Case Study of Raul and Jose
Children often experience abusive behavior in families, as parents want to correct their behavior and prohibit certain actions (Dyson par. 1). This type of supervision significantly affects their future lives (Tepper 178). This essay provides diagnoses of Raul and Jose and explains the reason for significant differences of symptoms while experiencing the same conditions. Moreover, it displays personal observations on how the psychological issues of children might manifest themselves physically. Finally, the role of culture is evaluated in this situation.
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According to the American Psychiatric Association, Raul experiences conduct disorder (312.8), as he continually breaks the rules and violates the rights of other individuals (85). Moreover, children with this disorder try to harm animals and people (Criteria A1-A7), as Raul tries to burn the dog and causes physical to his siblings (American Psychiatric Association 85). Additionally, “violation of rules” is Criteria A13-A15, and “theft” is A10-A12 (American Psychiatric Association 85). All of the mentioned actions are present in Raul’s behavior since he steals and regularly breaks the social norms.
It could be said that Jose experiences a major depressive episode. Its code is (296.30) (American Psychiatric Association 319). According to Criterion A1, a person experience sadness (American Psychiatric Association 320). In this case, it is constantly crying Jose. Moreover, a person has “an exaggerated sense of frustration” (American Psychiatric Association 321). Additionally, a lack of interest in physical activities (Criterion A2) (American Psychiatric Association 321).
It is the primary reason for Jose’s no interest in sports. Moreover, a majority of people with major depressive disorder experience problems with sleep (Criterion A4) (American Psychiatric Association 321). In the case of Jose, it is prolonged daydreaming. Lastly, the inability to concentrate and to sit still is Criterion A5. This fact explains Jose’s nail-biting. However, it could be said that Jose has symptoms of autism (299.00), as he has difficulties communicating with other people (Criterion A1b), inaudible speech (Criterion A2b), and enuresis (American Psychiatric Association 66).
It is commonly known that people have different reactions to the same situation (Siemer, Mauss, and Gross 592). It could be said that Raul and Jose have different symptoms from one another since they have different emotional appraisals and temperament. Both of these criteria determine the presence of differences in their behaviors.
It has to be mentioned that both of the disorders can be manifesting themselves physically. The mental state controls the physical action of a person (Chantal 716). In the case of Jose, he might attempt suicide. Moreover, people with depression experience problems with cardiac malfunction (Chantal 718). As for Raul, he might get into an accident and harm himself.
Culture plays an essential role in psychiatry, and more attention has to be paid to it in the future (Alarcon 111). The family might experience psychological and financial difficulties, as they changed their living environment and moved to another country. However, their mental states could have been affected by their level of living comparing to the wealthy families in America. It could be said that all family members would not experience difficulties if they were living in their home country. Nonetheless, the perception of well-being in society affects people of all cultures.
In conclusion, it could be said that children, who are regularly abused, live under stress and pressure. Moreover, abusive behavior has a significant impact on their mental and physical states. However, children, who live in severe conditions, have different reactions to the environment.
Alarcon, Renato. Cultural Psychiatry, Ettlingen, Germany: Kraft Druck, 2013. Print.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-IV, Arlington: American Psychiatric Association, 2000. Print.
Chantal, Simon. “Physical Health and Mental Illness.” InnovAiT 7.12 (2014): 716-722. Print.
Dyson, Eric. “Punishment or Child Abuse?” The New York Times. 2014. Web.
Siemer, Mathias, Iris Mauss, and James Gross. “Same Situation – Different Emotions: How Appraisals Shape our Emotions”. Emotion 7.3 (2007): 592-600.
Tepper, Bennett. “Consequences of Abusive Behavior.” Academy of Management Journal 43.2 (2000): 178-190. Print.