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The purpose of this paper is to discuss the demographic transition model and the specifics of global food production. The demographic transition model focuses on describing the change of population during a certain period. It provides an integrated presentation of changing populations based on generalization regarding one or another issue. The model was developed using the assumptions made by Warren Thompson, who studied birth and death rates in populations and by Frank W. Notestein (Editorial Board, 2013). The model was further improved by other demographers in terms of describing stages.
Phases of Demographic Transition and Crude Birth and Death Rates
There are four phases of demographic transition, including pre-transition (high fluctuating), early transition, late transition, and post-transition (low fluctuating) (Editorial Board, 2013). At the first stage, the population grows slowly, and in the second stage, the population growth becomes more dynamic. The third stage involves increased life spans and better access to health care services, which contribute to decreasing the population’s growth. In the fourth stage, people tend to suffer from lifestyle diseases, such as obesity or heart attacks, and experience low birth rates.
Thus, comparing crude death rates (CDR) and crude birth rates (CBR), it is possible to state that the pre-transition stage implies high CDR and CBR similar to each other, the population growth is fluctuating. The second phase is characteristic of developing countries, which face decreasing CDR and increasing CBR due to improving nutrition and sanitation. The population growth is rapid. In the third stage, there is a decrease in CBR caused by higher incomes, contraception, urbanization, and education. The fourth stage presents low CBR and CDR because of economic conditions and access to health care. The population becomes to decline. The factors that affect CDR and CBR between transition stages are access to health care and education, income, lifestyle attitudes, diseases, and nutrition and sanitation issues.
Food Security in Developed and Developing Countries
Developing and developed countries have different access to nutritious products caused by economic factors, including the costs of organic food. The most critical factors affecting global food distribution include infrastructure, poverty levels, natural biomes, climate, governmental activities, and corruption (Editorial Board, 2013). In particular, developed countries have greater nutritious food availability, and the infrastructure allows providing them with all necessary products. On the contrary, developing countries experience difficulties associated with food transportation, storage, and distribution due to poor infrastructure. Also, people have fewer resources to buy nutritious food, which serves as one more restricting factor.
Programs Related to Food Security
There are specific programs that aim to offer assistance to developing countries to provide them with higher food availability. For example, the World Food Program launched by the United Nations (UN) attempts to contribute to the economic development of the mentioned countries using procuring the local foods instead of transporting them from developed countries, as Margulis (2013) stated. Such initiative helps developing countries that do not have sufficient funds and those where the level of development does not fully provide the population with means for life. Also, the World Food Program assists people in a difficult situation due to wars and natural disasters. It works only to benefit countries where economic, political, or other structures are so weak that the government cannot feed the population.
The paper has discussed the demographic transition model with the focus on its phases. CBR and CDR for each phase have been compared. The issues of food security are also discussed. Furthermore, the food security program that intends to ensure food security in developing countries, focusing on the local food procurement, has also been analyzed.
Editorial Board. (2013). Environmental science. Schaumburg, IL: Words of Wisdom.
Margulis, M. E. (2013). The regime complex for food security: Implications for the global hunger challenge. Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations, 19(1), 53-67.