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Emergency help and human services Report

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Updated: May 8th, 2019

Executive Summary

This report clearly explains two great organizations in depth. The organizations are Australian Red Cross and Australian Salvation Army. The former provides emergency services while the latter deals in human services. These are not for profit organizations and yet providing services that are not only critical, but also beneficial and relevant to the lives of human kind.

Examples of services provided Australian Red Cross include provision of blood services, community services, disaster and emergency services, first aid, migration support programs and educating the youth. On the other hand, the Salvation Army deals in services that help to transform the society and making it a better dwelling place. Such services are counseling, sponsorship, reformation and poverty alleviation, among others. These are organizations with diverse works, missions, size and achievements.

Both organizations have been in operation for many years now and therefore have their services in across the globe. They both have hierarchical organizational structures, with that of the Salvation Army being more complex. They also have varying styles of leadership.

While the management of Australian Red Cross lays emphasis on self satisfaction and internal motivation, Salvation Army has unique occasions to enhance interaction and motivation of its staff. Volunteers have a crucial part to play in both organizations especially in Australian Red Cross.

Most of its activities are carried out by volunteers. Based on the numerous crucial roles that Australian Red Cross has to perform, this report makes a recommendation in favor of this organization and provides substantial and logical argument for this.


In this report, two Australian based organizations are explained in profound depth at various levels. The description is actually about the case studies of the organizations. The first part presents various aspects of the organizations which include history, mission, work, achievement and size.

The second part addresses four aspects of management that are used in the organizations. They are organizational structure, leadership styles, recruitment of volunteers and, staff motivation and morale. In the third section, comparisons and contrasts for the two organizations are given.

The fourth section is the conclusion of the report. The final section of the report is the recommendation part. Based on the information provided in other parts of the report, this section is analysis of the two organizations with an aim of deciding how the $200,000 should be distributed.

Case Study of Australian Red Cross


It was formed in 1914 by Lady Helen Munro-Ferguson. At this time, it was part of the British Government Red Cross. It was very active during the First World War when it supplied the sick and the troops with parcels containing toiletries, soap and food.

The organization conducted a broad range of relief operations to the injured troops in Europe, the Middle East, Africa and the Pacific. Australian Red Cross faced a lot of tests and challenges during the Second World War when it was required to exercise great efforts in facing the needs of many individuals who were in distress.

Currently, its national office is based at Melbourne. The organization is also part of the International Red Cross movement whose services are in 186 nations (Australian Red Cross, 2010).


First, the movement aims at preventing the human suffering in wherever place it may be found. Secondly, it aims at ensuring that the life and health of a human being are protected. This is besides ensuring the dignity of humans especially during periods of emergencies and armed conflict.

Third, besides working for disease prevention, Australian Red Cross also works at promoting the health and social welfare of humans. Finally, it encourages support on voluntary basis in helping its members. This is apart from encouraging a sense of universal togetherness in according assistance to those in need of protection and aid (Australian Red Cross, 2001, p. 1).


Between 2008 and 2009, the Australian Red Cross had 23, 569 members and 28, 573 volunteers. This was at the national level. The services offered by the movement are diverse. They include blood donation service, disaster and emergency services, first aid, health and safety services, youth services, international humanitarian law, health and care services, International Tracing and Refugee Services and Asylum Seeker Assistance Scheme. The movement is the biggest humanitarian organ globally (Australian Red Cross, 2010).


The work of the Australian Red Cross is broad both nationally in Australia and internationally. These entails: provision of blood services, community services, disaster and emergency services, first aid, migration support programs and educating the youth. In Asia Pacific, the movement helps in the prevention of HIV AIDS and deals with stigma and segregation besides providing care to the infected (Australian Red Cross, 2010).


First, the movement has established a lot of partnerships with several Australian legal firms to help give assistance to the youth who are at risk. The benefits arising from these partnerships are manifest in areas such as provision of legal advice, management and Information Technology. Secondly, through sponsorship, the movement has come up with an employment program to help the aboriginal youth.

Moreover, movement won a charitable award in one of the Australian’s marketing awards where it was ranked the second best (Australian Red Cross, 2001, p. 7).

Organizational Structure

This is an organization’s formal representation. It shows the reporting relationship, hierarchy in authority, functional aspects and their duties. Since external obligations and internal activities affect organizations, they should have an organizational plan to help them deal with future plans and daily occurrences (Pang, 2004, p. 32).

There are three levels in the structure of Australian Red Cross. The first one is the council. It has about 53 voting members whose duties are limited. Their duties entail receiving financial statements and reports, electing and appointing its members to the board and appointing auditors to help amend its rules and regulations.

The second one is the board. Its members are 16 in number and they meet about 10 times annually. The board governs all functions at the national, state and territorial level. The members of the board and the council are individual who work voluntarily to give their time, skills and support to the organization.

