The problem of side effects of medicines is presented as one of the most complex and ambiguous for medical specialists and patients. Knowledge and analysis of the side effects of medical drugs allow the doctors to choose medication, the benefits of which would significantly outweigh the potential harm to the patient.
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Drugs A is a medication that has a hypotensive effect. It also contributes to reduction of peripheral vascular resistance. The drug has such side effects as headache, tachycardia, and drowsiness. These effects fall within the expected outcomes. On the other hand, side effects of drug A which are unlikely to manifest due to the low affinity to the muscarinic receptor include increased sweating, increased secretion of salivary and gastric glands, and miosis.
The main effect of Drug B is an increase in the level of dopamine in the central nervous system. It is commonly used as an antiparkinsonian remedy. Parkinson’s disease is usually defined as a “neurodegenerative disorder due to gradual loss of dopaminergic nerves in the substantia nigra in the midbrain” (Rabiei et al., 2019, p. 355). The side effects anticipated from the drug are arrhythmia, orthostatic hypotension, and agitation, seeing as dopamine increase tends to cause these effects. Side effects that are unlikely to be present include hypertension and erectile dysfunction.
Drug C is a neuroleptic or antipsychotic agent that suppresses higher nervous activity, emotional state, behavior; it is capable of eliminating delusions, hallucinations, and other manifestations of psychosis (Boushra & Nagalli, 2020). It suppresses psychomotor agitation and can be used in the treatment of depression, schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder. Thus, its expected side effects are drowsiness, tachycardia, and orthostatic hypotension. Side effects that a doctor would not expect, based on the actions the drug has at the various receptor binding sites are early menstruation, and alopecia.
Drug D is the antiemetic, and the desired effect is manifested by blocking 5-HT3-receptors which suppress the gag reflex. It is used for chemotherapy and control of continuous vomiting of patients. Its most common side effects are constipation, feeling of heat and hot flashes, as well as headache. The least anticipated effects could be nosebleed and dyspnea, as the rates of serotonin reuptake point out.
Any medication, from a prescription drug to a vitamin complex, can cause unwanted reactions. Thus, it is important to continuously study and revise even the known drugs to ensure that they provide the desirable effect without causing collateral damage.
Boushra, M., & Nagalli, S. (2020). Neuroleptic Agent Toxicity. StatPearls.
Rabiei, Z., Solati, K., & Amini-Khoei, H. (2019). Phytotherapy in treatment of Parkinson’s disease: a review. Pharmaceutical Biology, 57(1), 355-362.