Historians undertake a task that is sometimes not easy to comprehend, and that is change. History unlike any other social science is not predictable. William A. Green puts it quite eloquently in his book, History, Historians and the Dynamics of Change, “What happens in history, happens once. Each historical event involves a vast array of human and physical factors that cannot be reproduced in the same combination a second time.
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No historian can account for the totality of forces that have influence past events, nor are historians able to test hypotheses in the way that physical scientists can endlessly re-run the same laboratory experiment under controlled conditions.”1 With such strong and defining statement what can be understood is that even history that is being researched today and the thousands scholars writing books on different topics, is all subject to change and different interpretations.
It seems like there is always something to add, revise, to change in our history. But yet, at the same time there is order. Change, revolutions, wars, reformations, occupations, whatever you want to call it is under one specific social equation and that is cause and effect. In history we can always trace cause and effect.
China throughout the modern period constantly removed itself from the ever evolving western world. It kept resisting the new ideologies of social and economic reform that helped European nations to evolve into world powers. The Chinese throughout the decades had formed a xenophobic attitude towards the west; this “anti-foreignism” feeling began in the sixteenth century, and finally led, 1900, to an open rebellion against attempts of Europeans and Japanese to degrade the Chinese and their society.2 It was completely clear what the nature of the Boxer Rebellion was by 1900. This was to destroy the Christian religion in China, murder foreign and Chinese Christians, and remove all foreign influence.3
The uprising was China’s last effort to expel foreign influence in their country. However, their plans did not go accordingly. Once the foreign powers learned of the murders of their citizens, the European intervention was immediate and the Rebellion was put down. What began as an effort to expel foreign intervention for the last time from China turned out to be another reason for European nations to get involved in China’s social and economic affairs, here is a summary of the effect of the Boxer Protocol and the influence it had on china’s society.
Influence on the Political Structure of China
During the end of the conflict, China’s state social rights were more dishonored. The stipulations of the Protocol impeded with China’s interior administration. In addition, her state defense was defectively shaken.
Approval to the strategy of impartiality of obvious head nationalist like Li Hung Chang and Chang Chih-tung, though, majority of the regions in China were not involved in the Boxer conflict or Allied offensive. By means of excuse that the Boxers were radicals out of the administration control, the dynasty might come back to rule. The Qing dynasty went ahead to preside over China.
Within the Qing territory the Empress Dowager knew the bleakness of war in opposition to aliens. Towards keeping the Manchu dynasty, the Empress recognized that institutional improvement which she was against in 1898 was in fact essential. The collapse of fighting in opposition to overseas imperialism left simply one option: reform. Bickers and Tiedemann argues that the Empress was simply trying to bury her disgrace by a dishonest undertake of reform. Bickers and Tiedemann propose that in proclaiming an advance movement later on, the Empress was using delayed tactics. No matter what has been said however, China’s transformation was driven by the Qing government.
Effects on China: social and economic
In the communities, suffering and dissatisfaction added when the Qing administration increased taxes to compensate for the heavy indemnity. Simultaneously, the dishonest and unpromising Manchu regime, and the Boxer shame brought in relation to the Manchu, influenced a lot of Chinese that rebellion not reform was just the successful way China could be saved. Having been unsuccessful to oppose the foreigners by fighting, the community concerted on accusing the Manchu for their failure to protect China. The collapse of the Qing rule accelerated when revolutionary actions received additional social sustain.
The united group’s cruel expression of authority and China’s rapid defeat seriously harm Chinese pride and personality worth. The Chinese feelings toward the non indigenes transformed from hatred to fear. The huge compensation had a damaging effect on the Qing dynasty’s monetary situation and thwarted China’s growth economically, as huge sum of cash went out of the nation. The entire amount that China had to forfeit in the years ahead, with interest integrated, was about 800 to 900 million taels.
The Qing rule lost a great deal of cash that would have been used for reform. Soon after, as an act of kindness, a number of international powers used fraction of the compensation to encourage contemporary learning in China. This facilitated in bringing about a category of contemporary intellectuals and scholars who were divergent to the dishonest Qing rule and who made probable the Revolution of 1911.
