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Cardiovascular Disorder Overview Essay

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Updated: Mar 4th, 2022


The heart produces two sounds when it beats normally lubb and dub. The former is generated when the valves linking the ventricles and arteries shut. The latter is produced when the valves connecting the ventricles and the main arteries close up. Heart murmurs are a series of vibrating audible sounds created by turbulent blood flowing inside the heart. These audible sounds take a longer time than the usual lubb and dub heart sounds and can be perceived between the usual audible heart sounds.

Murmurs are abnormal audible successive sounds that are created as an effect of turbulent blood pour. When the velocity of moving blood within a tube exceeds a definite value, turbulence build-up and energy are dispersed audible vibrations, which generates as a result. Turbulence comes about as a result of blood passing through a little hole in a platter that partially occludes a tube when the diameter of the tube is adjusted abruptly. A stethoscope is used by the physician to detect a heartbeat


The signs and symptoms of heart audible sounds vary; with the exact cause of the heart sound. Innocent heart sounds and heart murmurs that don’t impair the task of the heart more often than have no signs and symptoms. Heart Murmurs which result from rigorous abnormalities of the heart valves or other congenital cardiovascular fault may lead to feeding troubles or failure normal growth in infants, dizziness, and shortness of breath, fainting, rapid heartbeats, chest pain, chest pain, lung congestion, and Fatigue with exercise or exertion (Friedman pg 89).

Cause of loud Murmurs

Practical systolic ejection heart murmurs comprise pulmonic flow audible sounds in sick individuals with both normal and increased aortic or pulmonary artery flow. The common practical systolic ejection abnormal audible heart sound in adults is perhaps a variation of Still’s sounds, the innocent murmur of infancy. It is a buzzing, short, pure, average-pitched, mid systolic, non-radiating murmur perceived best alongside the upper left sternum border.

It is considered to be a product of vibrations put in action by the pulmonic valve. A less commonly experienced practical pulmonic flow sound, occurring mostly in adolescents and children, emanating from the pulmonary arteriole root. It is midsystolic ejection in location, but not similar to Still’s murmur. This type of murmur is is high pitch sound, blowing in nature often, and is comparable to the flow of abnormal audible sound perceived in sick individuals with the back syndrome. Practical systolic ejection sounds come about as a result of blood flow over the aortic valve (McCool pg 205).

Loud heart sounds at the second space intercostals, to the left side of the sternum are usually caused by the following defects in blood flowing through the heart. The blood flowing inside the semilunar valves lead to process take place at the start of blood ejection that begins after S1and stops with the ending of the blood flow which is before S2.

Consequently, the beginning of a loud ejection murmur is estranged from S1 by the isovolumic contraction period; the ending of the murmur and the S2 hiatus is the pulmonary or aortic consort time. The consequential design of this murmur is a crescendo-decrescendo type of murmur. This type of murmur is caused by outflow obstruction, increased blood flow in usual semilunar valves, pulmonary trunk, or dilation of the aortic root and semilunar valves structural changes without obstruction.

Aortic blood outflow obstruction

Aortic blood outflow obstruction may be caused by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or aortic valve stenosis with a rough and harsh quality. Valves aortic stenosis may generate a musical or harsh murmur , over the right second intercostals space of which it radiates into the neck and spread over the two carotid blood vessel. Aortic stenosis is mostly common caused by calcified valves because of aging followed then by congenital bicuspid valves.apical impulse is usually present in The distinctive trait among the above two cause is for the reason that bicuspid valve aortic stenosis has slight or no radiation. This may be established if aortic ejection sound is present, which is a squat untimely diastolic murmur, and usual carotid pulse. The low sound in valvular aortic stenosis reduces with straining and standing with Valsalva maneuver.

Hyper valve stenosis

Hyper valve stenosis, which is the loudest at a position to some extent higher than in that of valvular aortic stenosis and May perhaps radiate to the right carotid arteriole more.Subvalvulve aortic stenosis is frequently as a result of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, with the loudest over the left sternum margin or the apex. The audible sound in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy murmurs amplifies in sound intensity with an upright arrangement in addition as straining by Valsalva maneuver.

Pulmonic outflow bloods obstruction

Pulmonic outflow bloods obstruction which is harsh audible sound usually located on left second intercostals space rising to left neck and convoyed by palpable thrill. It may be differentiated from Ventricular septals fault by pay attention to the S2, which is usual in Ventricular septals fault but it is broadly tear in pulmonary stenosis. Nevertheless Ventricular septals fault is approximately constantly pansystolic where the audible sounds of pulmonary stenosis which is of a diamond- figure and reaches the end clearly prior to S2. Several innocent audible sounds also come about from this area but S2and S1 must split usually.

Dilation of pulmonary artery

Dilation of pulmonary artery generates an ejection sound, in the company of a short ejection systolic audible sound and a comparatively wider split S2. There is absence of hemodynamic abnormality. This is comparable to pulmonary hypertension with the exception of the final has hemodynamic instabilities.furthermore rise in semi lunar valve blood flow which might be caused by pregnancy, hyperthyroidism and pregnancy.

Aortic sclerosis of valve

Aortic valve sclerosis is caused by thickening of aortic blood vessels, they don’t cause any hemodynamic instability or obstruction and hence different from aortic stenosis.


Midsystolic or Systolic ejections murmurs are caused by turbulent frontward flow crossways the left and right ventricular outflow strip, pulmonary or aortic valve, or through the pulmonary artery or aorta.Turbulences are generated by impediment to blood flow, valves dilation, and rise in the velocity of blood flow or a combination. Systolic heart sounds are classified relating to how loud the heart murmur is, which is based on a range from 1-6 with a ranking six being the loudest( Parker pg 55)

Work cited

Friedman, John. Heart murmur Disorders in adolescents. New York: Morrow Hill press, 2005.

McCool, Gersh. The Human heart anatomy and physiology. New York: William presses, 1999.

Parker, William. The Human Heart complications. Minneapolis: Chomical publishing press, 2002.

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