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Coaching and Mentoring in Executive Leadership Dissertation


Abstract

The increasing complexities and escalating speed of business have put up many challenges for the leaders in the organisations. There is always a mounting pressure on the company chiefs for executing crucial assignments and projects.

The present study aims to understand the concept of executive leadership for its role in the growth of organisations. It also seeks to understand the concepts of coaching and mentoring, their objectives and approaches, benefits for the individuals and organisations for executive coaching and mentoring. The existing literature on the concerning subject is reviewed to strengthen our understanding of the proposed research. The methodology used for the present research involves qualitative and quantitative research methods both. Findings of the study strengthen the notion that effective leadership involves a deep concern for the fulfilment of the desired task as well as a genuine concern for people. It helps in performing the vital strategic, tactical, and interpersonal roles for the organisations.

Moreover, it supports the view that coaching and mentoring are effective tools to build leadership qualities in the executives and use of these programs has a positive impact on the personal and professional growth of an individual leading to the overall growth of organisations.

Introduction

Background Information

The word ‘executive leadership’ has an extensive range of focus and encompasses a variety of terms to describe its meaning. Conventionally, ‘executives’ are the people holding top managerial positions in the organisations. The word ‘executive’ refers to the top organisational position, and ‘leadership’ refers to the quality of being ‘inventive’ and ‘innovative’. Executives carry out significant and crucial activities and create an environment for consistent, high-quality productivity. They focus on doing appropriate things and exploring ways for further improvement. We can call it a combination of “Production/Quality focuses on the ability to bring together both operational efficiencies of the enterprise with improvements in that enterprise” (Tropman & Wooten, 2010, p.47).

On the other hand, leaders are people who have the capability of bringing about transformation by showing others new ways of doing appropriate things. “We call this combination of innovation and effectiveness Aspiration Focus” (Tropman & Wooten, 2010, p.47). A significant balance is needed between the regulatory nature of an executive and liberal nature of a leader to make him an efficient executive leader (Tropman & Wooten, 2010).

A program manager needs to understand that leadership is a crucial element for the success of a program. The program manager needs to motivate his team to share the vision and attain goals by inspiring them to work with a sense of purpose. He is a manager of the course of action and people involved in the action both. The ability to organise people to achieve the desired goals is the most decisive factor of leadership characterization. “If he is not a natural leader by default, then the only alternative is to become “educated” in leadership attributes and modify one’s behaviour to assume those leadership qualities” (Mohr,2000 p.76).

“Leadership Development is tough. If it wasn’t, we wouldn’t be having a “crisis.” says Eric Jackson, the Founder and Managing Member of Ironfire Capital LLC (Jackson, 2011, Para10). The experience of the alarming cases due to poor corporate governance and leadership has been dreadful. It has left the people holding top positions in the organisations perplexed and stunned (Renton, 2009). The complexities of the world have left people bewildered. They have so much to do in so little time. The speedy advancements in technology have overloaded people with information relating to their lives and business interests. Human beings are not yet prepared to encompass and handle this bulk of information. Therefore, they need team support for dealing with the heap of material and work efficiently in the organisations (Hawkins & Smith, 2007).

Leadership cannot be learned from some academic course. It is the result of a constant process involving the actions generating self-awareness, enhancing confidence level, integrating creativity and most of all, involving and motivating others in the development process (Lee, 2003).

Competencies are a package of different skills that a leader and executive require for being successful. Hence, leadership competence is a combination of theoretical knowledge and practical expertise in carrying out actions (Tropman & Wooten, 2010).

There is always a mounting pressure on the company chiefs for executing crucial assignments and projects. They have the authoritative power in the organisation but may be lagging in the understanding of certain techniques and marketing strategies. To manage this situation, directors need to allow individuals at every level to act as leaders. Since, every individual has some of the other competency, utilizing it can make a difference in organisational growth. In the present scenario, the focus is on democratizing business. Leaders need not look at the business from the top but rather from the central position. This central position will enable them to be more close to the juniors and motivate them. They can increase their involvement in operational level decisions. This democratization will lower their burden, and they will get the freedom to offer more strategic direction and will become actual leaders (Why understanding group dynamics improves leadership, 2013).

There has been much discussion on defining leadership, but little importance is given to the development of essential competencies for success. However, it is important to recognize different characteristics related to the development of effective leadership (Horner, 2002). A generalized definition of leadership emphasizes that it involves driving others towards the accomplishment of desired goals. It also includes individual distinctiveness and conduct. Moreover, work-related relationships and professional status also contribute to leadership. It is a general notion that effective leadership involves a deep concern for the fulfilment of the desired task as well as a genuine concern for people.

The three vital roles of leadership can be distinguished as strategic, tactical, and interpersonal. These tasks can be differentiated from the tasks like planning, co-coordinating, and controlling performed by a manager (Mintzberg1979, as cited in Horner, 2002, p.6).

Leaders are always in a quest for developing their leadership skills to meet out the challenges of the business world. They are in a “pursuit of excellence, of elegance, of truth, of what’s next, of what if, of change, of value, of results, of relationships, of service, of knowledge, and of something bigger than yourself” (Myatt, 2011, Para1).

Prominent authors suggest that five essential behaviours enable leaders to get incredible results. These behaviours include: “(a) challenge the process, (b), inspire a shared vision, (c) enable others to act, (d) model the way, and (e) encourage the heart” (Kouzes & Posner, cited in Shoaf & Britt, 2009, para2).

These behaviours are not the replica of any single behaviour leadership study but are compiled through surveys, questionnaires, and case studies over a period. The experiences of people who have attained great success with such behaviours are the source of this compilation (Shaof & Britt, 2009). The business community puts much emphasis on the leadership qualities of its executives. Leadership is about directing people, creating awareness about purpose, inspiring, and motivating them towards accomplishment. Leadership develops a bond between the leaders and the followers (Horner, 2002).

The leader is supposed to play roles of a navigator, strategist, and entrepreneur, mobilize, talent advocate, captivator, global thinker, change driver and enterprise guardian (Appelbaum & Paese, n.d).

Demands of executive leadership

To meet the demands of successful leadership, executives need to possess certain attributes. The following attributes in the executive’s personality make him an efficient leader.

Strong Vision

An executive can be distinguished in terms of his perspectives. He foresees a broader image of the world (Horner, 2002). Successful executive leaders have a clear and strong vision. They can see beyond the boundaries of their organisation. They are perfect painters who can paint an image of the future they want to see (Conchie, n. d). Having a strong vision is one of the most marked skills of leaders, and it involves people who are in the quest for a meaningful future (Kouzes and Posner, 2010).

Shared goals

They are capable of creating an environment that leads to the successful attainment of the desired goals through collaborative efforts of their team.

Clear and coherent values

They are aware of the fact that their values and beliefs are significant in determining their vision. They make it clear that certain things are important in work and life and thus relate their values to work. Values related to work and concern for people are manifested in their uprightness and commitment to value-based action.

Source of inspiration

Such leaders are a great source of inspiration for the employees since they pave the way for others, standing steady and static through times and breaking all barriers coming on their way to success. Dealing with challenges hastens the learning curve of the executives. Executives improve while confronting challenges as they extend their capacity for better performance. This helps in having larger prospects about the organisation.

Mentoring

Besides having these attributes, successful leaders also foster personal relationships.

They have cordial relationships with people who perform as their advisors. These advisors or mentors are normally from outside the organisation and are more influential in recognizing the needs of individual leaders than the formal mentoring programs of the organisations.

Socializing widely

Executive leaders build friendly relationships across their organisations and outside. They realize that anybody can be useful and hence, understand the value of building a large social network.

Learn from experiences

Executive leaders learn from different people and experiences. Their mistakes and achievements, in the process of learning, strengthen their leadership skills and enable them to make proper use of their experiences in enlightening others.

Self-awareness

Great executive leaders have a strong sense of awareness. They are aware of their strengths and weaknesses. They are same at work, and home. This genuineness helps them to connect to the people effectively (Conchie, n. d).

Communication skills

For being an efficient executive leader, one must possess great communication skills. They have to be skilled in communicating their message effectively. The message has to be clear, exact, authentic, and accurate. The communication encompasses others’ needs and concerns and thus add value to their world (Myatt, 2012, p.3). Leaders with motivational communication skill are praiseworthy, but it is something more than giving an inspiring speech. Their interaction with people should connect them with the purpose (Bates, 2009).

Coaching and mentoring. An overview

Business organisations have an urgent requirement for some development programs for generating motivated and ambitious successors. The overall growth of the organisations needs to run development programs that help employees who need to acquire certain skills and guidance relating to their work performance. Highly talented managers need to recognize their potential and skills. They need to plan their career growth by determining certain goals and work on achieving them efficiently. The conventional method of producing an efficient successor by the line managers may seem to be inefficient in bringing out desired results. The reasons may be the manager’s incapability in identifying potential high-flyer, the possibility of reluctance in counselling so as not to let a valuable employee go to another part of the organisation. Or the probability of bias against particular subordinates and putting hurdles on their career path even if they are talented and have high potential (Leucke & Ibarra, 2004).

Coaching and mentoring for leaders is beneficial in integrating the effects of change in the organisations. In the constantly changing circumstances, the organisations need to have competent leaders who can ensure the continuance of work and achievement of desired goals. A competent and efficient leader can steer the actions of his team in pursuing desired objectives. He can re-direct the actions of the co-workers by making the goals explicit and coherent and then conferring procedures to acquire those goals. He should also appreciate the sincere efforts and good performance of his team. Lacking in the traits as mentioned above, may call for more coaching and mentoring exercise for the leader. “Effective leadership mentoring and coaching is a competency that builds on a leaders desire to empower and encourage the members of their team to succeed” (Leadership Development and Talent Management, 2013, Para 2).

Executive coaching can be compared to an actual journey driven by an actual coach or carriage who escorts the executive to his desired destination. “When Coaching is done effectively, with the requisite understanding of its purpose and competency of practice, it is a powerful and effective tool” (Coaching and mentoring, n.d., Para 4). Kilburg (2000) defines executive coaching as:

  • a helping relationship formed between a client who has managerial authority
  • and responsibility in an organisation and a consultant who uses a wide variety
  • of behavioural techniques and methods to help the client achieve a mutually identified set of goals to improve his or her professional performance and
  • personal satisfaction, and consequently to improve the effectiveness of the
  • client’s organisation within a formally defined coaching agreement (p.67).

Mentoring as a formal development program identifies the talent and improves the personal and professional performance of employees in an organisation. Almost all organisation can have mentoring programs irrespective of their size, the prevailing culture within their organisation or market sector. Employees get to understand the nature and procedures of the company more easily and comprehensively through mentoring (Leucke & Ibarra, 2004).

