World War 1 that sparked on 28th July 1914 was caused by a number of intertwined factors; the sparking day was when Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife were assassinated in Sarajevo.
The death of the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne triggered anger, conflicts, and hostility that had stockpiled for decades among tribes in Central Europe. The stockpiled conflicts and hostility had been built by diplomatic clashes among the then Great Powers (Austria-Hungarian Empire, Italy, France, Great Britain, Germany, and Russia); the failed diplomacy can be traced since 1867, they created and left high tensions among the nations.
There are many versions that have been developed by historians and philosophers, however the most talked and agreed cause is the “One Thing Led to Another”. According to the concept Austro-Hungarian wanted to partake disciplinary measures upon Balkans; however the German repelled them as they wanted greater power and international influence. The move by German did not go well with Britain Navy army who responded by Dreadnought and greater warships.
France also desired to revenge against Germans following disastrous defeat in 1871; the defeat had created rising tension in France Army, they seemed to have been waiting for time to revenge. Japanese and Russian Military war in 1905 created the anxiety to restore some semblance of national prestige; the anxiety was high enough that it could be triggered to war.
The trigger took effect on the 28th July 1914 when every nation seemed to take different stand on the occasion; despite the action, it’s true that the underlying pressures and conflicts only find their path to be expressed unfortunately through war. Factors that led inexorably to World War 1 can be summed up as militarism, alliances, nationalism, and imperialism differences that prevailed among the early 20th century Great Powers.
In Western Europe, the war went till early 1920 however in the eastern side the war ended on 11:00 am GMT on November 11, 1918. The aftermath of the war was felt in economic, social, and cultural arenas in Africa, Europe, and Asia; there were also some effects on those countries that never got involved directly.
In a nutshell the effect can be classified as demolition of countries/territories, formation of international organizations that aimed at preventing any such future attacks, formation of new countries, creating of ideologies in people among others.
Before the end of war in 11th Nov. 1918, Germany lost approximately 523,000 people from hunger and war effect; during war there was what was referred to as blockade of Germany. Blockade of Germany was export restrictions by other war countries to Germany; Germany them depended on importation so the suffering was severe. In 1918, there was an outbreak of flue which was mistaken to be Spanish Flu; it is estimated that the viral disease claimed the lives of over 50 million people worldwide.
The cost involved in the war were much and had an effect on the fighting countries at the expense of economic , social, and political development of the fighting nations. For example the United Kingdom expense made the country to be a net borrower with approximately 40% its government spending being financed from debts. Inflation in Germany, Russia, and United Kingdom doubled between 1914 and 1920. High inflation and strained government spending lead to deterioration of living standards (Divine, Breen, Fredrickson, 2006).
How does Jim Crow emerge and evolve into the system of profound segregation?
Jim Crow Laws are United States of America local laws enacted between 1876 and 1956; the laws were enacted with the aim of mandating de jure racial segregation. The laws led to the believe, treatments, and accommodation that Black Americans were separate but equal to their counterparts White Americans.
According to the laws, Blacks were allowed to attend schools, have some economic activities, enjoy some social amenities but they were doing this not at the same facilities with the White Americans. They saw the introduction of some drinking places, public transport, segregation of restrooms for the whites and black Americans.
The name Jim Crow is not aperson’s name as it is likely to suggest; it was the subject of a song by Thomas Dartmouth “Daddy” Rice. Thomas Dartmouth “Daddy” Rice performed in black face and aimed at denigrating blacks through his songs; the song suggest some satisfaction that slaves had by their very nature of being slaves in a mockery manner.
The song gave the background of Jim Crow laws; in the laws as was legislated later suggested that there was no need to have Black-White marriages and any other sexual contact among the two.
In the event that a White was competing with a Black, the laws provided that the White has worn and should be crowned. In social and economic cycles, the interaction of the whites and Blacks was controlled by the laws that neither of the groups was allowed to cross the other party’s path.
