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Culinary Arts and Garde Manger Investigation Research Paper

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Updated: May 8th, 2021


3 or more specific grades of caviar with explanations

Technically, caviar can be divided into two categories: sturgeon and non-sturgeon caviar. Each of them includes various types. Sturgeon caviar types are the following: Beluga, Kaluga, Sevruga, Sterlet, Osetra, Siberian Sturgeon, White Sturgeon, and Hackleback (“Sturgeon Caviar,” para. 1).

The non-sturgeon caviar includes different kinds of red and black caviar. They comprise salmon roe, Paddlefish, Bowfin, Tobico, Whitefish, Lumpfish, Capelin, Bottarga, Stromluga, Herring, and carp caviar.

“Sterling Caviar” offers another grade of caviar: Imperial, Royal, and Classic (“Caviar FAQ,” para. 1). Their difference is based on the way of processing, size, and color of the caviar.

Size of fish

Usually, the fish is raised at special farms until it reaches 20-25 pounds in size.

Main geographic location or origins

There is the main division in two areas: the American and Russian regions. According to “Sterling Caviar,” in North America sturgeons are found only in Northern Hampshire. However, originally, the caviar industry began to develop in Russia and the Mediterranean region.

Other geographic locations

The Caspian Sea in Russia and Iran, West Coast of Europe.

Process of removal

Sturgeon farming is a long process of raising the fish in natural conditions, but with a special environment. The eggs are incubated for a week before the baby sturgeon is hatched. Later, the chosen eggs are delicately separated and processed (“Sturgeon Farming,” para. 2).

Process of sieving or sizing

The sieving process is based on picking the eggs by color, maturity, and size. The size of the roe is dependant on the type of sturgeon. For example, Beluga caviar has the largest grains.

Process of salting

The method of salting depends on the grade of caviar. Pure salt, boric acid, and borax are used for the process. It can be lightly salted (Malossol method) or heavily salted, the amount can vary depending on the type of eggs.

Explanation of Malossol

Malossol is a particular method of preservation based on low-salting. It is aimed at keeping the flavor and preserving the caviar’s high quality. Experts prefer this method of preservation as the number of salt influences the quality, and very low-salted caviar is regarded as the top-quality type.

Describe a culinary application for the presentation of caviar

Caviar is to be served on a toast or crepes with a special mother of pearl spoon. It is considered a great appetizer for strong alcohol, so it is appropriate for celebrations with toasts.


One specific type with explanation

French Black truffle or black Périgord truffle is a type of fungi, named after the region in France, where it usually grows. It is usually used to cook pâté de foie gras (“Wild About Mushrooms,” para. 4).

Second specific type with explanation

Italian White truffle is another kind of fungi that can be found in Northern Italy, in the countryside of Alba, and differs from the black type in odor and taste.

Approximate size

It can vary from the size of a nut to the size of a person’s mitt, but there are some exceptions. For example, one of the biggest truffles ever found was 1,31 kilograms.

Main geographic location or origins of both types

Originally, the black truffle usually comes from France, the Périgord region in the southwest of the country. The white truffle is mostly found in the Italian region of Alba, but it also grows in Croatia and some parts of France.

Process of removal

Truffles grow underground and can be found with the help of dogs or pigs. After finding the right spot, farmers carefully dig them out, wash off the soil with water and give them a perfectly clean look.

Why are truffles so rare (and therefore expensive)?

First of all, they are very hard to find. The process of hunting truffles requires trained animals. Secondly, collecting truffles demand experience, as it is easy to damage the mushroom. Finally, its high quality and taste vanish rapidly, so only fresh truffles can be considered as good ones.

Name a culinary application using truffles

Truffles can be shaved over pasta, rice, and meat, or used for cooking foie gras, stuffings, and various sauces.

Foie Gras

What is foie gras?

Foie gras is a luxury delicacy made of fattened waterfowl’s liver (“About Hudson Valley Foie Gras,” para. 7). In French, it means “fatty liver.” The particularity of the dish is connected with an unusual method of getting a fat liver – a duck or a goose is forced to eat much more than normal through a feeding tube. This process is called “gavage”.

Main geographic location or origins of goose foie gras

Although the ancient roots of the “gavage” process were found in Egypt, the origins of goose foie gras are considered to be in France, as foie gras is a part of French cuisine.

The geographic location of duck foie gras production

France remains to be the leader in the production of all kinds of foie gras, including the duck one. However, it is also produced in the USA, China, and other countries of Western Europe.

Comparisons or contrasts of duck and goose livers

Goose liver is considered to be superior to the duck liver, as it has a smoother texture and richer, sweeter taste. Also, goose liver is pale, while duck liver is much darker. Duck liver is more rustic, bigger than the goose one, and generally, goes better for hot dishes.

Explanation of term “gavage”

Under the term, “gavage” French people mean the cruel process of forcing animals to overeat to get a fat liver (“A Cornucopia of Native Foie Gras,” para. 21). It is widely used by the opponents of foie gras which they regard as a dish representing human violence.

Name one culinary application for foie gras

It is used to produce the terrine of foie gras – marinated foie gras pressed into a terrine mold.


What components are combined to make cheese?

Usually, it is cow milk or milk of other mammals, raw or pasteurized. Sometimes, acids or rennets are also added (“Cheeses by Type,” n. p.).

What is separated in the process of making cheese?

In this process, the cheesemaker has to separate water and curd from the cheese milk. The amount of curd separated depends on the type of cheese.

List six categories of cheese with examples

  1. Hard cheeses (Anari, Alma Vorarlberger, Berkswell, Cheddar, Grana Padano, etc.);
  2. Semi-hard cheeses (Accasciato, Bianco, Coalho, Danish Feta);
  3. Soft cheeses (Brie, Camembert, Bufalino, Dorblu);
  4. Semi-soft cheeses (Bossa, Brin, Mozzarella);
  5. Firm cheeses (Goat Milk Feta, Tuada, Chevre);
  6. Fresh-soft cheeses (Mascarpone, Perroche, Australian Ricotta).

Name one general culinary application for cheese

Cheese is commonly used as hors d’oeuvres for wine. They often go together, but the principles of matching cheese with wine should be followed to reach to best taste.

Smoked Salmon

Explain curing and brining

Brining and curing are the two first steps in the process of cooking smoked salmon. Brining is the same as salting. Curing is about preserving the product right after bringing and requires packaging and refrigerating salmon (“How to Smoke Salmon,” para. 2).

What types of wood are suggested?

Experts advise using oak, apple, cherry, or hickory wood. Apple and cherry wood give stronger flavor, while oak tree provides with a medium flavor. The most intense smoke flavor is hickory wood. Also, nut-bearing trees go well for cooking.

What other smoked seafood is popular?

Smoked whitefish, trout, mackerel, halibut, sturgeon, turbot.

Name one culinary application for smoked seafood

Smoked seafood goes well as an appetizer for any kind of celebration. It can be used in vegetable wraps, which are great as a quick start to the dinner.


About Hudson Valley Foie Gras. (n. d.). Web.

A Cornucopia of Native Foie Gras. (2015). Web.

Caviar FAQ. (n. d.). Web.

Cheeses by type. (2015). Web.

How to Smoke Salmon. (n. d.). Web.

(n. d). Web.

(n. d.). Web.

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