Effects on China’s foreign relations
Among the international powers, China was perceived as not being enlightened, as the manner of the Boxers was extremely horrible (Bickers and Tiedemann, P136). Overseas governments were for that reason not willing to regard any modification of imbalanced treaties, particularly treaty civil liberties like additional territoriality. China’s possibility of getting back state rights was deferred. In Peking, overseas ministers shielded their place above the Qing’s administration by assembling themselves into factions that were very great. The reputation of Qing dynasty was low globally.
According to Bickers and Tiedemann, on the stage of Sino Western associations, the Chinese strength of mind to oppose foreigners in the Boxer Movement had the cause of examining and moderating foreign colonialism in China. The foreign supremacies were influenced of the need to implement an Open Door strategy and end the jostle for concessions. As a result, in a common readiness to lessen international disagreement and to preserve the obtainable circumstances of China, the principle of equivalent utilization was received by the foreign supremacies, although by 1901 the supremacies had taken Peking and was in a pose to divide China. The disintegration of China was later avoided.
The Boxer is a protocol or doctrine that brought together the Great Powers of Europe and China in Peking on September 7th, 1901 in order to reach a peace agreement that in a way would punish the Chinese government for their lack involvement in subduing the rebellion. The real importance of the outcome of this doctrine was that China again showed that it was incapable of withstanding European control.
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Further China itself began to realize the weakness of its own government and their old ideologies that no longer could function as they did centuries before. Due to the Boxer Protocol we can say that China entered into a new century that would call for constant reform of their government and society and completely change relationship with foreign nations. Through its weakened government and the constant indemnities that were put upon China, it was still able to grow into a nation that eventually was able to compete on the global level with other powerful nations.
Although China presented itself weak under European presence, nonetheless was never a thought to be a country that should be imperialized or partitioned, for example like India which was a sovereign colony of Great Britain and the partitioning of northern Africa by almost all the Great Powers of Europe. China was understood to be a nation of “high degree of culture and ethnic homogeneity”4. The European Powers knew that if China was to be partitioned then they would be met with extreme resistance by the Chinese people. The reasoning behind this preservation of China was the thought and capability to financially imperializing China.
Beginning in the 20th century the Great Powers, especially Britain, were all looking to profit off China’s concessions like railway and mining. Such relations with the foreign powers required capital export and China did this by having a somewhat strong central government.5 However this meant that there was continuing presence of foreign powers on Chinese land and ports. This in effect added to Chinese discontent with Europeans, and in way showing again that China was getting influenced by other countries unwillingly.
The shadow of European influence was nothing new to China. Prior to the Boxer Movement, the Qing court was constantly pressured to reform not only trading conditions, but also social and economic spheres. In the Chinese ports foreign pressure began to mount. This was seen by the constant concessions that were yielded to the foreign powers and extraterritorial rights that were given to foreigners that stayed in China.6
Because no Chinese law had to be enforced on a European in China, many missionaries made their way deeper into Chinese lands, influencing the poor and rich alike with western ideas.7 Even though some reform was taken hold in the country, the Dowager-Empress and many reactionaries made it quite clear that China was hostile to European influences. With such anti-foreign feelings even in the court, many people, especially the Boxers, knew that action must be taken against the aggressors.
Actions were indeed taken by the Chinese. From an outsider point of view it seemed like China was gaining nationalistic pride. However, it was under the wrong pretext. Many people felt that foreign domination needed to be somehow loosened, yet this of course needed to be done progressively. But, the Dowager Empress and her supporters did not see this. They decided that foreign domination must end immediately and thus giving an illusionary view of China being a strong power able to repress the western powers.8 With the backing of the government and the Dowager Empress, the Boxers took hostile actions against anything foreign.
The focus of this paper is not to dwell on the fascinating reason and events that were produced during the rebellion. Rather it is the focus of the outcomes that came after that are even more fascinating. A piece of writing on the Boxer rebellion by Frank (2006) gives account that China was to pay a compensation of 450,000,000 taels to the supremacies. This money in gold shall stand interest at 4 to 5 per cent. For each year, and the funds shall be repaid by China in 39 years in the way specified in the annexed blue print of amortization. Thus was the plan to keep China economically tied by debt to the Powers of the west.
It was obvious that China was not in the position to pay off any debt at the time; and what looked like an opportunity for the Powers to do with China what they wanted; it proved again that the foreign powers were not interested to splitting up China.9 Even though King presents a compelling argument in his article, “The Boxer Indemnity—‘Nothing but Bad’”, stating that indemnity had crippling effect on China,10 there is also room to state that indemnity helped China grow economically by being thrown into the world market.
