The purpose of the paper is to describe the growth of the borderline personality disorder diagnosis, underlining the cause, symptoms, medications, and psychotherapy used to treat BPD. Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a behavior disorder brought about by long-standing disruption of personality function and described by strange inconsistency and intensity of moods.
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Such moods can also distress interpersonal and cognition affairs. The main causes of BPD are childhood trauma, desertion, or abuse, but medical analysts have also stated that genetic inclinations, environmental aspects, and brain defects, as well as neurobiological aspects are among the attributes.
The research was done through internet sources and books, such as Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV-TR and other medical sources. The results show that borderline personality disorder can be cured through medicine and psychotherapy approaches, such as Dialectical Behavior Therapy, Schema Focused Therapy, Metallization Based Therapy, and Transference Focused Psychotherapy.
DSM-IV-TR describes Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), according to Axis II, as persistent sequence of instability of interpersonal relations, personality, and impact that started during early adulthood and found in a range of situations provided in several frameworks (Clarkin & Foelsch, 2010). The initial criterion includes impulsivity in certain areas that are possibly self-damaging, such as too much spending, careless driving, drug abuse, and sexual practices.
According to American Psychiatric Association (2000, p. 706), “the essential feature of Borderline Personality Disorder is a pervasive pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity that begins by early adulthood and is present in a variety of contexts.” This paper discuses the causes, symptoms, and treatment, (types of talk therapy and medications) of borderline personality disorder (BPD).
Causes of Borderline Personality Disorder
Just like other mental disorders, the causes of borderline personality disorder (BPD) are complex and not entirely identified. The main causes of BPD are childhood trauma, desertion, or abuse, but medical analysts have also stated that genetic inclinations, environmental aspects, and brain defects, as well as neurobiological aspects are among the attributes.
There are studies that assert that post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) and personality disorders are directly associated and suggest that borderline personality disorder could be brought about by a combination that may engage a traumatic upbringing, hectic maturational incidences and a vulnerable character within the adulthood and teenage stages.
Research has reported a strong connection between childhood abuse, particularly childhood sexual abuse, and progress of borderline personality disorder. Several people undergoing BPD have the possibility of childhood abuse and abandonment during their early years (Clarkin & Foelsch, 2010).
Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms
Symptoms of BPD consist of instability of interpersonal relations, personality, and moods, along with the series of spontaneous behaviors. People undergoing BPD primarily go through such symptoms that started during adolescence stage or early adulthood, and they are likely to be reported for many years (Butcher, Mineka, & Hooley, 2007).
Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) often fear being deserted by loved ones, families, or partners and frequently bearing in mind or imagining that loved ones are abandoning them, even when the situation is not true. They also experience deep relationships with piles of divides and differences or conflict, and they have some regular arguments with partners and loved ones (Herman & Perry, 2009).
Borderline Personality Disorder Management
Continuous outpatient psychotherapy, or talk therapy, is an essential section of all interventions for borderline personality disorder, and studies have reported that numerous kinds of psychotherapy are valuable in reducing the symptoms of BPD. Psychotherapy, or talk therapy, and medications are normally used to treat BPD, but most studies have shown more recommendation on psychotherapy over medications.
There are several steps and types of psychotherapy that treat BPD and include Dialectical Behavior Therapy, Schema Focused Therapy, Metallization Based Therapy, and Transference Focused Psychotherapy.
Dialectical Behavior Therapy
Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is a cognitive behavioral therapy that shows it is a therapy that concentrates on the function of behaviors (for example actions) and cognition (feelings and beliefs) in the progress and the intervention of BPD. DBT encompasses various changes to the usual cognitive behavioral aspects of therapy so that it can help particularly decrease the symptoms of BPD. Normally, DBT includes a mixture of online coaching, private psychotherapy, and group skill guidance, even though some exemptions are present.
People under DBT are requested to assess their symptoms and to apply the acquired skills daily, whereas their development is monitored during therapy. There are some major kinds of skills that are contained in dialectical behavior therapy skills training (Herman & Perry, 2009).
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The first is mindfulness medication skill that focuses on training to observe, ex-plain, and engage in every experience, which includes feelings, beliefs, sensations, and elements that occur outwardly in the environment without classifying such experiences as ‘bad’ or ‘good.’
Interpersonal effectiveness skill is the second skill that concentrates on learning to declare effectively your necessities and to control conflict with other loved ones or friends. Finally, emotion regulation skill is a section that enables people with BPD to discover and control emotional behaviors.