Mentoring also works as a developmental tool in human resources. Mentoring helps people in their pursuit of growth. In the mentoring relationship, the initiative is taken by the learner to seek guidance from a trusted and experienced person, and he takes responsibility for his learning and growth (Leucke & Ibarra, 2004).

Coaching and mentoring for developing executive leadership

It is important to look at the circumstances and conditions that call for a coaching and mentoring program to occur. The need for a coaching and mentoring program may occur in the following situations:

  • At the time of expected promotions, that calls for bigger responsibilities and crucial job assignments.
  • To confront hurdles, which are blocking the path of their career development and diminishing their promotional prospects.
  • To help those executives who have reached their career plateau by facilitating their learning in other areas than their specialism.
  • To prepare executives to fit in their new roles as the coach can guide them to take up the task effectively.
  • To make efforts to bring about crucial changes in the organisation.
  • To help executives comprehend the 360-degree feedback received from the people working with them.
  • To them, who experience interpersonal conflict and job stress in the workplace.
  • To guide and motivate them to maintain a balance between work and life demands.
  • To help in adjusting with the cultural and structural changes by improving their behavioural skills.
  • Coaching is required to develop fairness towards diversity at the workplace.
  • Coaching is also helpful in developing and promoting global culture in organisations.
  • Coaching is highly required at the top level to provide honest, objective support and feedback (Caplan, 2003).

Different people look at the functional aspects of coaching and mentoring differently, but all have the same opinion on the outcomes of performing such program (Thomas & Thomas, n.d.).

Statement of the problem

Coaching is anticipated to be a strong way for helping executives to pick up their excellence and in due course, enhance the performance of their organisation. However, there is a shortage of experiential proof about how and why coaching and mentoring are useful in developing leadership skills in executives (Joo, n.d). Hence, there is a need to examine the role of coaching and mentoring in building effective executive leadership.

Purpose of the study

The purpose of the present study is to examine the role of coaching and mentoring practices in developing executive leadership. The research also tries to explore the outcomes of these practices concerning leadership competencies and personal performance of the executives. Further, it aims to make recommendations for future modification in the programs to attain maximum benefit and return on investment from coaching.

Literature Review

Executive Leadership

Executive leadership can be best examined through the eyes of the people the executives lead. The people working with them can give an accurate picture of their competencies and traits (Zenger & Folkman, 2009).

The existing literature on the subject affirms that organisations need to provide guided leadership experience to their executives to develop significant leadership qualities in them. They should be given opportunities to learn through the challenging assignments in their line of business. They should get sufficient time to recognize their weaknesses and should be motivated to rise above them with the help of effective mentoring (Caplan, 2003).

Goleman’s (2002) opinion relating to leadership styles reinforces the notion that no single style identifies with effective leaders. Instead, it is a blend of right kind of behaviours performed at the right time to go well with the business situations. He identifies coaching as a useful phenomenon in developing people for the future where they know about their limitation and weak points and show enthusiasm to improve their performance (as cited in Horner, 2002).

Smith (2001) states that there is no such thing that can completely endow people with leadership qualities. People develop these skills through actually performing the actions and learning through mistakes. This type of learning is supported either by action learning programs or by executive coaching, which encourages freedom of expression and provides an environment for learning to take place (as cited in Horner, 2002).

This kind of approach to leadership development does not impose the thoughts of coaches on the participants; instead, it encourages participants to extract information. The participants are responsible for their actions, and the organisations are used as laboratories where they are free to manifest their learning. Therefore, it backs the notion that leadership development occurs in the surrounding context and acknowledges the distinctive blend of different skills of the individual.

Leaders can encourage followers to generate morally courageous behaviour. They nurture appropriate relational and motivational support and thus help them to improve (Hernendez, 2007).

In recent years, more stress has been laid on the need for effective coaching by many writers as well as the prominent journalists. This concern has led the way towards the standardization of this term. It is beneficial for organisations depending on the external coaches rather than the internal managers since it avoids any kind of bias or liberty and maintains the confidentiality of coaching practices in the organisations (Horner, 2002).

Initially, coaching and mentoring were considered as solution providers to specific problems relating to management. However, now they have evolved to the level of holding a significant place in the organisations to reinforce their business value. It has become necessary to have expertise in the business objectives and business planning of the organisations (Jones, 2007). To understand the role of coaching and mentoring in building executive leadership, one should know about their origin, and impact on the individuals as well as organisations.

Coaching and its benefits

Coaching started in the field of sports where proper training was provided to the sportsmen to condition them for gaining victory against their competitors. Developmental Psychology started gaining grounds in organisations over the past 50 years. It emerged as a specialized intervention to work-place issues and implemented psychological theories and intervention approaches to solve the problems at the organisational level. Now the use organisational psychology in solving different issues is prevailing in the business community (Deans et al., 2006).

Coaching started to make aground in the corporate sector in the late 1970s and early1980s. It began to gain momentum as a device to increase the performance of the managers rather than simply rectifying their weaknesses. It worked as a tool to handle the crisis within the organisation with directed discussions and action among the colleagues (Renton, 2009).

Harvard Business Review (Sherman & Freas, 2004) presents an article to tell the state of coaching in the organisations. It declares that coaching is still considered to be a confused and unknown phenomenon as it was in the past, but it illustrates immense hope for its existence in future.

There is very less information about executive coaching that can be considered as trustworthy. This is primarily because of the reason that most important companies were not practising coaching as a part of their system before the 1980s.

The thought of personal development through coaching started to gain grounds by the late 1980s when coaching was thoroughly infused into the business world. However, it had not found a place as a distinct and independent discipline until now, and It was considered as an additional supporting device to other activities. It was used in the corporate world for providing excellence only in some specific tasks.

Rising complications due to technological changes and globalization created pressure in the corporate world and paved the way for coaching as a distinct and obligatory phenomenon. The era of 1990s sparked the establishment of coaching as an influential management development technique. It included almost every aspect of the business such as help in personal career development; help during the transitional periods; assistance during mergers and initiations; guidance on entrepreneurism and leadership development and coaching of groups and teams. Now, it was no longer confined to the top leading companies and was sought by all organisations in general (Renton, 2009). The consultation for managers and leaders in the organisation is considered as executive coaching (Kilburg, as cited in Joo, n.d).

Leadership coaching emphasizes the adequate understanding of managers that will reinforce the genuineness of the coaching process. The coach needs to gain in-depth information about the personal history of the coachees and make practical changes using his personal knowledge.

Benefits of coaching

Coaching has been in practice for decades in the fields of sports, performing arts, and public speaking. The aim of coaching, in general, is to help people to perform better in their respective fields. The primary aim of executive coaching is to assist motivated executives to lift their performance level through proper feedback. Criticism, provided by other people around them in the workplace, helps to enhance their work performance over a long span. It lays more stress on progress rather than instruction. Coaching is client-oriented and adjusts with the requirement of the executives in facilitating learning, growth, and transformation in different phases of their careers (Bluckert, 2006). The benefits that coaching brings to executives and organisation are:

  • According to Popper and Lipshitz (1992), there are two focuses on coaching. One is to improve one’s skill performance, and the other is to assist in psychological development by making him aware of his strengths and capabilities. This is known as self-efficacy, Bandura’s (1977) social learning theory (as cited in Horner, 2002, p.13).
  • Coaching enhances personal growth and development and can be typically skill-oriented. Normally on-job coaching for executives facilitates their strengths and talents. The coach tries to find ways to motivate the executives to recognize their capabilities and work on their further improvement. Normally, organisations initiate coaching practices for the executives and seeing the positive outcomes may further extend it to the management ranks (Martin, n.d.).
  • Executive leadership coaching benefits organisations in the form of transformation of managers into leaders. Executive coaching catches the attention of the potential leaders who are ambitious and want to reach the zenith of success.
  • It increases the feeling of job satisfaction among the staff by showing commitment to their development. Executive coaching and mentoring help to gain intercultural education. It prepares the individuals to adjust and acclimatize in the global context (Executive coaching and mentoring benefits, n.d.).
  • Executive coaching helps the executives in getting the right idea about the organisational aim and thus creating their vision with respect to that. With the help of effective coaching, executives can increase their influence in defining the core values of the organisation.
  • It facilitates the leadership skills of the executives in carrying out the business in a planned manner.
  • Coaching helps executives motivate the employees to work in the direction of successful goal attainment and build strong and competent teams. This helps in generating efficient successors in the company, which is beneficial for building solidarity of the organisation.
  • Coaching brings about many vocational, generic, motivational improvements and provides a better direction for career-related issues (Martin n.d.). It also provides solace in the perplexing social environment and introduces a novel and high potential workspace (Westen, 2012).
  • Executive coaching is significant in developing a more effective leadership style that helps in motivating junior employees, increasing their performance, and speeding up the development of new talent within the organisations.
  • Executive coaching develops their skills relating to management in professional as well as personal life.
  • Executive coaching and mentoring enhance the capability to lead teams with greater performance and thus facilitates self-confidence. It helps executives in utilizing the energy in a channelized manner to attain the predetermined goals for their team as well as for themselves (Executive coaching and mentoring benefits, n.d.).
  • Executives are enabled to develop a balanced and integrated personal life creating a greater sense of satisfaction in their personal life. We can sum up by saying that executive coaching propels them to reach the climax of the performance, and executive mentoring prepares them to reach their full potential (Personal coaching and mentoring, n.d.).

However, there is a vast empirical base on hand on coaching as a general subject. Still, these studies do not lay specific emphasis on the impact of external coaching on the managers. They only proclaim that different types of coaching are supportive of the varied improving features of human behaviour.

Mentoring and its benefits

Mentoring has been considered as a long-term mutual relationship between two people where a caring adult guides a young and inexperienced person. However, formal mentoring is an assigned program by the organisation to foster employee development. It involves objectives, schedules, and training sessions for mentors and mentees and lastly the assessment of the applied program (Kirkham, as cited in Abiddin, 2012).

“Mentoring has been identified as an effective means of leadership development (Day, Zelinski, as cited in Sosik & Lee, 2002, Para1).

“Mentoring is off-line help by one person to another in making significant transitions in knowledge, work and thinking” (Clutterbuck, 2004, p.13). Mentoring is considered the best way for a swift transfer of skills and knowledge from one person to another. It helps in arousing reliability and dedication in the new employees to work in an organisation (Robinson, as cited in Abbidin, 2012).