Jim Crow laws emerged in the period of 1865 to 1877 where federal laws provided rights to vote and contend for a seat to both White and Black Americans. However the Whites used paramilitary to intimidate and prevent the Blacks from voting; the end result was conservative white democrats dominating in every southern state.
In 1877 national election, there were efforts to gain the support of the southerners; to get the support of the black Jim Crow laws were legislated to create some segregation of black and white.
The way the laws were enacted was in a manner likely to suggest that the blacks have been given some rights and privileges that they never enjoyed under the federal laws.
The rights and privileges were seen as shadow of the Whites as it involved elements like being allowed to go to school, medical care, games, and clubs but the facilities were of lower class than the ones the White Americans went. This created tension among them where the whites were supported by the law to behave in a manner likely to suggest they are superior beings than the Blacks Americans.
The civil rights act of 1964 declared most “separate but equal” (Jim Crow) laws as unconstitutional; the legislation aimed at creating an equal playing ground where both the whites and the Blacks would be regarded as Americans and not be treated differently. Despite the advocacy against the laws, there are some elements of its practice in South America where some whites believe the Blacks are the reason why they suffer thus they need to be treated differently(Divine, Breen, Fredrickson, 2006).
Causes of the Great Depression and how New Deal programs attempt to solve the underlying flaws of the economy?
Great Depression is termed as one of the worst economic downfall to have faced the United States of America; the depression was not caused by a single parameter but by combination of different factors. The causes of the depression are thought to include the stock market clash on October 29 1929; after the clash, two month down the lane stockholders lost approximately $40 billion dollars.
In 1930, there were over 6000 American banks that failed; the failure was followed by huge losses as the banks had not insured their savings.
Those banks that survived were not willing to offer loan facilities thus the economic development and confidence in financial institutions was lost. With the stock market clash and the reduced loan facilities, the Americans were not willing to spend the little saving they had, the net effect was reduction in purchasing across the board.
Other than the economic hardship of the 1929 and 1930, there was drought in Mississippi Valley in 1930 (the drought made the area be nicknamed “The Dust Bowl”) which made people not able to pay their taxes. When taxes are not paid, the government has no finances to spend in the countries development.
As a policy to save domestic companies, the American government introduced a tax called Smoot-Hawley Tariff on imports, the tariff made importation expensive and trading countries shied off from trading with America, the net effect was economic retaliation.
The New Deal policy was an American economic strategy between 1933 and 1936 under President Franklin D. Roosevelt to respond to Great Depression issues. The program aimed at implementing fast and efficient mechanisms to restore people’s living standards and gain confidence with the economy, the policy was working on 3R’s policy (Relief, Recovery, and Reform).
Programs termed as relief focused on the poor and unemployed; under the program the government created jobs for them and looked for ways that people would become self reliant with their businesses. Under the recovery programs aimed at returning the challenged economy to its original state as a growing and strong world economy. Under the policies the government was writing off debts and financing institutions that have succumbed to the Great Depression.
When recovery and relief programs were operating as had been planned, the government embarked on aggressive reforms in policies and institutions in the efforts to ensure such an occurrence will not occur. Some of the institutions addressed by reforms programs include the financial sector, insurances, and large multinationals and manufacturing companies. It was also agreed that policies enacted in the economy be vetted closely to ensure they are quality and can stand economic downturns (Divine, Breen, Fredrickson, 2006).
Compare the leadership styles and policies of Theodore Roosevelt and Franklin Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt was the 26th United States President, he lived October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919; the leadership style adopted by the president was that that involved the people solve their own problems. He emphasized on equality in resources distribution, power, and opportunities for all citizens regardless their ethnic background.
The leader emphasized on the need to conserve American Heritage; he is remembered for having managed to conserve f 5 national parks, 18 national monuments, and 150 National Forests.
Although Theodore Roosevelt had no problem with other nationalists in America, he emphasized the need to Americanize. In most of his speech he made it clear that any nationalist who qualified and was willing to become an American was welcomed to do so but in the event someone does not want to become an American, then he was opposed to such a person being in the territory.