With the emergence of such cities like Shanghai, capitalist ideology began to be put into practice. China first began to see the growth of its economy when foreign investments began to really take hold. 11 What were actually missing from the economy was domestic investors and this proved to cause more challenges to China, because it gave way for foreign control over government finances.12 However, the point must be stressed again, that even though China was influenced greatly, economically, by foreign powers, it was still able to economically globalize.
According to Patricia Ebrey, during World War I and as well as in the 1920s, Chinese businesses and industries began to flourish. She states that since Europe was preoccupied by the war, “Imports from the West thus dropped dramatically, giving Chinese manufactures to sell more profitably. At the same time, the demand for products from China increased, helping China’s export industries.”13 The West with it foreign policies and its financial stronghold over China made it hard for the Chinese to obtain a sense identity and authority, however, it gave China the opportunity involve herself in the global front, slowly adopting to a modern world.
As we dwell further into the complexities of the 1901 Protocol, we realize that article after article the Powers main focus was to open up China completely and to create an even tighter grip on China’s foreign policy and diplomacy. There were some certain statements made by the then U.S secretary of state concerning the situation of china at that time, such statements not only indicated China to be feeble but also dishonored China as country. It also started to define imperialism, and what it really meant to have a Great Power haven such control and influence over another country. Extraterritorial laws, which made foreigners susceptible only to their home countries laws, made the treaty ports much more convenient for foreign businessmen.14
As it has been stated before it is not the focus of this essay to immerge into the details of the Boxer Movement. However, the importance of some events that occurred during the movement had a great impact on the Protocol itself and the Chinese society. The atrocities that the Boxers inflicted on the foreigners were to an extend fanatic. One example of such fanatics was the murder of German ambassador, Baron von Ketteler. As fighting broke out, many foreigners and some Chinese diplomats wanted to put a stop to the hostilities. Baron von Ketteler went to the Tsungli Yamen and tried to reason with the officials. When he reached the building he was immediately shot by a Chinese soldier.15
The murder of the Baron was a watershed moment of the events to come. The powers now took more decisive decisions on how to use their supreme military might against the rebels. Later to the uprising was put down and the set of rules were written and then signed; The Chinese administration was compelled to put up a tribute of Baron von Ketteler with writings in Latin, German, and Chinese dialects which shall state the remorse of His Highness the ruler of China for the massacre carried out. This monument of a foreign minister build on Chinese grounds, with inscriptions in Latin and German, can be looked as a symbol of foreign domination and psychological and social presence that induced for the people of China to endure. China again understood that they cannot function as nation anymore without constant foreign intervention, whether it is economic, political, or social.
Effect on Russo Japanese Relations
Seeds of prospect global disagreement in the Far East had previously been sown all through the Boxer unrest. Throughout the unrest, Russian offensive marched into Manchuria, pretending to defend the province from Boxer chaos but really trying to expand their power there. Russia’s intentional impediment in retreating them was partially liable for the eruption of war between Russia and Japanese in 1904.
The international supremacies fell short of at last taking over China. As of the Boxer insurgence, they later on understood that the paramount way to preside over China was by means of Chinese dynasty, as an alternative of straight dealing with the Chinese citizens. Just like the saying “The citizens are scared of administrators, the administrators are scared of foreigners, and the foreigners are scared of the citizens”.
Dowager influenced Boxers to rebel against foreigners mainly for the reason that foreigners identified with the Emperor of Guangxu, which was on detention subsequent to a terminated reformation. Ultimately, as an understood accord, Dowager Cixi was permitted to continue in control, since moderately, Cixi may perhaps use her power to repress the Chinese against western feeling better than the feeble and incompetent Guangxu royal leader16.
During the 20th century Russia was busy taking over much of the northern region of Manchuria, a progress which endangered Anglo American optimism of sustaining what lingered of China’s defensive honesty and sincerity to begin under the Open Door strategy. These manners resulted eventually to the war between Russia and Japan, where Russia was overpowered by Japan. Among the colonial supremacies, Japan increased reputation because of its armed forces support in restraining the Boxer Rebellion and was at the moment seen as a power17.
Its conflict with Russia over its regions in Manchuria, ever since measured by the Japanese as component of their area of power, gave rise to the war between Russia and Japanese after two years of discussions were unresolved in 1904. Germany gained itself the abusive name Hun at the commencement of World War in 1914.