There are many examples of mentoring relationships like Ian Botham and his mentor Brian Close; Kevin Keegan and his mentor Bill Shankly. In the business world, an example of mentoring relationships is that of Chris Gent and Arun Sarin at Vodaphone. This is a general belief that mentoring can be performed only by the best in the field, but some writers argue that anyone who possesses some traits or skills to pass on to others and has a sense of commitment can be a mentor.

Conventionally, the motive of mentoring was to offer guidance, help, and support for an extended period. Usually, a senior or more experienced person in the workplace performed as a mentor for a junior and inexperienced employee. Mentor word comes from Greek mythology, where Odysseus laid the responsibility of his son’s education and grooming on his friend Mentor. Hence, mentoring is a form of apprenticeship, provided in a frank and pleasing environment that enables the mentee to learn the tricks of the business world (Mentoring, 2009).

Frequent contact is binding in a mentoring relationship. It is an interactive dialogue between the mentor and the mentee. This relationship involves a contribution from both the partners to facilitate transformation and growth. The formal mentoring relationship calls for an investment of time and energy to guide and share. In contrast, informal mentoring can take place at any time and any place depending on the interest shown by the mentor or mentee. Both types of mentoring can be for specific goals or for unlimited times. However, mentoring does not relate to the guidance given by a friend, nor does it dictate things to be done in a typically guided manner. Here, it is to be noted that poor mentoring may prove worse than no mentoring. It affects one’s self –confidence badly, and the mentee may relinquish enthusiasm and hope for development (Saul, n.d.).

After establishing the relationship, it is essential to nurture it. Goals and objectives are to be decided in the initial period of the relationship. The mentor is expected to generate a vision and starts to work on that, and the mentee is supposed to drive reality up. The selection of problems, demands, and plans for mentoring activity has to be on a mutual basis. It is also important for the mentee to be self-reliant, take an interest in the process, and be accountable for his actions (Hutchins, 1996). Mentors have been considered socially accomplished and experienced people who can help others by giving out their knowledge and thus enabling them to be more efficient. The outcomes of mentoring programs related to the organisational context have been the concern of varied theories. They include “theories of mentoring functions (Kram, 1985), human development (Levinson et al., 1978), personal networks (Ibarra, 1993), shared identity (Hunt & Michael, 1983), information processing (Mullen, 1994), power (Ragins, 1997), social support or helping (McManus & Russell, 1997) and transformational leadership (Sosik & Godshalk, 2000)” as cited in (Sosik & Lee, 2002).

These theories emphasize the inference of different models in mentoring relationships concerning the mentor and the protégés. Mentoring is an association of a more experienced and knowledgeable individual with less experienced individuals for providing them with social support for facilitating their development and career growth. Kram asserts that a mentoring program evolves through different phases called initiation, cultivation, separation, and redefinition (Sosik & Lee, 2002).

Evolving through these stages, the mentoring program facilitates the protégés with two main attributes. These are:

  • Career development: Career development includes various tasks like providing sponsorship, creating opportunities for experience and visibility, availability for coaching, providing job security, and providing challenging assignments.
  • Psychosocial support: Psychosocial support is provided through counselling, friendship, acceptance and confirmation, and role modelling (Kram, 1985, as cited in Sosik & Lee, 2002).
  • The capabilities of a mentor in making social judgments increase the intellectual and social capital of an organisation (Pfeifer & Veiga, 1999).

A mentoring relationship can be effective, but the person seeking advice and help must be made to feel his worth. A negative attitude towards one’s self will never let him be successful. Hence, the mentor needs to raise the self-esteem of the mentee by supporting and encouraging him. People are naturally motivated. Sometimes, the upheavals in their lives knock their motivational level down. It is necessary to motivate them by helping to overcome the factors that let them down. The mentor needs to develop trust in the mind of the mentee to create a healthy and frank mentoring relationship. A mentoring relationship will work effectively if the mentee’s development becomes the top priority of the process (Maxwell, 2008). A lot many changes in the relationships in the workplace are taking place in the organisations. Technological advancement, increasing globalization, constantly changing workplaces, companies being transformed into learning organisations, increasing focus on knowledge, an amalgamation of leadership and management are some of the examples of the present-day business community (Marquardt, 2006).

Mentoring builds a foundation of shared knowledge for the organisation. It creates efficient successors who can take up the responsibility even when significant people leave the organisation. This shared knowledge stays with the business and helps to deal with the transitional crisis. The organisation, where mentoring is an integral part of the culture, everyone teaches and learns. The infrastructure is supportive of mentoring and acclaims it (Degrandpre, 2010).

In the long run, increasing trust between the mentor and protégé enhances the efficacy of mentoring activity. The protégé is now encouraged to explore the solutions instead of depending on the mentor‘s advice. Questioning is more beneficial than advising. Mentor’s efficiency in encouraging the protégé to look at the situation from a distance helps him to perceive differently and find new ways of finding solutions (Nimanick, 2012). Mentoring is a long-term development program specifically designed for the individual that aims at bringing profit to the organisation. It is a supportive development program, which aims at helping individuals for their personal and professional development. It is relaxed in nature and encourages discussions on personal issues (Mentoring, 2009).

A person needs to apply the acquired theoretical knowledge into practice when he starts his professional career. This transitional period can be quite challenging and stressful for him. To develop his confidence and competence in the workplace, he needs some support and direction.

The organisations must constantly discover and modify ways to keep associated with their customers and show interest in fulfilling their requirements. Essential behavioural changes help in keeping up with the varied range of programs like total quality management, values placement, cultural transformation etc. Executive mentoring is helpful in generating these behavioral changes in the senior executives (Dr Turner, as cited in MiKimm, et al., 2007).

Benefits of mentoring

Organisations look forward to establishing mentoring programs in their organisations for varied reasons. The time, attention, and resources applied in the formal mentoring program have to be justified. The reasons for establishing these programs should adequately relate to the business goals of the organisation (Best Practices: Mentoring, 2008).

A mentoring program may bring the following benefits to the individuals and

organisations:

  • Mentoring brings about a rise in the productivity and efficiency in an organisation.
  • It also leads to many intangible gains like high staff morale, career satisfaction for the employees and swift and convenient transitions into a newly assigned job.
  • It saves the company’s valuable time, as the employees do not have to compromise with their productive activity in the organisation like in other off-site courses.
  • It makes the recruitment and induction procedure easy. A new employee has difficulty in adjusting with the new environment, and a mentor helps him to overcome it, thus facilitating their productivity to the organisation.
  • It helps the employees to grow better by improving their motivation. It takes an interest in the career development of the mentees and helps them to overcome the frustration due to the slow pace of career growth. A mentor makes them aware of the long-term plans of the company and motivates them to make the maximum use of the benefits offered by the learning environment in the existing job.
  • The mentor helps the mentee to understand different aspects of the corporate culture. Mentoring enables employees to recognize the difference between the fixed or static and open to challenge aspects of a company.
  • It facilitates succession planning by generating efficient and skilled employees from the next generation.
  • Mentoring helps in developing better communication within the organisation. In conventional mentoring, the junior level mentee can be in touch with the middle or junior managerial levels. Being aware of the mannerisms and communication style of both the levels, the mentee can facilitate his communication with both the levels. Companies look forward to keeping an efficient staff for the long-term.
  • Mentoring has a convincing influence on the mentee that he or she has a bright future in the company thus helping the organisations in retaining their employees (Clutterbuck, 2004)
  • “Mentoring creates the organisational capability for growth and change rather than just using it or deploying an existing capability. It does so by pointing beyond success to each person’s capacity for greatness” (Shenkman et al., 2009, p.236).

Usually, the value of mentoring is recognized for the newly inducted employees in the organisations, and the mentors are expected to be the top managers. However, best mentors are generally those holding middle managerial positions. They are in the organisation for quite some time holding a respectable position and do not aspire to go higher, but rather utilize their experience in helping others for development (McPherson, 2011). Mentoring has become identical to grooming an understudy for future leadership (Boags, 2008).

Comparison between coaching and mentoring

These two interventions can be seen in the light of the similarities they share and the distinctions they put forth. We can find various characterizing features of these two phenomena in the existing literature. Their properties of the level of formality, time limit of the contract, their focus on the tangible results, relative information, training procedure, and relationship with the client and regulation of their coaching program are the determining factors in identifying their likeness and distinctiveness (Pass more, 2007).

Similarities between mentoring and coaching

Mentoring and coaching are two different phenomenons. They are not associated with the line managers and take place separately. They are open in nature and create a fine bond between the mentor or coach and their protégé. Both mentor and coach are accountable for their protégé’s progress. Both are non-directive as there is no instruction or direction forced by the coach or mentor on the protégé’ rather, they are encouraged to attain greater self-awareness and accurate decision-making. Hence, they do not solve the problems themselves but enable their protégé’ to find suitable ways of dealing with the problems and finding the solutions. Both activities occur over an extended period. Although there are predetermined specific objectives in due course of time, these may become flexible depending on the protégé’s progress. Both the process constantly works until the objectives have been achieved satisfactorily (Mentoring and coaching, 2008).

Difference: Coaching and mentoring seem to be similar activities; however, they have some distinctions with respect to their goals, period, schedule, process etc.

Goals

Coaching and mentoring both are client-oriented, however, coaching focuses on reaching very precise objectives. Coaching refers to a planned program with very specific and predetermined goals. Mentoring is an informal process with various specific but extensive goals. Coaching needs to satisfy the needs of the client and organisation both whereas mentoring is more focused on the needs of the client. In some cases, where the mentors are given the task of developing a group of dedicated managers, the organisational needs are given importance, too (Passmore, 2007).

Objective

Coaching puts stress on performance and facilitates the learning of certain leadership skills. Mentoring enables executives to build abilities to implement their skills, knowledge and experience in different situations and course of action (Mentoring and coaching, 2008). Coaching is based on the idea of improving behaviour and skills. It focuses on developing behavioural skills; however, mentoring lays stress on career growth (Passmore, 2007)

Time limit: Coaching is limited to a certain period. It normally takes place on a rap session. On the other hand, mentoring stretches to an indefinite period where the mentor performs as a facilitator with individuals or groups of people (Mentoring and coaching, 2008). There has to be a limited duration for coaching in an organisation that may be from few weeks to few months while the mentoring span in a company may stretch from a few years to several years (Passmore, 2007).

Process

Coaching has a much shorter timeframe as compared to mentoring. The process involved in mentoring is much liberal and informal than coaching.

Schedule

The coaching program has a fixed schedule. The coaching sessions may range from once or twice in a year to once in a month. However, the schedule of the mentoring program is open and develops over time. It may be for 2-3years and can stretch to several years.

Approach

The coaches may adopt a rigid approach towards their coaching relationships that do not allow casual behaviour or personal attachment and makes it a very formal affair. However, coaches who adopt a humanistic approach are informal and liberal in developing a pleasing bond with the coachees. In mentoring also, the organisational mores determine the level of formality.