During his time he made the role of a president felt in the economy where he used his character and knowledge to make decisions that had to be followed to the letter. He is one of American presidents who attended churches and believed in God; he thus advocated for just, integrity, and an economy without corruption.
Franklin Roosevelt (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945) was a charismatic leaders who addressed United States political and economic matters during the era of world war and economic crisis. His charisma was seen in how he physically got involved in matters of economic development and creating strong army in the country to protect its borders.
According to the leaders style the government should act only as a wheel to an economy but the people were the real drivers of an economy. He redefined the role of government in an economy and advocated for social programs that aimed at addressing a certain social program. When making decisions, he was one president who wanted to be involved in every process however in his turn he involved his subordinates when making decisions.
Theodore Roosevelt and Franklin Roosevelt ruled in different eras however their leadership styles have a lot in common. Both the presidents emphasized on the role the government should play to facilitate economic, social, and political development in the economy. Again they were cautious of the role that citizens play in the economic system of America. The main difference of the leaders is seen on how they approached making fast and quick decisions.
Theodore Roosevelt never had the need to consult when coming up with a decision but made a decision and stood by it; the style can be termed to have some form of soft dictatorship. On the other hand, Franklin Roosevelt believed in consultation; when making fast decisions, he would consult experts and never minded consulting his oppressors. As long as someone had what it took to improve the American economy, Franklin Roosevelt was willing to work with him or her (Divine, Breen, Fredrickson, 2006).
Discuss the history of the working class movement from the end of the Civil war through the Taft-Hartley Act
The end of American Civil wars in 1865 saw the emergence of labor movements; the movement were aimed at reducing oppression of workers and advocated for better packages and good working conditions. The first labor union was founded in 1866 called National Labor Union (NLU); it was followed by the Order of the Knights of St, Crispin in an year later.
The movements were against the introduction of machinery in the shoes production industry; they claimed that the introduction would lead to loss of jobs. In 1870 with the development of railways transport system, there was the emergence of Railroad brotherhoods; the movement aimed at addressing issues specific in the industry.
They looked into issues like medical and insurance packages to drivers and conductors. In 1916, the consolidated their power and threatened to conduct a national strike; they included movements like the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen, the Order of Railway Conductors the Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen, and Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers (BLE). With the threat the government ordered for a ten hour pay for an eight hour day job.
In 1935, New York Senator Robert F. Wagner sponsored a bill that seeks to allow private employers to react on their employees who formed labor unions. The bill seeks to protect employers from oppression from their employees although it came with some exemptions.
The bill excluded employees who were covered by Railways labor Union, government employees, and agricultural employees. The second world war saw the developments of labor unions; during the time 36% American working class joined labor unions this was a rise from 8.7 million in 1940 to over 14.3 million in 1945.
The end of Second World War in August 1945 came the wave of workers strikes demanding better salaries and better working conditions; the strikes were led by labor unions that negotiated on behalf of their members. In 1945 United Auto Workers Union (UAW) sent their members (GM employees) to a strike; 180,000 employees participated in the national wide strike where they demanded better working conditions and wages.
In January the following year, the striking GM employees were joined by almost half a million steelworkers, 150,000 packinghouse workers, and approximately 200,000 electrical workers and numerous other small industry employees. The 1945/1946 strengthened labor unions but weakened the economy.
The United States government decided to enact a legislation which would be an improvement of Wagner Act; the law aimed at creating an alternative method of solving employment contracts disputes other than strikes; the bill was called the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947 or Labor-Management Relations Act.
Labor-Management Relations Act was sponsored by Senator Robert Taft and Representative Fred Hartley; the act aimed at creating better platform where employers and employees would debate and solve their disputes in more diplomatic manner than striking. However the bill did not face-out workers striking right but outline some prohibited labor practices (Divine, Breen, Fredrickson, 2006).
Divine, A., Breen, H., Fredrickson, G. (2006). America Past and Present, Volume II (since 1865). New York: Longman