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Geneva Convention on terrorism
The Geneva Convention on terrorism was formulated in the 1940s and it was intended to regulate armed conflicts (Combs, 2003). The convention stipulated several protocols that were set to manage the treatment of war prisoners. According to the convention, any form of violence, torture or dehumanizing treatment of enemy combatants is prohibited (Combs, 2003). The Geneva Convention protects the rights of soldiers from recognized armies. This treaty was composed to regulate the controversial treatment of terror suspects captured by the west. However, critics argue that terrorists cannot be protected by this treaty because they are not engaged in a lawful combat. Many feel that the convention undermines the fight against terrorism.
The Tokyo convention on terrorism
The Tokyo convention is also known as The Convention on Offences and Certain Other Acts Committed On board Aircraft (Combs, 2003). This is an international treaty that was agreed on the 14th of September 1963 but was fully enforced in 1969 (Combs, 2003). The treaty has been ratified by 186 parties since it was formulated up to date. This treaty covers offences that compromise the safety and well being of persons or property on board civilian aircraft while in flight (Combs, 2003). Any terrorist engagement that jeopardizes international air navigation is protected by this treaty. According to this law, the criminal jurisdiction with regard to such terrorist acts can be exercised by any signatory state other than the state of registry although under limited conditions (Combs, 2003).
The Hague convention on terrorism
On the 16 of December 1970, the convention for the suppression of unlawful seizure of aircraft was signed at The Hague (Combs, 2003). The treaty prohibits any unlawful control of civilian aircraft or any form of intimidation or control of an aircraft by individuals who are not cabin members authorized to do so. In this treaty, the member states have agreed to make such an offense punishable by severe penalties (Combs, 2003). According to the treaty, an air craft is considered to be in flight the moment the external doors are closed to the moment when they will be open again (Combs, 2003). These moments are called embarkation and disembarkation moments respectively.
The Montreal convention on terrorism
The convention of the suppression of unlawful acts against the safety of civil aviation was concluded at the Montreal on the 23rd of September 1971 (Combs, 2003). According to this act, it is a crime to commit violence against persons on board an aircraft. Actions that endanger the safety of persons or properties on board an aircraft are considered an act of terror according to this treaty. In addition, any activity that can cause damage to an aircraft rendering it inept to perform its functions is also considered an act of terror. Other terrorist attacks include damage or causing harm to air navigation facilities or to interfere with their operations with an intention to endanger the safety of an in-flight aircraft (Combs, 2003).
Various United Nations Conventions on Terrorism
There are many other conventions on terrorism that have been agreed upon by the United Nations council and one of them is The International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings. This treaty came into force in May 23rd 2001 (Combs, 2003). There are 58 signatories to this treaty and 168 parties. The 1979 International Convention against Taking of Hostages was also adopted by the UN. Under this convention, it is prohibited hold, seize, or threaten to kill or detain an individual in order to compel or force a state or an international governmental organization to do or to abstain from doing something (Combs, 2003).
Combs, C. C. (2003). Terrorism in the 21st century (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Web.