Training

Coaches are equipped with high-quality training in the realm of coaching and have a formal knowledge of subjects like psychology and psychotherapy. They have a proper understanding of human resources also. There has been tremendous growth in the training programs for coaching in the past years. Mentoring has also been ensured provision for training in recent years. Many established institutes and agencies have recognized the shared aims of these two processes and have introduced combined programs for both. “Mentors should ideally have the training and the opportunity for ongoing support and peer supervision but should be independent of managerial structures if they are from within the same organisation as the mentee. Generally, it is a voluntary role, but professional time should be allowed for it” (On coaching and mentoring, n.d. para 3).

Supervision

The demand for supervision for coaches has started to mount in recent years. “..it is now recommended good practice for coaches to use supervision to support every 35 hours of coaching (Hawkins & Schwenk, as cited in Passmore, 2007, p.14)

Mutual consent

Coaching and mentoring programs are introduced for the personal and professional growth of individuals. However, it is not possible to force coaching and mentoring on people. Both of these take place with the consent of the learner; however, mentoring is more linked to voluntarism and mutuality rather than coaching (Garvey et al., 2008).

In view of the differences as mentioned above, it can be assumed that coaching and mentoring are two distinct processes, however, if we look at the similarities between the two, these differences seem to be negligible.

Mentoring and coaching are two different activities, but in some cases, they can also be used as accompaniments (Mentoring and Coaching, 2008).

Coaching and mentoring may show different effects while using their persuasive capacity. “The reality is that there is a strong overlap, with career discussions featuring in coaching (Winum, as cited in Passmore, 2007, p.13)) and skills discussions featuring in mentoring (Field & Field, as cited in Passmore, 2007, p.13).

Despite varied distinctions between them, the two often operate together. For instance, leadership coaching can improve interpersonal communication style and decision-making and as a result, lead an employee to become more engaged and productive. The coach can offer employee advice and guidance. The same employee also may receive suggestions from a mentor, who will act as a role model and help to manage a potential career change (Pelan, 2012, p.1). The reality, as Anderson stresses, is that “The best coaches mentor and the best mentors coach” (Jones, 2007, p.2).

The difference between coaching and mentoring is because of the time utilized. However, that seems to be a myth.

As coaching and mentoring have many common features, sometimes, coaches have to take up mentoring roles and vice versa. Normally, both are free of line management relationships because it may suppress the spirit of flourishing conversation. “A coach or a mentor in effect becomes ‘an accountability partner’ – working with your best interests in mind and bringing fresh insights to either specific tasks or your career or private life as a whole” (Mentoring and coaching: an overview, 2002 P.3).

“Being a mentor or internal coach should be developmental for the coach/ mentor and be recognized as part of the own development and their work program and responsibilities” (Coaching and mentoring, 2008, p.2)

“Coaching and mentoring are corresponding activities” (What is effective coaching and mentoring at work? n. d., p.6).

Models of coaching and mentoring

There are two different perspectives on the style and objective of mentoring: The sponsorship models and the developmental model. The sponsorship model prevalent in the US initially emphasized on the role of the mentor as a higher-ranking, older, dominant, and authoritarian power which provided practical aid and direction to the mentee. On the other hand, the mentee expressed his respect and devotion to the mentor. The mentee was referred to as ‘protégée’ to denote this relationship based on hierarchy (Clutterbuck, 2004)

However, this hierarchal model is not suitable in the European context, where more emphasis is laid on the self-development and self-reliance aspect in the process of mentoring. This developmental model is centralized around the notion that an individual can be more independent and self –reliant through personal growth. These approaches have paved the way for the development of people-centred, holistic approaches.

Performance and Solution-focused approaches

Performance coaching puts more emphasis on the outputs and outcomes in the form of the coach’s level of performance than inputs in the form of helping them to acquire skills (Hawkins and Smith, 2007).

Performance approach is based on the ideas taken from business, psychotherapy and sports psychology. It focuses on the encouragement and guidance for stimulating progress in the individual’s performance (Deans et al., 2006).

The most established performance model has been the GROW model which is widely prevalent in coaching today. Sir John Whitmore developed it, and many established coaches adopt this model in constituting their coaching program. The GROW model interprets itself as:

  • G for Goal
  • R for Reality
  • O for Opportunity
  • W for What next

According to a study conducted by the Work Foundation and the School of Coaching (2002) “34% of respondents stated that they used the GROW model, one third cited they used a variety of models, and the remaining third did not know what model or process was used in their coaching activities” (Dembkowski and Eldridge,2003,p.2).

Another model related to performance is ACHIEVE that is similar to GROW but is logically expanded. It is also based on the systematic development of the coaching association. This seven-step model stands for:

Assess the current situation; Creative brainstorming of alternatives to the current situation; Hone goals; Initiate options; Evaluate options; Valid action program design; Encourage momentum ( Dembkowski and Eldridge,2003).

Solution-focused model of coaching is centred on the problem. The OSKAR is one of the solution-focused models. Oskar stands for:

  • Outcome
  • Scaling
  • Know-how the resources
  • Affirm and Action
  • Review

This approach identifies the inherent skills and capabilities of an individual and uses it in facilitating his self-defined goal achievement (Deans et al., 2006).

Holistic, People-centred approach

This approach emphasizes the idea that along with substantial and logical abilities, people’s emotions, ideology, and spiritual thinking are accountable for bringing out changes in their behaviour. People’s spirituality has the power to affect their decisions related to their development (Beek, 2000). Development coaching focuses on the long-term development of the individual, improving his human capacities and facilitating his personal development (Hawkins & Smith, 2007). There is a considerable emphasis laid by previous researches on involving human emotions and spiritual aspects in the process of their development. This shifting of focus on people’s personal and emotional aspects has reinforced the holistic or people-centred approaches to coaching and mentoring models (Deans et al., 2006).

Transformational Coaching

The systematic transformational coaching aims at helping clients change their outlook and sensitivity towards issues to enable them to create a ‘knock-on shift’ in the wider organisation (Hawkins & Smith, 2007).

Formal and informal mentoring

Mentoring can be formal or informal. Formal mentoring programs are more structured. They involve supervision and work upon clearly determining organisational goals. For making the onboard process convenient for the new employees, organisations assign some mentors who play the role of “peer buddies” for them. These “peer buddies” help them to find their way in the new workplace. Informal mentoring has no structured process, supervision, and predetermined goals. It is inclined towards interpersonal development and encourages career development. However, formal or informal, both types of mentoring needs to work on well-defined tasks and participant’s awareness regarding the advantages of the program is essential for its success (Best practices mentoring, 2008). Researchers, studying coaching, and mentoring agree on the point that informal mentoring programs that occur naturally are more effective and bring positive results than the formal programs (Chao, Walz &Gardner as cited in Law, Ireland & Hussain, 2007).

Coaching, training or mentoring provides an environment for reflection on capabilities and competencies of the facilitators and help them to assess and improve their style.

“So far from being soft and fluffy, there are hard business reasons to learn about group dynamics and hone facilitation skills, and developing these skills should be a priority for those looking to lead effectively” (Edge Online, 2013, concluding Para).

Structured and unstructured program

Coaching can be offered through structured or unstructured programs. However, non-structured approach poses uncertainties in attaining desired results. This kind of coaching raises chances of gender or racial bias. Structured coaching and mentoring is more prevalent and reliable and draws better outcomes. Structured programs for these two activities are specific in nature and are relevant to the culture and planning of the organisation. There is a range of objectives that an organisation may require to achieve through these programs. They are developing leadership skills, preparing the younger generation for succession, making the induction procedure easy and motivating for socialization to enhance retention, increasing opportunities for those who face gender or racial bias (Martin, n.d).

A structured program brings about better outcomes since it is focused on specific goals. It is strategically planned and has an organised structure. It treats all participants equally, acknowledges, and values every participant’s efforts. A structured approach determines certain guidelines and policies for the success of their plans. In a structured kind of coaching and mentoring program, there is an emphasis on the observation of the procedure and assessment of outcomes.

Studies on mentoring programs show that an effective mentoring program brings about satisfactory improvements in the mentees in the form of a sense of satisfaction in one’s present job and positive attitude towards one’s career. He feels more committed to the organisation he is working in (Ragins et al. as cited in Martin, n.d.). Traditionally, skill development was acquired mainly through continuous imitation and practice over a long span. Observing someone more experienced in the same line was considered the only way of developing leadership qualities. However, learning through observation does not fit into the present scenario of the business community because of the lack of time for practice and unavailability of inspirational people to be followed. Therefore, conceptual or intricate skills such as executive leadership require more reinforcement through coaching. Coaching sets a relevant pace for individuals to learn and make proper use of suggestions on their actions for reaching the planned state of success.

The available literature on coaching shows that it can be grouped into three bodies of the psychological, training and development, and management (Kampa, Kokesch & Anderson, as cited in Horner, 2002).

Lee (2003) has suggested five stages of the coaching process: learning, assessing, story-making, enabling, and reframing. These stages do not signify any linear development but, rather a supple framework that includes the vital activities of leadership coaching.

According to Bluckert (2006 p.11), the main steps involved in the execution of a coaching program can be outlined as follows:

  1. Engagement and contracting
  2. Assessment and feedback
  3. Creating the coaching agenda
  4. Structuring the coaching intervention
  5. Delivering the coaching
  6. Review and evaluation

These models or approaches can be used in different contexts in different organisations for enabling executives to attain leadership skills. An effective coaching and mentoring program enhances the capabilities of executives as successful leaders and thus leads to the success of the organisation in general.

Models are valuable in providing an understandable and see-through process of coaching. Models are used by coaches to form their coaching strategies and plan their sessions. These models are not rigid but rather flexible and easily structured to fit in any kind of circumstances. The models are effective in convincing people about the procedure of a coaching session and the structure of a coaching program. It makes the selection of coaches easier for organisations or individuals (Dembkowski & Eldridge,2003, Para 10).

“Mentoring and coaching sessions keep individuals on track in terms of the values, vision and strategy of the business and assist in the development of people in organisations” (Coaching and Mentoring Skills for Leaders, n.d. para 1).

Methodology

Research method

For this research, the researcher has used qualitative as well as quantitative research techniques. The study aims to explore the behavioural changes and attitudes of the executives and their stakeholders concerning the coaching and mentoring activities in their organisations. Hence, qualitative research technique is used as it is concerned with the quality or kind. This research technique uses in-depth interviews for exploring the hidden motives and desires. It also intends to know about the feelings and attitudes of people relating to a particular subject or institution. This type of research is appropriate for the behavioural sciences as it deals with the factors of specific behavioural patterns and attitudes in individuals (Research Methodology: An Introduction, n.d.).