Schema Focused Therapy
SFT is a kind of talk therapy that concentrates on understanding and changing specific unsafe approaches of thinking with the intention of solving the issue of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is contained in this section of talk therapy and often engages in other ways of psychotherapy that seem to improve the status of patients with BPD.
The intention of this type of talk therapy is that when some requirements of children in their early stages (for example parental love, protection, appreciation) are not met sufficiently or appropriately, children generate unsafe approaches of adapting and interacting with the environment they reside.
Schema theory suggests that some of the symptoms of borderline personality disorder are brought about by irresistible childhood experiences (for example mistreatment or abandonment from caregivers), which bring about the creation of maladaptive early schemas. The primary objectives of SFT for borderline personality disorder are to make out the appropriate schemas of patient and to connect these schemas to previous incidences and existing symptoms of BPD (Herman & Perry, 2009).
Mentalization Based Therapy
Mentalization Based Therapy (MBT) used to treat BDP is a kind of talk therapy or psychotherapy that concentrates on the aptitude to ‘mentalize’ or distinguish desires, needs, emotions, and beliefs, and observe the ways these inner situations are connected to behavior.
MBT applied in borderline personality disorder is a psychodynamic psychotherapy that signifies that the concentration of therapy is on the connection between the person with BPD and the therapist. In this process, the therapist will concentrate on the existing (instead of the past) and will help the patient to improve or recover mentalization ability.
To help this, the therapist asks the patient the questions concerning the way his thoughts or feelings are linked to his daily behavior in the session. In MBT, the therapist will not provide recommendation or views, but therapist will help patient determine inner situations and can help create new approaches of mentalizing (Trulla & Sher, 2006).
Transference Focused Therapy
Transference Focused Therapy (TFT) used to treat BPD is a psychotherapy that concentrates on applying patient’s relationship with the therapist to alter the way patient connects with other people in the globe or during daily activities. Therapists under this process of TFT for borderline personality disorder consider that the main issues that bring about the BPD’s symptoms are linked to dysfunctional relationships during early ages that go on to influence teenager and adult relationship performance.
Rather than the therapist addressing issues concerning the way the patient relates to caregivers, the patient spends usual time addressing issues concerning the way he is relating to his therapist. The therapist is also likely to stay unbiased in his kind of psychotherapy (Trulla & Sher, 2006). For instance, the therapist will not provide the patient their views or opinions and does not engage in activities outside the therapy session, apart from instances of emergencies.
Borderline Personality Disorder Medications
The medications for BPD have been reported to decrease various borderline personality disorder symptoms, but there are inadequate medications accepted by medication body to cure BPD. Additionally, medications can be applied to care for psychological situations that regularly reappear with borderline personality disorder. Medications can be mainly useful for BPD when they are applied together with psychotherapy and other interventions.
While antidepressants were precisely generated for people with extreme depressive disorder and other major disorders based on low mood, several people experiencing BPD are provided such medications (Trulla & Sher, 2006). However, these medications appear not to have an effective impact on other symptoms of the disorder, such as impulsivity and anger.
This discussion suggests that childhood emotional or physical abuse and abandonment are widely believed to cause borderline personality disorder and related to indicators of medical severity among people living with BPD.
Childhood abuse and physical or emotional abuses are reported that they are interpreters of both antisocial and paranoid personality disorder, and such conclusions help categorize previous remarks of the connection between childhood sexual abuse and borderline personality disorder.
Psychotherapy, or talk therapy, and medications are normally used to treat BPD, but most studies have shown more recommendation on psychotherapy over medications. There are several steps and types of psychotherapy that treat BPD and include Dialectical Behavior Therapy, Schema Focused Therapy, Metallization Based Therapy, and Transference Focused Psychotherapy.
American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition: DSM-IV-TR. New York: American Psychiatric Pub.
Butcher, J., Mineka, S., & Hooley, J. (2007). Abnormal Psychology. Boston: Pearson Education.
Clarkin, J., & Foelsch, P. (2010). The Development of a Psychodynamic Treatment for Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder: A Preliminary Study of Behavioral Change. Journal of Personality Disorders, 15(6): 487-495.
Herman, J., & Perry, C. (2009). Childhood Trauma in Borderline Personality Disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 146(4): 490-495.
Trulla, T., & Sher, K. (2006). Borderline Personality Disorder and Substance Use Disorders: A Review and Integration. Clinical Psychology Review, 20(2): 235–253.