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Disaster Management Program in England Research Paper

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Updated: Jun 16th, 2022

England Disaster Analysis table

Disasters Frequency Killed Affected Cost Advance Warning Priority
Flood 2 3 1 1 3 1
Storm 1 2 2 2 4 2
Extreme heat 3 1 3 4 2 3
Epidemic 4 4 4 3 1 4

Types of Disasters in England

A disaster is a sudden occurrence that interferes with the normal functioning of a community causing human, material, and environmental or economic losses that exceed the normal capacity of the community or society to cope with using its own resources, calling for external interventions (Suk et al., 2020). The major types of disasters are natural and human/technological induced disasters.

According to the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disaster data, there are a number of natural disasters affecting England; storms, earthquakes, floods, epidemics, and extreme heat (Keim, 2020). The most vulnerable one is the flood following its adverse effect both in terms of financial implications, casualties, and deaths, and the frequency of its occurrence, making it the most prioritized disaster in England. In the United Kingdom (UK), currently, at least 1 out of 6 homes are at risk of flooding regardless of area or location (Suk et al., 2020). Both the homes located in low-lying areas, near seas and oceans are at high risk of flood due to the change in the climate that tends to alter the weather patterns and make it difficult to predict future conditions.

England is prone to major five types of flood disasters, namely River, Coastal, Groundwater, Sewers, and flash floods, with each having a different risk factor. The servility of each type of flooding is largely quantified depending on the levels of damage they cause and the type of recovery measure they would require, as well as the clean-up operations involved (Suk et al., 2020). Coastal flooding in England mostly results from heavy storms or other related extreme weather conditions in conjunction with the high tides. It causes a rise in sea levels above normal, pushing the sea waters into the lands hence coastal flooding in the East coast areas of Hull, Great Yarmouth, and Peterborough. Fluvial/river flooding is the most common type of flooding in England and the UK at large (Suk et al., 2020). It is prompted by the overflow of the rivers exceeding their banks, causing flooding to the nearby areas. The surface water flooding is caused by prolonged periods of heavy pours exceeding the drainage system and failure of the flood defaces. Flooding is common in areas such as Merseyside, Yorkshire, Cambria, and Lincolnshire areas. Groundwater flooding occurs when the water tables in an area arise following heavy rain and are able to last for several weeks or months, deepening with the weather conditions in an area (Suk et al. 2020). Finally, sewer flooding is caused by the failure of sewerage systems. It is the least type of flood in England and affects homes and gardens. However, it is hazardous and unpleasant due to the presence of bacteria spreads associated with its occurrence.

Disaster management is generally how best we deal with the economic or environmental, human, and material impact of the disaster. It involves the management and organization of the available resources and responsibilities involving humanitarian assistance such as preparedness, responses, prevention, and recovery techniques to the disaster situation (Zawawi et al., 2018). Countries need an effective disaster management plan to help avert the adverse effects of disasters.

Flood Disaster Preparedness

The United Kingdom has witnessed different types of flood disasters in recent times, calling for preparedness techniques to help mitigate floods. Preparedness can be both at the family and the national levels to help save life and property destruction (Raikes et al., 2019). Flood disaster awareness creation should be done nationwide in England to help create awareness of the potential types of floods likely to be experienced. It can be done through public advertisement means such as televisions, radio stations, the Internet and billboards, and seminars. Mapping of the disaster-prone areas would then follow to help locate areas with more risk to floods. The establishment of a preparedness and communication plan helps people to respond effectively in case of disaster occurrence (Raikes et al., 2019). The national management team needs to assemble flood emergency kits such as life sever jackets, boats, and other appropriate means of transport such as airplanes, which is essential in quick evacuation hence saving numerous lives. Moreover, an online establishment of a national emergency response, as well as an evacuation plan for the flood disaster, to create knowledge among citizens can go a long way to mitigate its effects. It is also necessary to formulate and enact a long-term preparedness plan, which includes building structure and infrastructure codes to help design flood-resistant structures within flood-prone areas (Raikes et al., 2019). Economically, people living in flood-prone areas should be advised to take insurance covers for both their health and property against flood disasters.

