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Education Theories: Designing Goals Research Paper

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Updated: Oct 4th, 2019

Introduction

For effective learning to take place, it is important for the teacher to carefully draw clear and concrete learning goals. With the goals at hand, the teacher can then look for materials that will help him or her to achieve the stated learning goals (Blackburn, 2007). Later on, it is important for the teacher to evaluate the outcomes that emanate from the process of learning.

The unit of instruction for this study is, human sexuality, meant for children aged between 12 to 13 years. It is a very interesting and exciting topic to children in this age group. At these ages, the children are now entering into adolescence. They may have a lot of questions on human sexuality that might be shy to ask. Some parents or guardians may be unwilling to discuss this subject with them.

There may be a lot of physical and emotional changes that are taking place in their bodies. The teacher should be aware of the changes happening in the children before he comes up with a set of learning goals for this topic. To effectively teach human sexuality to children aged between 12 and 13 years, a set of learning goals are essential to help the teacher effectively deliver this topic.

The learning goals should be geared towards understanding the body changes, sexual urges, and improving communication skills in the children. In each of the goals, the teacher should aim at creating awareness to the students through giving explanations with the use of illustrations and interpreting the concepts so as to deepen their meanings (Wiggins& McTighe, 2005).

In some cases, it is important to offer some insightful points. Tactful methods can be applied to help the students identify their ignorance in some of the obvious issues relating to human sexuality. Despite human sexuality being an interesting and exciting topic to students, it is also a very sensitive topic.

The teacher should be able to draw the students’ view points and approach the topic from the entry behavior of the students. This will enable him or her narrow the scope of what to cover in this area.

Understanding the body changes of the students

The teacher’s objective here is to make the students aware that there are changes that take place when they reach the ages of 12 and 13 years. The teacher will clearly explain to the students these body changes. It is important for the teacher to use illustrations where applicable to make the students better understand the topic.

For example, the teacher may deepen the voice to demonstrate one of the physical changes expected to happen in boys. The teacher may draw a boy with beards. Students should be able to identify the body changes that take place in boys and girls. It is important also for the teacher to interpret and elaborate the meanings of new terminologies in the topic.

For instance, some students may be hearing the term, “Menstrual cycle” for the first time. The students should also know how to cope with those changes and understand that they are normal. Some of the changes that take place may affect the children emotionally. They might also lower the self esteem of the students. The girls may feel shy because of their developing breasts.

The boys may feel shy too when their faces are full of pimples. When girls experience the menstrual cycle for the first time, they probably do not know how to deal with it. It is therefore good for the teacher to offer them emotional support or empathy.

Improving communication skills

To counter the emotional effects that come about because of body changes, it is important that the children know who to communicate with.

The students should be made aware that they should talk to their parents, guardians, teachers or respected adult persons of choice for instance, relatives. Children should be encouraged to share or ask the questions that they may have. Group activities and especially outdoor activities should be used to encourage communication with their peers.

Sexual urges

One of the objectives here is to make the students aware that they may get attracted to members of the opposite sex. The teacher should therefore explain to students that it is normal for them to be attracted to members of the opposite sex and it is healthy.

However, he or she should caution them on engaging on premarital sex. The students should be able to identify the dangers associated with premarital sex like unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases. The students should be able to identify the various sexually transmitted diseases and know their signs and symptoms.

Learning outcomes

The teacher should then come up with a list of learning outcomes to ensure that the goals have been met. One of the outcomes is that the teacher should expect is that students should be able to remember what was covered in the human sexuality study. Various methods can be used to test the students’ understanding of the concepts.

The teacher may test for these outcomes by asking the students some questions like, “What are some of the body changes that a boy is likely to experience at the age of 13 years?” A teacher may also ask, “What are some of the dangers associated with premarital sex?”

Another learning outcome that the teacher should look forward to is whether the topic was well understood by all his or her students. The teacher can know this by use of comparative questions.

This will require that the students compare two things. For example, a teacher may ask the students to compare the signs and symptoms of two sexually transmitted diseases. The teacher may also ask the students to compare the body changes found in boys with those that are found in girls.

The teacher should find out if the students are able to apply what they learned in the topic of human sexuality. The teacher may ask the students to outline some of the body changes they have seen in their peers. The teacher may ask the students to write an essay on an issue relating to human sexuality. He or she may ask the students to write essays on the impacts of teenage pregnancies.

With use of a group question asking the students to discuss, the teacher can know if the students are able be able to analyze human sexuality. The teacher may ask the students to discuss HIV and AIDS as one of the dangers of engaging in premarital sex. The students should be trained on how to be responsible and avoid behaviors that would make them get infected with sexually transmitted diseases (Bolin, 2009).

A teacher may give a motion in class asking students to debate on relationships between girls and boys. This way the teacher would encourage communication skills among the students. The teacher may also encourage the students to ask any questions that they may have regarding sexuality.

With this, the teacher may be able to evaluate the wrong perceptions on human sexuality that the students may have and correct them.

Conclusion

For effective delivery of any given topic, good learning goals should be designed. To assess the effectiveness of the learning goals, the learning outcomes must also be generated.

References

Blackburn, B. (2007). Classroom Instructions from A to Z : How to Promote Student Learning. New Jersey, USA: Eye on Education.

Bolin, A., & Whelehan, P. (2009) Human Sexuality, Biological Psychological and Cultural Perspectives.New York, NY, USA: Taylor & Francis.

Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (2005). Understanding by design (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall.

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IvyPanda. 2019. "Education Theories: Designing Goals." October 4, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/education-theories-designing-goals/.

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IvyPanda. (2019) 'Education Theories: Designing Goals'. 4 October.

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