American troops during the Boxer uprising
The result on China was a waning of the dynasty together with an undermined state protection. The arrangement was momentarily continued by the Europeans. Apart from the payment, Empress Dowager Cixi unwillingly began some reformations in spite of her earlier view. The colonial assessment scheme for government service was removed; while the typical method of learning was changed with a European open-minded method that gave way to a college degree. Between 1908 subsequent to the strange passing away of the two rulers, Guangxu Emperor’s brother started reformation. Nevertheless, the efforts appeared to be excessively delayed. The transformation inside Han Chinese could not remain. The colonial administration’s embarrassing collapse to protect China against the foreign powers resulted to the growth of nationalist anger in opposition to the “foreigner” Qing dynasty.
Conflicting illustrations of Boxers
Musee de la legion d Honneur, an award winner on the China campaign’s observation varies as to whether the Boxers were best perceived as against colonial or as useless rivals of predictable change. In the People’s Republic of China, conventional articles and books are used to give analysis of the Boxer pressure group as an against colonialist, loyal peasant group whose collapse was because of the lack of headship from the contemporary working class. Nowadays, conversely, major projects of rural community consultations and explorations of archival basis have given historians to take an extra degree observation.
Several Western researchers, like Esherick Joseph, have observed the group as an against colonialist; whereas others observed this explanation as outdated in that the Chinese nation had not been created and the Boxers were more focused on provincial issues. Esherick notes that “perplexity concerning the Boxer Uprising is not just an issue of well known fallacies,” for “at hand is no main occurrence in China’s contemporary history on which the variety of professional explanation is so great. Paul Cohen’s latest history comprises a review of “the Boxers as fairy tale,” presenting how their recollection was used in altering ways in 20th century China from the latest civilization Movement to the Cultural rebellion.
In this comic strip, Westerners were portrayed as swine and goat and being butchered by the officials of Manchu.
In 2006 a university lecturer of philosophy by name Yuan weishi at Zhongshan College in China, released an article titled Transformation and History books (P. 178), disapproving the official subject of government issued by the institution history course books, arguing that they include information that contained unbiased historical explanations. Yuan notes that these “wrong measures brought terrifying suffering to the country and its citizens! These are all truth that everyone is aware of, and it is a public disgrace that the Chinese populace cannot stop thinking about18.
For several decades, history books had been missing in impartiality in giving account of the Boxer rebellion as a “glorious accomplishment of nationalism”, and not presenting the observation that the bulk of the Boxer rebels were both cruel and racist. Professor Yuan confirmed that Manchu leaders did not abide by the signed international agreement, and that it is incorrect to fault “the Opium Wars of the mid the 19th century and totally on outside nations”. Conversely, such analysis are disapproved and acknowledge being unjust, not neutral and reasonably ridiculous by some citizens and Yuan is being tagged Han jian traitor of the Han by a few Chinese citizens, which at initial glance emerges ironic taking into account that he based his analysis on the nationalism of Han.
The great scholar Tang views the Boxer revolution as a holy conflict between China and Christians. In detail, facing what they observed as a violent holy attack by Christianity, Chinese virtuous accord Society had the motto “Protect Chinese Belief and be free of overseas Belief of Christianity.” several scholars believe it to be a conflict in opposition to the attack of China by the overseas belief of Christianity.
The movie of1963 called 55 Days at Peking was a production of the Boxer uprising. Produced and shot in Europe, it required thousands in addition, and the corporation sent agents all over Europe to employ as many as they could come across.
Around 1975, the Shaw Brothers studio made the movie Boxer uprising, by the director Chang among one of the top resources to enlighten an extensive account of cynicism and payback. It portrayed supporters of the Boxer group being deceived into thinking they were resistant to attacks by weapons. The book Moment in Peking by Yutang, opens throughout the Boxer uprising, and gives account on a child’s-eye observation of the chaos in the course of the eyes of the character.
