Our grasp of human genetic systems has been greatly improved over the past decade. This advancement has been facilitated by the completion of sequencing which has nonetheless done little to unfold the main reasons behind the great diversity of species living across the world, including animal population and the environment at large. In this paper, we are going to explore several reasons that could lead to such diversity in flora and fauna of our planet, those are Evolution, Natural selection, Genetic drift, Mutation and Migration.
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Evolutionary change is based on the doctrine of natural selection which we refer to as the unifying brainchild of life. The occurrence of natural selection is hinged on the hypothesis that offspring inherit their characteristics from their parents in the form of genes and that members of any particular population must have some inconsiderable disparity between them. For example, height, rate of egg production, the shape of the beak and any other traits that affect survival within a specific habitat.
Natural selection is also based on the belief that within a given locality, parents tend to produce more progeny that can go all the way to reproductive age. As a result of this, organisms must compete for mates, food and any other factors that positively contribute to their existence. Natural selection has culminated into biological inventions, such as existence of insects that are resistant to pesticides and bacteria that are resistant to antibacterial drugs. It is for this logic that patients are encouraged to take an entire dose of antibacterial prescription. The habitual misunderstanding about natural selection is that it favors some species. However, this is undistinguished because survival is for the fittest as established by Charles Darwin.
A gene is the element responsible for the observable traits of an organism. Genes ordinarily come in pairs just as described by Gregor Mendel, father of genetics. Examples of phenotypes that come about due to gene pairs are round seeds and wrinkled seeds.
As much as the events resulting from natural selection and genetic drift show that none of them can be more pronounced than the other, the two go hand in hand. Genetic drift is the ethic behind the difference of the offspring from the same parents. It comes about due to distinct levels of genetic frequencies expressed within the individual offspring.
Apart from natural selection and genetic drift, the failure to repair damaged DNA and RNA of an organism also lead to disparity within the environment. DNA and RNA damages come about due to the change in the nuclear sequence of a genome of any particular organism. The change in nuclear sequence is also known as mutation. Within a gene, mutations can have a limited effect, change the product of the gene or inhibit the gene from functioning.
Based on the above mentioned possibilities, it is clear why disparities are present within the environment. More so, mutation can prevent a gene from functioning in one person, whereas it alters the product of the same gene in a different individual. Practically, it is possible to induce mutations so as to produce a wanted outcome.
Migration provides nature with subpopulations that have different genetic compositions. Naturally, there is no population that exists with a homogenous genome. This is due to migration. Migration, mutations, genetic drift and natural selection enable us to understand the evolutionary dynamics of a population. The conventional concept of evolution consequently has migration, mutations, genetic drift and natural selection at the core.