chance to discuss the various available methodologies that could be used in the sturdy. Also, this gave a chance to identify whether unemployment is a complex process or not.

Also, during the first week, I was able to undertake a literature review in order to determine what other researchers have done about the unemployment concept. The literature review sufficed me with relevant information about the unemployment concept.

Also, the information obtained was useful in avoiding mistakes done by previous researchers. The literature review involved researching the relevant literature materials like the internet, books, journals, and articles. I also obtained a chance of visiting various libraries in order to find out more information about the unemployment concept.

Week 3, 4 and 5

Most of the research work was conducted during the third, fourth and the fifth week. Various data was collected about the unemployment rate of individuals. Also, clients were required to fill in a survey form and a questionnaire in order to determine the causes of unemployment. Also, the subjects were required to give their individual opinions about what could be done in order to reduce the rate of unemployment.

Various data collections methods were employed in the process of data collection which includes the following methods; survey forms, questionnaires, and interviews.

Subjects were required to fill in questionnaires which sought to find out what were the causes of unemployment and what could be done to reduce the unemployment rates. Subjects were also required to fill in a survey form to determine whether the government is doing much to contain the problem of unemployment.

A series of interviews were also conducted with the aim of finding more first-hand information about the problem of unemployment. A total of three interviews were conducted during the entire period of the project. The following are the interviews that were conducted during the time of research.

Interviewed Week
Ministry of labour officials Week 1
A prominent private investor Week 2
A low income worker Week 3

Week 6

The sixth week of the research was purely dedicated to data analysis and the sturdy of the findings. The data collected was analyzed and compared to previous data that was collected by other researchers on the same subject. The data analysis stage involved the application of the hard system on the complex process of unemployment. Various stages of the hard system methodology were studied in respect to unemployment.

Also, the compilation of the results obtained was done on the sixth week. This was the last week of the project undertaking, and due consultation was made to ensure that the project is up to date and with the relevant requirements.

I also, spent some time with my project supervisor in order to discuss the application of TMA in the complex process of unemployment. My supervisor advice helped a lot in the development of the project in the sense that, the information I was given largely assisted in the ensuring the realization of the research objectives.

Summary of the project log

In this section of the report, I will cover a brief summary of what I have been able to undertake during my six weeks of undertaking the project.

Undertaking the T306 course has largely helped build more on the concept that I learnt in my previous course, T205-An approach to system thinking. Managing complexity has equipped me with knowledge of how to apply various managing complexity theories, systems, and methodology in analyzing complex situations.

During the first five weeks of my project undertaking, I was extensively involved in the process of data collection and literature review. This introduced me to a number of literature and concept regarding the problem of unemployment. It also introduced me to a wide range of knowledge regarding data collection methods like interviews, questionnaires, and surveys.

The last week of the project was dedicated to data analysis. During this period of data analysis, various data analysis techniques were employed to analyze the data. This introduced me to a wide range of scientific data analysis methods of analyzing data.

Client report

The major client in the above research is the unemployed citizen or individual. They are the ones who are largely affected by the rising unemployment rate. Most of the unemployed individuals or citizens have the common ideology that it is the responsibility of government and private sectors to create employment.

Such an ideology is wrong because the process of creating employment opportunities is neither a government responsibility nor the responsibility of the private sector. It is a collective responsibility that has to be done by the collaboration of the citizens, the private sector, and the government.

There are various forms of employment that currently exists. One can be self employed which means that, they are their own employers. This form of employment fosters renovation and a spirit of entrepreneurship among citizens. This spirit eventually promotes innovation and creativity which eventually creates employment opportunities.

Also, citizens should be made to understand that, democracy plays a major role towards creation of employment opportunities. Democracy ensures accountability and transparency towards the use of resources, hence creating avenues for more employment opportunities. On the other hand, corruption, nepotism, and violence lead to misuse of resources which eventually blocks avenues for creating employment opportunities.

In order to reduce the adverse effects associated with unemployment, citizens should engage in innovation and creative activities. This will enhance the proper utilization of resources and eventually creating employment opportunities. One major desirable aspect of a good economy is the ability to be self sustainable.

A self sustainable economy will ensure that citizens have the services and products they require. One way of ensuring a self sustaining economy is by having citizens engage in innovative and creative activities. Such activities will lead to specialization, and creation of more job, and employment opportunities.

Works Cited

Arestis, Philip & McCombie, John. Unemployment: Past and Present. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009. Print.

Jaques, Elliott, and Stephen, Clement. Executive Leadership: A Practical Guide to Managing Complexity. Malden, Mass: Blackwell, 1994. Print.

Steger, Ulrich & Maznevski, Martha & Wolfgang, Amann. Managing Complexity in Global Organizations. Chichester, West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons, 2007. Print.

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