Moreover, the survey provided relevant statistical quantitative data to complement and confirm the findings presented by qualitative data

Qualitative research is done to improve quality and is often considered as ‘Motivational Research’. It is the right way to judge human behaviour as it focuses on the study of fundamental motives and desires of human behaviour. It also focuses on people’s attitude and opinion about particular subjects or institutions (Research Methodology: An Introduction, n.d.).

The statistical survey provides standardized information about the research subject. It is a well-organised way to gather information regarding the attitudes and behaviours involving a large number of respondents. The data collected through surveys is valid, reliable, and statistically significant. It is easy to administer, and there is the least possibility for mistakes (Massey et al., 1997). For this study, Likert scale, a bipolar scaling method, is used to construct the questionnaire.

Likert scale is used to construct questionnaires to get psychometric replies from the people. It aims at obtaining the degree of agreement or knowing the preferences of the respondents. These scales do not use comparative techniques, but rather evaluate a single feature. The level of agreement has to be shown with the statements on an ordinal scale (Bertram, n.d.).

The Likert Scale is easy to use the system in the surveys. It can be in the form of self- completion questionnaires or can be given as a self-completion part of the survey, administered by an interviewer (Brace, 2008). In this system, participants are asked to show their degree of agreement with the given statement. Likert scale system uses a five-point scale system where the respondents have to pick any one option from the given five points. In this study, the questions included in the questionnaire were in a positive sense that means all the statements were a sign of the positive impact of coaching and mentoring programs on the executives and organisations as well. Before the final distribution of the questionnaire, test research was carried out. For this purpose, ten copies of the questionnaire were sent randomly through email. The pilot study aimed to make sure that the questionnaire is easy to understand to the participants. Then the questionnaire was sent to the sample selected for the research.

Sample selection

For the survey, the sample was selected randomly from the Business Directory-UK that included managers (management development) and Human Resource directors from 100 firms. Participants’ approval was sought before, including them in the survey.

The sample for the qualitative interviews involved 40 executives and HR professionals who belonged to different small and major organisations relating to general management accountancy and finance, science and medicine, and engineering. The participants were between the ages of 35-54. In the selection of the sample, it was kept into consideration that their organisations had introduced both coaching and mentoring programs formally. The equality of gender was kept under consideration while selecting the sample.

Definitions of the terms for the study (executive, leadership competency, coaching and mentoring)

The following definitions of the terms executive, leadership competency, coaching and mentoring were taken into consideration for the study.

Executive

The executive defined in this study identifies with the definition given by Tropman and Wooten and is referred to as holding a senior managerial position in the organisations. Executives perform significant and crucial activities and create an environment for consistent, high-quality output. They focus on doing appropriate things and exploring ways for further improvement. Efficient executive leaders are supposed to create a fine balance between the regulatory nature of an executive and liberal nature of a leader.

Leadership competency

Leadership defined for this study involves the idea of deep concern for the fulfilment of the desired task as well as a genuine concern for people. While driving others towards the accomplishment of desired goals, It performs the vital strategic, tactical, and interpersonal roles for the organisations. It relates to Lee’s views that leadership cannot be learned from some academic course. It is the result of a constant process involving the actions generating self-awareness, enhancing confidence level, integrating creativity and most of all, involving and motivating others in the development process.

Coaching

Coaching is a bonding between the coach and the client that involves various behavioural exercises and practices to reach the desired goals set by both. Coaching is used to improve his or her professional performance and personal satisfaction, and as a result, to improve the effectiveness of the client’s organisation as per the officially defined coaching agreement.

Mentoring

The definition of mentoring for this study identifies with the definition given by Clutterbuck, which identifies mentoring as an off-line help provided by one person to another for passing his knowledge and experience. It also relates to the mentoring definition by Robinson that mentoring is the best way to transfer skills and knowledge from one person to another conveniently and swiftly. It helps in arousing reliability and dedication in the new employees to work in an organisation.

Hypotheses

The key hypotheses addressed by the present study are:

  1. An executive has to be an effective leader also.
  2. Executive leadership skills are not necessarily inherent; they are developed in the course of time.
  3. Executive coaching and mentoring are effective tools for leadership development in executives.
  4. Executive coaching putting more stress on personal development than professional development is more effective in developing and maintaining leadership skills.
  5. Executives’ positive attitude towards coaching and mentoring facilitates progress in their performance.
  6. Executive coaching and mentoring are very helpful in developing thriving leaders if it allows manifestation.
  7. Executive coaching and mentoring help in fostering the skills to acclimatize and work flexibly in different situations.
  8. Effective coaching and mentoring promote the sense of self-awareness and self- reliance in the executives.
  9. On-job coaching and mentoring is more effective in developing and sustaining leadership skills.
  10. Measuring the behaviours and skills developed through executive coaching and mentoring may reduce their sustainability.
  11. The process skill of the coach or mentor is more influential in the activity than the business experience.
  12. Executive coaching and mentoring facilitate the financial performance of the organisation and foster Return on Investment.
  13. Contribution from both the partners in the form of time and energy is a binding factor in an effective coaching and mentoring activity.
  14. Executive coaching and mentoring help in creating a balance between personal and professional life.
  15. Coaching and mentoring create effective successors for the organisation.

Data Presentation

Findings of the survey

Respondents’ attitude towards the questionnaire was encouraging. However, a few selected participants did not show any positive response in sending back the filled up questionnaire in time. Out of 100, only 70 responses offered complete data that helped provide convincing statistical analysis. The findings of the survey revealed the following information.

Almost all (98%) of the respondents had practised external coaching and mentoring. Respondents were positive about the efficacy of coaching and mentoring and 88% confirmed that leadership skills could be best developed through coaching and mentoring.

56% of the participants confirmed that coaching was practised as a developmental tool in their organisation. Only 20% confirmed that coaching was offered as a remedial tool. 76% of the sample felt that executive’s commitment was a major factor contributing to the effectiveness of the coaching and mentoring process. 75% felt that these programs would draw better results if there were more focus on the personal development of the executives rather than the growth of the organisation. 66% of the respondents agreed that reflection on one’s actions is a contributing factor in the success of coaching and mentoring.78 percentage respondents agreed to the statement that coaching and mentoring is helpful in adjustment and acclimatization in different situations. 88% confirmed that coaching and mentoring develops a sense of self-awareness and self-reliance. Most (75%) of the respondents agreed that the benefits of coaching and mentoring are permanent if there is an opportunity to practice them in the workplace environment. Coming to the issue related to assessment, only 44% of the sample confirmed that there is any kind of assessment for coaching and mentoring.

A large number(73%) of respondents disagreed to the statement that coaching and mentoring is effective if there are possibilities of measuring the outcomes. 41% felt that it was a costly affair to deploy external coaches and mentors. The percentage of managers and directors who felt that coaching and mentoring was successful in returning investment of time and money was 87%. A large number of samples (73%) that an internal coach can be more effective in coaching a senior manager. The people getting benefits of coaching were mainly from executive ranks or senior managerial posts. 65% of the respondents pointed out that internal coaches should be provided with some kind of training. 74% of the respondents agreed that coaching and mentoring helps maintain a balance between personal and professional life. Most (80%) of the respondents pointed out that coaching and mentoring creates the next generation of efficient successors. The respondents (89%) confirmed that the coaches and mentors are paid a fixed salary.

To get the qualitative data concerning the study, telephonic interviews were conducted. The respondents were contacted on the telephone itself. Telephonic interview is a more flexible and faster way of obtaining information. It is cheaper and supports recall. There is a higher rate of responses and does not need any field staff for carrying out the process (Kothari, 2008). The interviews were carried out using the semi-structured format of questions. This kind of format for interviews helps to increase stability and improves the soundness and comparability of the data that has been collected (Rubin, 2005). There was only one person involved in the process of interviews, and it was kept in consideration that there should be no possibility of bias and prejudices. The major findings of gathered through the sample interview are as follows:

  1. The effectiveness of coaching largely depends on the executives’ commitment to improvement.
  2. It was considered essential for a coaching and mentoring relationship to be confidential to be more effective.
  3. The opportunity to utilize newly learnt behaviours at the workplace enhances the effectiveness of the coaching and mentoring program.
  4. The coaching process was more effective where there was a choice offered in choosing one’s own coach.
  5. Executives’ opinion about the qualities of a coach was that they were accommodating, were not very lenient, but moderate and were efficient in enabling to find solutions through questioning.
  6. Lack of workplace practice, unavailability of efficient coaches, time and money investment, executive’s rigidness, a forced relationship between the coach and the executive, the interest was shown by the organisation, and the degree of confidentiality involved in the process were some of the barriers in achieving desired results through coaching.

Almost all (96%) the interviewees confirmed the fact that the coaching and mentoring program is helpful in increasing the confidence level in the executives. A large number (88%) of executives viewed that coaching and mentoring has been helpful in maintaining a balance between the workplace and home. The coaching and mentoring programs have proved to be beneficial in developing competency and leadership skills. The executives confirmed that coaching and mentoring increases future prospects for personal and professional progress. 80% of the executives said that no other developmental tool could match the efficacy of coaching and mentoring. 86% of the interviewees asserted that their motivational level had been higher ever since they have involved in the coaching and mentoring program. They said that coaching and mentoring has fostered their self-confidence and has made them self-reliant. The findings of the interview suggest that coaching and mentoring programs are accepted and admired by a large number of executives and managers in the organisations.

Executives showed a positive attitude towards the effectiveness of coaching and mentoring programs in developing executive leadership competencies. They affirmed that coaching and mentoring had reinforced their competency related to their work. To make executives efficient in dealing with cultural changes and acclimatizing with a new environment were the main criteria for practising the executive coaching program. It was confirmed by a majority that informal coaching and mentoring programs are more beneficial and result-oriented than the formal ones. They pointed out that coaching and mentoring creates the next generation of efficient successors who can fill up the gap at the time of absenteeism or transition. There were hardly any measurement techniques applied for the assessment of the outcomes. Majority of the firms relied on subjective data gathered from the co-workers, line managers or juniors. The schedule for coaching sessions was usually twelve sessions in a year that occurred once in a month for 2-3 hours each. The majority of the sample agreed that the coaches are paid a fixed amount for a program.

Testing the Hypothesis

The survey results and the semi-structured interviews provide insight into the importance of coaching and mentoring in developing executive leadership qualities in the employees of organisations. The following results were found with reference to the hypothesis formed for the study.

An executive has to be an effective leader also.