Floods Disaster Prevention

Since flood disaster is common in England, control techniques need to be strengthened to help control or minimize its adverse effects. Disaster management programs such as Watergates, rapid flood response systems need to be developed to help prevent flooding (Raikes et al., 2019). It is very effective in controlling flashfloods and sewers flooding that is always flowing with law speeds due to their little quantity. Water inflated property protection (WIPP) systems are extremely durable polyester that entails fighting water with water by creating a water barrier to act against the flowing waters (Raikes et al., 2019). The construction of dams and flood blocks along the river channels would help reduce the chances of river flooding their banks in England. Dams would help control the floods by almost half since the most common flood in England is by the river (Raikes et al., 2019). Aquobex flood guard would also help control both the home and city flooding since they are first-line defense devices that prevent the water from entering houses through the doors and windows. Also, the construction of dykes along the eastern coastline would help reduce the storm’s chances and other weather-related floods that are common within those areas.

Flood Disaster Response

In case of a disaster flood, the response should be organized to help save and mitigate the flood’s impacts. The response is the second phase in the disaster management cycle and can be done in two major ways: immediate and long-term response techniques (Gilissen et al., 2016). The immediate response is primarily concerned with search and rescue plans. It begins with saving and protecting life by walking, swimming, or flying the flood disaster victims to safer higher grounds (Gilissen et al., 2016). Afterward, locating, uniting, and recording of families within the camps. It is important to provide basic needs such as food, temporary shelter, clothing, and medical care to the victims while in the camps.

The long-term response to flood disasters should follow, and they involve activities such as saving remaining properties such as outdoor belongings. Guidance and counseling support by professionals help victims of flood recovery (Gilissen et al., 2016). The development of temporary social amenities such as schools, hospitals, and religious centers helps normalize people’s ways of living.

Flood Disaster Recovery Plan

Flooding requires a comprehensive recovery plan to help normalize the situations following a disaster. It involves all sets of tools, policies, and procedures that the state initiates to help people recover from floods. They are community-based foundations that mainly concern emergency and disaster responses (Gilissen et al., 2016). The plan outlines the foundation strategies for responses that involve ensuring people’s safety, effective communication with both the internal and external stakeholders, and provision of timely emergency support to help make service to the community, protection of assets, and maintain the continuity of mission or critical services to support the operation (Gilissen et al., 2016). Notably, flood disaster recovery response mainly begins by defining the goals that involve saving lives, and the long-term initiatives meant to help normalize life. For instance, the resettlement of victims on permanent buildings that observes the building codes. Notably, recovery plans ensure people have their social life and economic activities reinstated.

In conclusion, flood disaster is a major concern to England and other European countries due to the unpredictable changing weather patterns. Therefore, nations should develop and operationalize their disaster management plan to help prevent, prepare, respond, and recover from the effect of disasters. From the epidemiological data of England, River and coastal flooding are the common types of flood in England following the epidemiological data showing high frequency, large numbers of casualties, and huge cost implications associated with their occurrence.

References

Gilissen, H. K., Alexander, M., Matczak, P., Pettersson, M., & Bruzzone, S. (2016). A framework for evaluating the effectiveness of flood emergency management systems in Europe. Ecology and Society, 21(4).

Keim, M. E. (2020). The epidemiology of extreme weather event disasters (1969-2018). Prehospital and disaster medicine, 35(3), 267-271.

Raikes, J., Smith, T. F., Jacobson, C., & Baldwin, C. (2019). Pre-disaster planning and preparedness for floods and droughts: A systematic review. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 38, 101207.

Suk, J. E., Vaughan, E. C., Cook, R. G., & Semenza, J. C. (2020). Natural disasters and infectious disease in Europe: a literature review to identify cascading risk pathways. European journal of public health, 30(5), 928-935.

Zawawi, E. M. A., Yusof, N. S., & Ismail, Z. (2018). Adoption of post-disaster waste management plan into disaster management guidelines for Malaysia. Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, 20(1), 223-236.

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