The Boxer uprising and its suppression by the Great Powers, also gave us a perspective of morality, and difference of societies. On the one hand we had China that throughout its history found it unnecessary to be involved with foreign affairs and thus creating a dichotomy between Europe’s industrialized and revolutionized society. James L. Hevia wrote in his article “Moral Discourse and the Plunder of Beijing”, that the suppression of the Boxer Uprising by European, American, and Japanese forces draws attention to the sharp distinction made by the end of the 19th century between civilization and barbarism in East Asia.19
Yet we cannot define Chinese society solely on the actions and ideology of anti-foreign fanatics. However, the Rebellion was able to show the world of China’s backwardness, and more importantly it showed China itself that the old way of living and thinking can no longer keep pace with an industrialized and modern world.
As the Chinese ports were opening up for foreign purposes, missionaries took advantage of these openings to even further push their influence inland. Indeed much was happening immediately western influence began to penetrate. According to Andrew J. Nathan’s article, China’s whole economy was actually growing. Western imports created small-local markets, however domestic handicrafts were much cheaper to make and it was much cheaper and more useful for peasants to buy.20 Foreign intervention in the economy and the trade resulted with the Europeans; put China into a more modern and economically competitive market.
The Chinese owned stocks and shares in foreign-owned companies, and this only helped the Chinese develop their own firms. Many foreign businesses that were established in China served as technical and entrepreneurial models that pioneered the demand for new products in China, in which case they served as impetuses in the growth of Chinese industry.21
The Boxer Protocol was a document that in ways exposed the weakness of Chinese diplomacy and their help nesses to the Powers demands. However, at the same time China began to show that it could indeed keep with the demands, no matter how unfair they were. Another thing to be realized is that not all of the foreign countries wanted to make it hard on China. For example, countries like Untied States and Russia wanted the articles of the protocol to be less harsh. 22 Although the America was aiming out on interest, just like every other world power drawn in, it did on the other hand marked the significance of having China secure, which finally profited China generally and economically.
The stability of China helped the court to return to power without any unnecessary conflicts. In October, 1901 the Empress Dowager and Emperor returned to Peking with an approach to foreign policy that was much different a few decades ago. The Great Powers decision not to further dismantle the court actually played a big part in Chinese efforts to realize that it was there chance to learn as much as possible from the westerners.
A new policy was administered in which it focused to receive both the ideas and the representatives of western civilization.23 As a nation, China realized how crucial at this point in time was for them to accept that there must be some nationalistic effort to change and reform, not only towards the foreign policies, but also towards domestic growth. It is very important as we see throughout history that a country needs to look inwards first in order to see what is not working, and progressively change so that the government and the people can benefit.
The indemnities that were put on China were definitely sums that could have devastated an economy. However, the Great Powers realized that China’s economy and overall well-being were crucial in further relations. Western nations wanted to make sure that the indemnities were paid in time and with sufficient funds, so it was advised to China to raise the tariffs on imported goods.24 This of course benefitted China domestically because more focus was put forth on domestic production and exports. For the foreign powers as long as China grew economically, in this case it would benefit the due payments.
The Mackay Treaty, which was a commercial treaty, was written between Britain and China to solidify the relationship that would respect commerce, navigation and personal relations on land.25 Such a treaty presented China the opportunity to further expand its globalization expeditions that would make them a stronger nation that can compete with other global powers. According to Manning the abolishing of li-kin, transit-dues, created space for free circulation of commodities and injure the interests of trade. 26 China became more involved with foreign diplomacy after the Boxer Rebellion, which of course benefitted the nation.
At the same time during the beginning of the 20th century the value of silver fell in China and made it extremely hard for China to pay the indemnities. This shows that even though Europeans wanted for China to develop on its own pace, they were still putting immense pressure on Chinese economy to pay for the indemnities.
The Boxer Protocol in many ways dealt with issue of anti-foreignism, helping China and the Powers to create better relationships diplomatically. China progressively understood the importance of having nation that was involved with the global effort of trade and the domestic effort of reform. As the policies between Europe and China grew better, European grip on China became much stronger. Imperialism was the basis for foreign intervention not only in China but throughout the world. In the 20th century the concept of imperialism took it place in China through the effort to completely open up China to trade. For the Chinese this was not altogether bad idea, as mentioned before there were benefits in getting involved with European countries, yet we cannot look at China and ignore the continual pressure that was put on Chinese society and government.
Even though china faced heavy opposition among the foreign nations and experienced hardship during the Qing dynasty rule, China was able to regain its power as a country and was able to transform from a third world country to an industrialized nation, due to hard work and determination.
Nathan J. Andrew, “Imperialism’s Effects on China”, (Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars. Volume: 4. Issue: 4. 1972).