The survey, as well as the interview findings, was supportive of the notion that it is important for an executive to be a successful leader. Executives are supposed to lead others in carrying out crucial assignments. It supports Hernandez view that leaders can encourage the followers to generate morally courageous behaviour. They nurture appropriate relational and motivational support and thus help them to improve. Successful executives motivate others to work in a set direction so that the desired goals can be achieved through collaborative efforts.

Executive leadership skills are not necessarily inherent; they are developed in the course of time through developmental activities like coaching and mentoring:

Survey and the interview findings suggested that executive coaching plays a significant role in the constant improvement in leadership performance. The leadership competencies like self-awareness, self-assessment, and influence were developed through executive coaching and mentoring. Developing these skills helps the executives in adopting the most effectual leadership style.

Executive coaching and mentoring are effective tools for leadership skill development in executives.

The study reveals that coaching and mentoring are effective developmental tools for building leadership skills. Since it is a personalized development activity, it is natural for executives to have experienced different competency infringements. Therefore, it is difficult to generalize the skills that were best developed through coaching and mentoring. However, in this study responses from the executives and HR professional stakeholder groups did not reveal any significant differences in the competencies that were developed most recurrently by the executive group.

Executive coaching and mentoring, putting more stress on personal development than professional development are more effective in developing and maintaining leadership skills.

This study reveals that the focus on personal content has been very useful in determining the efficacy and sustainability of leadership potency. Coaching sessions involve executive’s active participation in selecting the area to be worked on. The focus on personal development creates a higher sense of commitment and increases the executive’s willingness and responsibility for learning. This notion supports Smith’s view that leadership skills need a different form of development that emphasizes on obtaining information rather than transmitting learning. Leadership competencies are represented in influencing managers to perform and not in managing a task. These skills are easily learnt and motivate others for learning.

Executive coaching and mentoring are more effective as a positive development process rather than just a remedial process.

The present study reveals that executive coaching and mentoring has been more successful and effective in organisations where it has been practised as a positive development process rather than just a remedial process. However, as a remedial process, it motivates executives to feel that they are valued in the organisation and generates aspiration and dedication for the coaching process. Executive coaching does not generate any kind of indignant or distrustful feeling in the executives as they themselves direct and manage their learning.

Executives’ positive attitude towards coaching and mentoring facilitates progress in their performance. There are different sets of skills required for leadership and management. It requires opening up and harmonizing with new prospects and efficiency in managing vagueness.

It has been argued in the existing literature that normally, leadership competencies are not developed in a controlled environment, which focuses more on the circulation of information. Instead, these are acquired through actual actions performed by the leaders.

They reflect on their mistakes and weaknesses and analyze their reasons. This helps in facilitating learning the skills successfully.

The present study supports the notion that it is beneficial for executives to take out time and think about the efficacy and relevance of their actions taken for leadership competency development. The importance of relevant behaviour, in accordance with the professional hierarchy, is determined through reflection.

Executive coaching and mentoring help in fostering the skills to acclimatize and work flexibly in different situations.

The study reveals that executive coaching has enabled people to perform flexibly in different situations. The executives have confirmed that coaching has enhanced their adaptability to different situations. This flexibility can be facilitated with the trait of self-awareness and self-assessment that helps the leader to adopt the right kind of leadership style for a particular situation.

Effective coaching and mentoring promote the sense of self-awareness and self-reliance in the executives.

The study supports the notion that executive coaching and mentoring enables executives to bear the responsibility for the development of leadership competencies. They directly involve in self-assessment and planning remedial approaches for their development. The coach is supposed to help in bringing out the talent that already exists. He does not perform as an instructor and helps the executives to draw out information by themselves. The study reveals that executives with a positive attitude towards challenges and willingness to work on their behaviours were among those who were most benefitted through coaching and mentoring. The findings support the view of Leucke & Ibarra that mentoring helps people in their pursuit of growth. In the mentoring relationship, the initiative is taken by the learner to seek guidance from a trusted and experienced person, and he takes responsibility for his own learning and growth. The development in their skills was recognized in the form of promotions and incentives. A few executives lagged behind in developing the desired competency, and they related this failure to their own negligence and lack of interest. However, it is important on the part of the coach to create an environment that motivates executives to hang on to the coaching procedure right at the initiation of the program.

On-job coaching and mentoring is more effective in developing and sustaining leadership skills. Previous literature on the subject suggests that the development of leadership competencies depends on the idea of self-efficacy largely. One way of acquiring this self-efficacy is to provide an opportunity for the executives to practice these skills in their workplaces. The study suggests that trying something innovative with the support of the coach brought out good results. The workplace experience was helpful in sustaining leadership competencies.

The findings are supportive of Martin’s views that on-job coaching for executives facilitates their strengths and talents. The coach tries to find ways to motivate the executives to recognize their capabilities and work on their further improvement.

Some executives were not in leadership roles but had been selected for leadership tasks in future. They did not show up expected results in building up self-efficacy as they had little chance to experience the new ideas in the actual settings.

It is evident in the previous literature that evaluation of the behaviours and skills that are developed through executive coaching and mentoring proves to be a constraint in their sustainability. It was found that focusing too much on tangible results reduces the chances of better results as it affects the intimacy and frankness between the coach and coachee. The prevailing idea is that directive coaching, and the mentoring procedure does not encourage executives to develop skills of self-awareness and self-assessment. It decreases the possibility of sustaining the behaviour and competencies developed through coaching and mentoring. The non-directive approach to coaching is more effective as it allows the participants to assess their behaviours themselves and work on its modification as and when required instead of mechanically following the directions of the coaches and mentors. However, this study had some limitations since very few organisations were engaged in the formal evaluation of their coaching programs.

The process skill of the coach or mentor is more influential in the activity than the business experience.

The findings suggest that the process skills of the coach or mentor are more influential than business skills in motivating executives to develop the right perspective for dealing with different situations and problems. The process skills comprise maintaining familiarity with the executives, listening to their views, confronting when required, providing support and strength, reflecting and enquiring. It was confirmed by the executives that it is essential for the effectiveness of coaching that the coach builds congenial rapport and arise the sense of integrity. Mentor and mentee also need to have an open and friendly relationship for the effectiveness of the outcomes. A smaller number of executives considered the business experience of the coach as a significant factor for successful executive coaching.

Executive coaching and mentoring facilitate the financial performance of the organisation and foster Return on Investment (ROI).

The findings suggest that effective coaching and mentoring motivates executives to adopt suitable leadership styles for different situations, as described by Goleman, which in turn increases their performance resulting in the overall financial performance of the organisation. Moreover, it is confirmed that the organisation’s investment in time and money during the coaching procedure brings out desired outcomes in the form of producing efficient executive leaders.

Executive coaching and mentoring help in creating a balance between personal and professional life

Executives are enabled to develop a balanced and integrated personal life creating a greater sense of satisfaction in their personal life. Executive coaching develops their skills relating to management in professional as well as personal life. The study declares that mentoring provides solace in the perplexing social environment and introduces a novel and high potential workspace.

Coaching and mentoring develop better communication skills within the organisation

An efficient executive leader needs to be an expert in communicating messages and values of the organisation. The message has to be clear, exact, authentic, and accurate. The communication encompasses others needs and concerns and thus add value to their world. The present study confirms the notion that great communication skills lead to efficient leadership.

Mentoring also helps in developing better communication within the organisation. In conventional mentoring, the junior level mentee can be in touch with the superior managerial levels. Being aware of the mannerisms and communication style of both the levels, the mentee can facilitate his communication with both the levels.

Informal mentoring programs bring better outcomes

The study reveals that executives are more comfortable with informal mentoring programs. There are more flexibility and openness attached to informal mentoring. A review of previous literature on this subject suggests that researchers, studying coaching, and mentoring agree on the point that informal mentoring programs that occur naturally are more effective and bring positive results than the formal programs.

Coaching and mentoring create effective successors for the organisation

The present study confirms that coaching and mentoring provide a foundation for creating successors as it builds a foundation of shared knowledge for the organisation. Degrandpre asserts that mentoring creates efficient successors who can take up the responsibility even when significant people leave the organisation. This shared knowledge stays with the business and helps to deal with the transitional crisis. Organisations where mentoring is an integral part of the culture, everyone teaches and learns. The infrastructure is supportive of mentoring and acclaims it.

Data Analysis

However, studies involving coaching and mentoring reveal that they are evidently beneficial for individuals as well as organisations. Nonetheless, their success and failure depend on different other aspects. The findings of the present study are supportive of Ragins, Cotton & Miller’s view that an effective mentoring program brings about satisfactory improvements in the mentorees in the form of a sense of satisfaction in one’s present job and positive attitude towards one’s career. He feels more committed to the organisation he is working in.

Many leading companies like IBM, Ernst & Young, Citicorp and Motorola, confirm that there have been positive outcomes by introducing coaching and mentoring programs in their organisation. These positive outcomes can be assessed in the form of revenue growth, raised market shares and increased productivity and improved staff retention (Laabs as cited in Martin, n.d.).

It was observed in the present research that coaching and mentoring programs prove to be more effective if it is attached to some recognition. Martin also suggests that it is essential for the organisation to ensure affiliation of recognition and reward for sincerely taken up coaching and mentoring programs. For the effectiveness of these programs, they should be affiliated to other regular types of programs within the organisation.

Other related research has found that leaders displaying responsible leadership behaviours, placing the long-term interests of a group ahead of their personal goals, are more likely to ensure the long-term survival and success of the organisation. When coaching approaches are a decisive factor for corporate culture, its integration with other developmental processes seems to be critical. If coaching is incorporated with leadership development, it makes certain that leaders have sufficient developmental skills to add in coaching approaches into their leadership styles (Anderson et al., n.d.).

Coaching and mentoring helps executives in carrying out crucial assignments. It provides considerable support in the tasks where the executives feel stuck or confused.

Richard Huseman (2008) states that one of the major factors leading to leadership development is ‘stretch assignments’. These testing assignments push the leaders beyond their current skill and calibre. The leaders are anxious in the beginning and feel forced to learn new skills for accomplishing the task and thus acquire better leadership skills.

However, it is crucial to provide enough support to the leaders to meet out these new challenges, or the experiences could be bewildering for them if they are left stranded and disrupted. This support can be provided through one to one coaching and feedback from those working with them.

The relationship between the coach and coachee or mentor and mentee has a great influence on the success of the programs. Leadership coaching lays emphasis on the adequate understanding of managers that will reinforce the genuineness of the coaching process. It is important for the coach to gain in-depth information about the personal history of the coachee and make practical changes using his personal knowledge (Lee, 2003).