Thirdly, we have the Chief Executive Officer who is responsible for the management of the daily affairs of Australian Red Cross. These duties are delegated to him by the board. He uses his senior managers to help him handle the delegations. The CEO remains accountable to the board in carrying out most of the responsibilities (Australian Red Cross, 2010).

Leadership Style

“Leadership style generally refers to the way a leader provides direction to his or her organization, how plans and programs are implemented and how staff are motivated to do their work” (Rowitz, 2006, p. 19). The leadership style is based on consulting, empowering, coaching and supporting of both volunteers and staff. Team leaders are also expected to embrace the same style of leadership. Volunteers, staff and managers are provided with training and other information sessions to help them become effective.

All staff members are expected to abide by the organization’s principles. These principles include humanity, universality, impartiality, neutrality, independence, unity and voluntary service (Australian Red Cross, 2010, p. 2-4). Thus, this leadership style embraces situational leadership in the four leadership styles: Delegating, supporting, coaching and directing. This is also a combination of McGregor’s theory X and theory Y (Rowitz, 2006, p. 22).

Recruitment of Volunteers

Volunteers are a very crucial asset to the organization. “A ‘volunteer’ is an individual who for personal, humanitarian, or charitable reasons, freely and without expectation of financial gain contributes time, service and skills to assist the Organization in accomplishing its vision”.

Volunteers are recruited and involved based on the organization’s code to that defines their involvement. First, they are interviewed are engaged based on equal opportunity and anti-discrimination principles. Second, positions are clearly defined for them and there’s a distinction between paid and unpaid roles.

Third, they are given support in form of training and orientation. Fourth, volunteers are provided with a safe working environment with sufficient insurance cover. In return, volunteers are expected to perform their roles well and heed to the policies and principles of the organization besides keeping the client’s information with confidentiality (Australian Red Cross, 2005, p. 4-5).

Staff Motivation and Morale

“Motivation is the drive, impetus or initiative that causes an individual to direct his or her behavior towards satisfaction of some personal need” (Liebler & McConnel, 2004, p. 371).

Australian Red Cross requires its employees to be self motivated and be able to beat deadlines that may be tight with a lot of accuracy. Apart from this, all staff members are expected to remain calm even in circumstances that are stressful (Australian Red Cross, 2009, p. 1).

Over the years, studies show that the most common motivation for volunteers is not only self satisfaction but also, being able to offer help to the community (WA, 2007, p. 13). Most management models suggest that this is the best way to offer employee motivation – making it intrinsic since motivation is an internal aspect (Falcone, 2009, p. 204).

Case Study of the Salvation Army


It was started by William Booth and Catherine Mumford in at around 1878 after both of them undergoing individual preparation. In 1880, Salvationists opened fire in USA, Ireland and Australia and also began children’s work. For the next five years, the Salvation Army spread into other nations and began the women’s social work.

Despite the death of Catherine Booth in 1890, the Organization opened a fast food depot and a bank. After launching the Salvation Army Year book and a Leprosy work, Booth passed on and was succeeded by his son-Bramwell. The work of this organization continued to spread in different parts of the world up to 1999 when the High Council elected General John Gowans (The Salvation Army, 2011).


The Salvation Army believes that they have been raised by God himself to carry out a number of duties. These include changing lives, showing people a lot of care, bringing reformation to the society and making disciples. Salvationists have an international mission statement that reads,

The Salvation Army, an international movement, is an evangelical part of the universal Christian Church. Its message is based on the Bible. Its ministry is motivated by love for God. Its mission is to preach the gospel of Jesus Christ and meet human needs in his name without discrimination (The Salvation Army, 2011).


Salvation Army is among the world’s biggest social welfare organizations. It has at least 1,650,000 members who work in more than 110 nations and its operations have in Australia for around 130 years. The current staff and officers are at least 6500 and are charged with delivering different social programs in Australia.


The services of the Salvation Army are as varied as the areas of need in the society. Due to the large scope in the services provided, it is possible to find an interconnection in the services provided. Some of the services that are helping to change lives and make the world a better place to dwell include services related to or dealing in child sponsorship, counseling, addiction, employment, family support, child sponsorship, court and prison, youth and children, and disability, just to name a few (The Salvation Army, 2011).


In contribution to a fair and just Australian society, the Salvation Army has devised a number of national election statements. The statements have to do with homelessness, health policy, aged care, poverty reduction, asylum seekers and affordability of housing (The Salvation Army, 2011).

A decade ago, Salvation Army officers conducted visits to the homes of individuals who were victims of the house fire in Sydney. They provided them with emotional, physical and spiritual assistance. Additionally, they have offered employment in many areas.

Organization Structure

The Salvation Army has an organization structure that is not only top down, but also very hierarchical. All official positions are appointed apart from that of the general. The organization also employs a number of non-Salvationists in most of its dockets. The highest level in rank is the International Headquarters. Its location is in London. It is where the operation of the Salvation Army in the whole world is directed.