Nat Brandt, (1994). Massacre in Shansi. Syracuse U. Press. Web.
Marshal Broomhall, (1901). Martyred Missionaries of the China Inland Mission; With a Record of The Perils and Sufferings of Some Who Escaped. London: Morgan and Scott.
Shiwei Chen, “Change and Mobility: the Political Mobilization of the Shanghai Elites in 1900.” Papers on Chinese History 1994 3(spr): 95-115.
Martin Christopher, The Boxer Rebellion, (Abelard-Schuman, NY. 1968).
Cohen, Paul A. (1997). History in Three Keys: The Boxers as Event, Experience, and Myth Columbia University Press.
King H. Frank, The Boxer Indemnity—‘Nothing but Bad’, Modern Asian Studies 40, 3 (2006) Cambridge University Press.
Ebrey Patricia, Walthall Anne, and Palais James, Modern East Asia: From 1600, (Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 2009).
Bickers Robert and Tiedemann R. G, The Boxers, China, and the World. (Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc. NY, 2007).
Green A. William, History, Historians and the Dynamics of Change. (Praeger. Place of Publication: Westport, CT. 1993)
Goetzmann N. William, Andrey Y D. Ukhov, and Zhu Ning, “China and the world financial markets 1870-1939: Modern lessons from historical globalization”, Economic History Review, 60, 2 (2007).
Manning R. William, “China and the Powers Since the Boxer Movement”, The American Journal of International Law, Vol. 4, No. 4 (1910).
- William A. Green, History, Historians and the Dynamics of Change. (Praeger. Place of Publication: Westport, CT. 1993) 3-4.
- Christopher Martin, The Boxer Rebellion, (Abelard-Schuman, NY. 1968) 15.
- Christopher Martin, The Boxer Rebellion, (Abelard-Schuman, NY. 1968) 41.
- Robert Bickers and R.G. Tiedemann, The Boxers, China, and the World. (Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc. NY, 2007) 158.
- Robert Bickers and R.G. Tiedemann, The Boxers, China, and the World. (Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc. NY, 2007) 158.
- William R. Manning, “China and the Powers Since the Boxer Movement”, The American Journal of International Law, Vol. 4, No. 4 (1910), 853.
- William R. Manning, “China and the Powers Since the Boxer Movement”, 853.
- Christopher Martin, The Boxer Rebellion, 33.
- FRANK H. H. KING, The Boxer Indemnity—‘Nothing but Bad’, Modern Asian Studies 40, 3 (2006) Cambridge University Press, 664.
- FRANK H. H. KING, The Boxer Indemnity—‘Nothing but Bad’, 664.
- WILLIAM N. GOETZMANN, ANDREY D. UKHOV,and NING ZHU, “China and the world financial markets 1870-1939:Modern lessons from historical globalization”, Economic History Review, 60, 2 (2007), 268.
- WILLIAM N. GOETZMANN, ANDREY D. UKHOV,and NING ZHU, “China and the world financial markets 1870-1939:Modern lessons from historical globalization”, 269.
- Patricia Ebrey, Anne Walthall, and James Palais, Modern East Asia: From 1600, (Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 2009), 409.
- Andrew J. Nathan, “Imperialism’s Effects on China”, (Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars. Volume: 4. Issue: 4. 1972). 3.
- Martin, The Boxer Rebellion, 64.
- Chen, Shiwei. “Change and Mobility: the Political Mobilization of the Shanghai Elites in 1900. Volume 8: p.144.
- Chen, Shiwei. “Change and Mobility: the Political Mobilization of the Shanghai Elites in 1900.Volume 8: p. 155.
- Cohen, Paul A. History in Three Keys: The Boxers as Event, Experience, and Myth, 97.
- Robert Bickers and R.G. Tiedemann, The Boxers, China, and the World, 93.
- Andrew J. Nathan, “Imperialism’s Effects on China”. 5
- Andrew J. Nathan, “Imperialism’s Effects on China”. 5
- Manning, “China and the Powers Since the Boxer Movement, 858
- Manning, “China and the Powers Since the Boxer Movement, 864.
- Manning, “China and the Powers Since the Boxer Movement, 866.
- Manning, “China and the Powers Since the Boxer Movement, 867.
- Manning, “China and the Powers Since the Boxer Movement, 867.