The findings of the present study reveal that coaching offered through non-structured approach poses uncertainties in attaining desired results. This kind of coaching raises chances of gender or racial bias. Structured coaching and mentoring is more prevalent and reliable and draws better outcomes. It supports Martin’s view that structured coaching and mentoring programs are specific in nature and relevant to the culture and planning of the organisation. There is a range of objectives that an organisation may require to achieve through these programs such as developing leadership skills, preparing the younger generation for succession, making the induction procedure easy and motivating for socialization to enhance retention, increasing opportunities for those who face gender or racial bias.

In future, many organisations will put coaching and mentoring into practice. These findings relate to another survey results by Mannaz, which declares that coaching and mentoring will be the top sought after leadership developing tools in future and emphasizes on the requirement of efficient and professional coaches and mentors for this purpose. The findings suggest that there a “strong desire to find new ways to link leadership development initiatives to organisational strategy; to work on the real cases, challenges and dilemmas facing leaders; to link development to specific job assignments; to use leaders’ experiences to train other leaders. Approaches that will foster learning from peers and encourage networking within the organisation will be increasingly preferred to traditional ones” (Innovation in Leadership Development, Mannaz, 2011, p.13). The present study also supports the suggestions of the survey conducted by Mannaz that “the role of senior executives in the leadership development process is perceived as even more critical than in the past. Their direct involvement and active sponsorship are needed, of course, but also their ‘modelling the way’ and being living examples of the attitudes, competencies and type of leadership that the organisation needs” (Mannaz, 2011, p.13).

Discussion

Research studies conducted by Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD) and many other leading research institutes have declared that coaching comes in the category of popular leadership development programs. These studies also assert that coaching is going to sustain as a strong intervention in the business world (Passemore, 2010). The summer 2009 survey conducted by CIPD confirms that coaching is gaining grounds in the present scenario. It is observed that organisations are relying more on coaching for enhancing performance and leadership development (Taking the temperature of coaching, 2009).

The study reveals that the “extent of coaching is great, with nearly 90% of respondents reporting that coaching is used within their organisation. This is an interesting finding because previous surveys have shown a high and stable level of reported coaching practice at around 70%” (Taking the temperature of coaching, 2009, P.5).

Martin says, “Coaching and mentoring programs are increasingly being incorporated in the organisations (Martin, n.d. p.5).

It has been observed in a survey conducted by the CCH Australia/Australian Graduate School of Management that about 60% of the 25 largest public companies in Australia were practising coaching and mentoring program in the year 2001. There has been a constant increase in the number of organisations opting for coaching and mentoring programs. The survey also revealed that the percentage of mentoring schemes in place for managers had risen from 19% in 1996 to 26% in 2001 (Martin,n.d.). Nevertheless, there is a lack of empirical information, suggesting what makes an executive program effective. There is still an interrogation mark on the methods of measuring return on investment for coaching. “I don’t think ROI is ever going to be able to measure the true success of coaching, so we assess the value with qualitative data,” says Wendy Gabriel, who is the manager of executive coaching at Deloitte & Touche USA (Sherman & Freas, 2004, p.1).

In the coaching process, there is a triangular relationship built between the coach, coachee and the client (usually the HR departments of the organisations). The coaching process is considered as successful when all the involved parties agree on the attainment of the desired goals. “When you create a culture of coaching, the results may not be directly measurable in dollars. But we have yet to find a company that can’t benefit from more candour, less denial, richer communication, conscious development of talent, and disciplined leaders who show compassion for people” (Sherman & Freas, 2004, p7).

There are many factors that contribute to an effective and successful coaching and mentoring program. There has to be an interest and readiness shown by the organisation for such programs. A study by Kulik and Bainbridge revealed that the outcomes of coaching programs also depend on the people who hold the responsibility for them. They found that changing liability between HR managers and line managers for coaching affected the efficacy of coaching. The line managers did not show much enthusiasm for taking up duty for the people management activities. However, some people management activities were denounced by both HR and line managers. Coaching was one of the least emphasized activities in the organisation. Kulik and Bainbridge put their views that “instead of being concerned about whether people management is the responsibility of HR or the line, both parties need to work together to determine the most effective sharing of responsibility for these crucial activities” (as cited in Martin, n.d.,p.7).

The present study revealed that executives need to have someone to advise them within or outside the organisation. They seek their guidance in completing crucial assignments and making strategies for accomplishing desired goals. Another study on the role of mentors revealed that the leaders that were studied had a close bond with someone in the best position whose advice they could count on. This advisor is usually from outside the organisation that performs as their mentor. However, these mentoring relationships are not formal and do not come under the mentoring programs provided by the companies, yet their influence in considering an individual leader’s needs and differences is noteworthy. This productive experience motivates many leaders to serve as mentors voluntarily. They select a few talented employees and assist them in their personal and professional growth and development for a certain period. They see their mirror image in these mentees as they succeed in life. In this way, they nurture the coming generation of successful leaders in the organisation. Besides this, it is important for the executive leaders to create a bond with other people outside their organisation who might be useful for them at some point in time. They give value to networking and believe in building an extensive constituency. Executive leaders’ efficacy can be seen in their influence on others as they share their experiences prudently. They keep gaining knowledge from their experiences, whether positive or negative and look for experts’ advice, for resolving different problems.

These leaders try to keep things easy and make information handy so that it is easier to deal with the complexity prevailing in the business community. This is also made evident in the study that effective leaders recognize their potency and limitations and do not pretend to be all things to all people. This genuineness helps them to develop a strong relationship with others. Conchie asserts that:

Organisations are struggling to build and grow their executive leadership capacity. Our research suggests that talented leaders require the very best development experiences to realize their potential. And for this potential to be converted into sustained, high organisational performance, these experiences must be framed around the key demands of executive leadership (Conchie, n.d, p.2).

The perception regarding coaching and mentoring needs to change from being only confined to top managerial positions. These development tools can be more effective if they assist in the personal progress and performance of the employees in general. According to a survey conducted by HBR, it was brought into light that there is a vast difference in the companies’ perception regarding the reasons for seeking coaching for their employees. It reveals that the purpose of seeking coaching was limited to the top-level behavioural problems about a decade ago. However, now it is not confined to mend noxious behaviour at the top and has spread its coverage to assist in the personal development and performance of the employees in general. This broader duty creates ambiguity regarding the range of activities involved in coaching and measuring the outcomes of the efforts done in the field. It also raises the question of selection of a suitable coach for the desired purpose (Coutu and Kauffman, 2009).

The result of a study reveals the importance of coaching for all, including women and ethnic minorities. It confirms the significance and a need for executive coaching as it provided a noteworthy return on investment. It was found in another study that “Seventy-five per cent of the sample (participants and stakeholders) indicated that the value of coaching was “considerably greater” or “far greater” than the money and time invested”(McGovern et al., 2001, p.7).

The themes that emerged from the study suggest that the organisations are working on a trial and error basis. They want the right path that can lead them to success. Coaching brings about positive results when the best-suited coaching approaches to the organisational needs are applied. Mentoring helps in preparing the next generation of efficient and competent successors who can take up the responsibilities even in the absence of the executive leaders. The role of learning and development professionals is of great importance in carrying out the process successfully.

The findings of related research suggest that the design and deployment of a coaching culture plan should be associated clearly to the important business outcomes of the organisations (Anderson et al., n.d.).

A research conducted by the Institute of Leadership and Management (Creating a Coaching Culture), demonstrated that coaching is incorporated in all types of organisations, small or big. However, the bigger organisations are equipped with, the better in-house facility and can get more resources. The study by ILM reveals that organisations usually associate coaching to the senior managers and directors and middle management. However, it is observed that coaching is still considered as a remedial tool in some organisations for helping people to overcome their weaknesses. Coaching has to be associated with high performance and not to improve weak performances of employees and thus should not be taken as a remedial tool. Effective coaching is done through guiding and inquiring that helps in releasing the potential rather than instructing. It intends to focus upon personal skills, but it is found that the organisations pay greater attention to the business and workplace skills. It is also observed that organisations hiring external coaches feel that coaching focuses on personal skills and business and workplace skills (Creating a coaching culture, n.d.).

It is suggested that coaching brings out better results when it integrates several interconnected levels in the course of action. It should foster the development of more effective parties, including individual, team, and organisations (Rosinski, 2011). Mike Myatt advocates for coaching and mentoring as better options for fostering leadership development and not letting the leaders fail in their ventures (Myatt, 2012).

Jack Zenger, the co-founder and CEO of Zenger Folkman, asserts that there are certain behavioural traits in some leaders that may be considered as “fatal flaws. These may include low levels of energy and enthusiasm, inability to convey the expectations relating to the quality and quantity of work to be produced and the inability to learn from their mistakes. These weaknesses may affect the efficiency of the leader significantly (Zenger, 2012).

However, it is noteworthy that only the presence of a coach or mentee does not draw positive results. A study on mentoring reveals that the positive outcomes are not due to the presence of a mentor only. It is the mentoring relationship that is accountable for the effectiveness of mentoring (Ragins et al., 2000).

Eric Jackson, the Founder and Managing Member of Ironfire Capital LLC proclaims that assigning mentors to high potential leaders for leadership development program is a prevailing practice in most of the organisations. However, it is not the right approach for a mentoring relationship to occur and be fruitful. He suggests that the boss should guide the leader regarding the best-suited mentor for him as he or she knows better about the people in the organisation.

“We’ve seen successful mentor relationships where the two people meet once a year for dinner; others where they meet every couple of months. It’s up to the two people. When it works, mentors can have a dramatic impact on “high-potential” leaders” (Jackson, 2012, Para 10).

Mentoring is usually provided to newly inducted employees. However, its significance is observed for the top managers also. Mentoring brings varied benefits to different types of organisations. The extent of success also varies in different organisations. Mentoring should not confine to the professional development of the junior staff or newly inducted employees, but rather it should be incorporated in the top hierarchy of personnel for attaining better organisational benefits. It helps in strengthening and sustaining the organisational culture that presents a common value base of its employees. Mentoring is also significant at the time of leadership succession when there is a need for modification in the organisational culture (Wilson & Elman, 1990).

A survey conducted by Duke University reveals that executives who were from higher-performing organisations found the coaching and mentoring programs of their organisations effective (Duke University Executive Leadership Survey, 2009).

It is evident that coaching and mentoring serve as a development tool in building leadership skills in the employees of an organisation. The impact may vary in different organisations; however, all organisations irrespective of their sizes are benefitted by introducing such developmental programs. There are certain factors that are responsible for the success of coaching and mentoring programs. These areas follow.

Factors responsible for the effectiveness of coaching and mentoring program

Quality of relationship

The nature of the relationship between the coach or mentor and his clients also determines the effectiveness of the program. It is found in the research that the bond between a coach or mentor and the client plays a great role in carrying out the program successfully. It signifies the importance of careful selection and training of the coaches or mentors so that he can influence the learners with their knowledge and competence through their development program.

Structure of the process

The effectiveness of a coaching and mentoring program also depends on the way it is constituted and organised. There has to be adequate guidelines and assistance to the coaches or mentors to carry out the procedures effectively and bring out the best possible results. A guide relating to the planned meetings their arrangements needs to be set up. It should also include the prospects and expectations of both the parties from the program.

Availability of both the parties

Regular participation and dedication are essential for carrying out a program successfully. Any kind of averting or lack of interest shown by the parties can affect the effectiveness of a coaching and mentoring program. It is essential that there should be regular involvement in the meetings, a regular follow-up on the discussions.

Quality of feedback

The mentor or coach can make the program effective by giving adequate feedback to the participants. His expertise in questioning the participants and finding inventive ideas for their improvement have a considerable impact on the success of the coaching and mentoring program.

Organisational support

It is found in the studies that significant interest shown by the organisation in the form of support from the immediate managers and helpful communication within the organisation increases the effectiveness of coaching and mentoring programs. It facilitates the personal and professional development of the participants (Martin, n.d.).

The Manchester Consulting study (McGovern et al., 2001) analyzed the impact of different factors on the effectiveness of coaching and mentoring program. They asked the executives to spot the reasons that were responsible for making the coaching experience effectual, and those proving as constraints to its effectiveness.

The factors that were suggested by the executives: the procedure of evaluation, the usefulness of the feedback, dedication shown by the executive to the procedure, the nature of association that is formed between the coach and the executive, the confidentiality maintained in the coaching process, the accessibility of the coach and the executive, and support from the manager and organisation.

Conclusion

No academic course can teach leadership. It is the result of a constant process involving the actions generating self-awareness, enhancing confidence level, integrating creativity and most of all, involving and motivating others in the development process.

A competent and efficient leader can steer the actions of his team in pursuing desired objectives. He can re-direct the actions of the co-workers by making the goals explicit and coherent and then conferring procedures to acquire those goals. He should also appreciate the sincere efforts and good performance of his team. Lacking in the above-mentioned traits may call for more coaching and mentoring exercise for the leader.

Coaching and mentoring can prove to be very beneficial for the executives as well as the organisations in general (Long, n.d.).An effective coaching and mentoring program enhances the capabilities of executives as successful leaders and thus leads to the success of the organisation in general. It makes them self- sufficient and independent.

However, it is important to realize that coaching and mentoring too have some limits. We need to use the appropriate leadership development method with reference to the context. It is important that these developmental tools are utilized for the right person. “If the wrong person is in the post, mentoring may not help; if the person is not committed to improving their own performance, coaching will not add value; if the person wants technical recommendations from outside, mentoring will be frustrating for all'( Deans et al.,2006).

The efficacy of a coaching and mentoring program depends largely upon the perception and adoption of these by the individuals and organisations. However, it can be assumed that these may bring out fruitful results if significant consideration is given to the factors leading to their efficacy. It is true that executive coaching and mentoring are considered as two strong interventions to assist executives in improving their performance and thus contributing to the growth of the organisation. However, there is a shortage of empirical evidence about the utility of coaching and mentoring in developing leadership skills in executives. Hence, there is a need for further research on the subject to find out how and why coaching and mentoring is beneficial in building effective executive leadership.

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Appendices

Survey Questionnaire

Please indicate how much you agree and disagree with the given statement.

1. Executive leadership skills can be developed in individuals.

  1. Strongly agree……………………………….
  2. Agree………………………………………….
  3. Neither agree nor disagree…………………
  4. Disagree…………………………………………
  5. Strongly disagree…………………………

2. Executive coaching has a great impact on building leadership qualities.

  1. Strongly agree……………………………….
  2. Agree………………………………………….
  3. Neither agree nor disagree…………………
  4. Disagree…………………………………………
  5. Strongly disagree…………………………

3. Executive mentoring is an effective skill development tool.

  1. Strongly agree……………………………….
  2. Agree………………………………………….
  3. Neither agree nor disagree…………………
  4. Disagree…………………………………………
  5. Strongly disagree……………………

4. Coaching and mentoring draw better results if used as developmental programs rather than remedial programs.

  1. Strongly agree……………………………….
  2. Agree………………………………………….
  3. Neither agree nor disagree…………………
  4. Disagree…………………………………………
  5. Strongly disagree……………………………….

5. Executives’ active participation in the coaching and mentoring processes brings out better results.

  1. Strongly agree……………………………….
  2. Agree………………………………………….
  3. Neither agree nor disagree…………………
  4. Disagree…………………………………………
  5. Strongly disagree……………………………….

6. Coaching focusing on personal development can be sustained for long.

  1. Strongly agree……………………………….
  2. Agree………………………………………….
  3. Neither agree nor disagree…………………
  4. Disagree…………………………………………
  5. Strongly disagree……………………………….

7. Coaching and mentoring may be more effective if there are opportunities for reflection.

  1. Strongly agree……………………………….
  2. Agree………………………………………….
  3. Neither agree nor disagree…………………
  4. Disagree…………………………………………
  5. Strongly disagree……………………………….

8. Adjustment and acclimatization in different situations is made easy by coaching and mentoring.

  1. Strongly agree……………………………….
  2. Agree………………………………………….
  3. Neither agree nor disagree…………………
  4. Disagree…………………………………………
  5. Strongly disagree……………………………….

9. Coaching and mentoring develop self-awareness and self-reliance.

  1. Strongly agree……………………………….
  2. Agree………………………………………….
  3. Neither agree nor disagree…………………
  4. Disagree…………………………………………
  5. Strongly disagree……………………………….

10. The benefits of coaching and mentoring are permanent if there is an opportunity to practice them in the workplace environment.

  1. Strongly agree……………………………….
  2. Agree………………………………………….
  3. Neither agree nor disagree…………………
  4. Disagree…………………………………………
  5. Strongly disagree……………………………….

11. The outcomes of the coaching and mentoring programs are assessed in your organization.

  1. Strongly agree……………………………….
  2. Agree………………………………………….
  3. Neither agree nor disagree…………………
  4. Disagree…………………………………………
  5. Strongly disagree………………………………

12. Coaching and mentoring is effective if there are possibilities of measuring the outcomes.

  1. Strongly agree……………………………….
  2. Agree………………………………………….
  3. Neither agree nor disagree…………………
  4. Disagree…………………………………………
  5. Strongly disagree……………………………….

13. Coaching and mentoring deployment is a costly affair.

  1. Strongly agree……………………………….
  2. Agree………………………………………….
  3. Neither agree nor disagree…………………
  4. Disagree…………………………………………
  5. Strongly disagree……………………………….

14. Executive coaching and mentoring fosters ROI

  1. Strongly agree……………………………….
  2. Agree………………………………………….
  3. Neither agree nor disagree…………………
  4. Disagree…………………………………………
  5. Strongly disagree……………………………….

15. Internal coaches are more influential for senior managerial positions.

  1. Strongly agree……………………………….
  2. Agree………………………………………….
  3. Neither agree nor disagree…………………
  4. Disagree…………………………………………
  5. Strongly disagree………………………………

16. Do you think that the internal coaches should be trained.

  1. Strongly agree……………………………….
  2. Agree………………………………………….
  3. Neither agree nor disagree…………………
  4. Disagree…………………………………………
  5. Strongly disagree……………………………….

17. Coaching and mentoring is helpful in maintaining a balance between personal and professional life.

  1. Strongly agree……………………………….
  2. Agree………………………………………….
  3. Neither agree nor disagree…………………
  4. Disagree…………………………………………
  5. Strongly disagree……………………………….

18. Coaching and mentoring creates the next generation of efficient successors.

  1. Strongly agree……………………………….
  2. Agree………………………………………….
  3. Neither agree nor disagree…………………
  4. Disagree…………………………………………
  5. Strongly disagree……………………………….

19. There should be proper training for the coaches and mentors.

  1. Strongly agree……………………………….
  2. Agree………………………………………….
  3. Neither agree nor disagree…………………
  4. Disagree…………………………………………
  5. Strongly agree……………………………….

20. The coaches or mentors are paid fixed salary.

  1. Strongly agree……………………………….
  2. Agree………………………………………….
  3. Neither agree nor disagree…………………
  4. Disagree…………………………………………
  5. Strongly disagree……………………………….

Questionnaire for the Interview

  1. Do you think an executive has to be an effective leader also?
  2. What is your experience about the executive leadership competency development? Can these be developed in course of time?
  3. Do you think coaching and mentoring are effective tools of leadership development in the executives?
  4. What is your opinion about the focus of executive coaching and mentoring? Shall it focus on personal development or professional development?
  5. Do you think that executives’ commitment towards coaching and mentoring facilitates progress in their performance?
  6. What is importance of reflection in executive coaching and mentoring?
  7. How does executive coaching and mentoring help in fostering the skills to cclimatize and work flexibly in different situations?
  8. What personal development skills are acquired through effective coaching and mentoring?
  9. Do you think on-job coaching and mentoring is more effective in developing and sustaining leadership skills, if yes how?
  10. Do you think that the behaviors and skills developed through executive coaching and mentoring should be assessed?
  11. Which quality is more important in the coaches or mentors: the process skill or the business experience?
  12. What is your view on ROI through executive coaching and mentoring?
  13. Do you think contribution of time and energy from both the partners, is a binding factor in an effective coaching and mentoring activity?
  14. Do you think that executive coaching and mentoring help in creating a balance between personal and professional life?
  15. Do you think that coaching and mentoring create effective successors for the organization?
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IvyPanda. (2020, July 30). Coaching and Mentoring in Executive Leadership. Retrieved from https://ivypanda.com/essays/coaching-and-mentoring-in-executive-leadership/

Work Cited

"Coaching and Mentoring in Executive Leadership." IvyPanda, 30 July 2020, ivypanda.com/essays/coaching-and-mentoring-in-executive-leadership/.

1. IvyPanda. "Coaching and Mentoring in Executive Leadership." July 30, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/coaching-and-mentoring-in-executive-leadership/.


Bibliography


IvyPanda. "Coaching and Mentoring in Executive Leadership." July 30, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/coaching-and-mentoring-in-executive-leadership/.

References

IvyPanda. 2020. "Coaching and Mentoring in Executive Leadership." July 30, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/coaching-and-mentoring-in-executive-leadership/.

References

IvyPanda. (2020) 'Coaching and Mentoring in Executive Leadership'. 30 July.

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