The territory is the next level in rank. It corresponds to a nation. However, in some nations with a large Salvation Army presence such as India, US and Australia, we may have territories. The territory is subdivided into smaller administrative units known as divisions. The Divisional Headquarters controls them. The lowest in the rank are corps and community service centers (The Salvation Army, 2011).

Leadership style

Its leadership levels are hierarchical with a military form. First, we have the territorial commander who is responsible for all territorial operations. Second, we’ve the Chief Secretary who is in charge of the Salvation Army’s daily and administrative operations in a territory.

Third, we have cabinet secretaries who are part of the executive cabinet and carry out duties in various areas such as business, personnel, administration and program. The fourth is the divisional commander who heads divisional areas. Finally, we have corps and social officers who manage the organization’s operations in these dockets within the territory (The Salvation Army, 2011).

Recruitment of Volunteers

From time to time, the Salvation Army organizes events and recruits volunteers to join in. For example, in 2005, an Expo was held at Melbourne which saw the recruitment of numerous youth to take part. The organization also provides plenty of opportunities to volunteers which eventually helps them to have fun, develop their skills, gain experience and make new friends (The Salvation Army, 2010).

The organization also launched the Anti-poverty week where individuals, organizations, governments and communities are encouraged to volitionally organize their own activities. The week is normally between 16th and 22nd of October. The Salvation Army supports individuals who want to participate in it through advertising and connecting them to similar minded people in their region (Anti-poverty week, 2011).

Staff Motivation and Morale

The Salvation Army hold National Donut day once every year. It is a fun holiday where many franchises shops and donut shops offer free donuts. Different events can be planned on this day such as raising funds for the needy. The money collected can also be used to supplement the organization’s funds. This event motivates all workers in the organization to work together, encourages them to have proper communication besides being united and loyal in the organization (Workplace-Communication, 2010). This is a motivation style that is known and practiced by a handful of managers (Falcone, 2009, p. 204).

Comparison and Contrast of the two Organizations

With regard to the organization structure, both the organizations have hierarchical structures. Although the Australian Red Cross has only three levels and the Australian Salvation Army has numerous ranks, the structure still remains the same. Also, in both organizations, every position at each level is charged with specific responsibilities.

On the other hand, there are some contrasts in the organization structures of the two organizations. First, while the Salvation Army has International Headquarters as its highest rank based in London, the highest level in the hierarchy of Australian Red Cross is the council based at the organization’s national office, Melbourne.

The second comparison relates to the leadership style. For the Australian Red Cross, the leadership style is based on consulting, empowering, coaching and supporting of both volunteers and staff. This is conducted by the management. Therefore, in a way, the leadership style is still hierarchical.

The organization has principles within which all leaders are expected to operate. They include impartiality, neutrality, humanity, independence, unity and voluntary service. The similarity between this and that of the Australian Salvation Army is that both are hierarchical and also all the leaders in the Salvation should be in line with faith and believes of the Salvation Army. However, unlike the leadership of the Australian Red Cross, the Salvation Army takes after the military form.

Third, both organizations use volunteers to accomplish their duties. Also, both of them have a staff that help them in accomplishing their objectives according to the tasks assigned to them. Moreover, they both have a provision for volunteers in their programs.

However, there is a difference in the roles that volunteers play and how they are recruited. The Australian Red Cross has a special place for volunteers in helping it accomplish most of its activities and has even a policy outlining their selection and roles.

On the other hand, the Salvation Army has most of its activities carried out by its employees and only involves employees on special occasions such as the anti-poverty week. In addition, Australian Red Cross has properly outlined criteria of recruiting volunteers, clearly showing positions that can be paid for and those that cannot.

On the other hand, the Australian Salvation Army does not have such specifics for volunteers. Moreover, Australian Red Cross has more volunteers than staff members as compared to the Australian Salvation Army that apparently has a few volunteers compared to its employees.

Fourth, there’s the aspect of staff motivation and morale. In both organizations, staff members are motivated through monetary remuneration. In the case of the Australian Red Cross, both staff and volunteers are expected to be self motivated and persevere under tough situations without complaining.

They are also supposed to draw satisfaction from serving other people. On the other hand, the Salvation Army holds special occasional events where its employees and volunteers gather and participate in common events that encourages team work, loyalty and better communication.


Australian Red Cross is an organization that offers emergency services to the needy, the sick and those in distress. Its national office is in Melbourne, Australia. Its services are in almost every part of the world. It has a hierarchical leadership style. It embraces about four leadership styles: coaching, delegation, directing and supporting (situational leadership).

It has both staff and volunteers. It emphasizes intrinsic motivation. On the other hand, Australian Salvation Army provides human services and is founded on the Christian faith. It is headquartered in London and has a hierarchical organizational structure though on a military footing. Its services are also global. It has more ranks than the former organization with numerous employees. It also has a provision for volunteers. The two organizations has some comparisons and contrasts.


Both organizations play important roles in the lives of human beings. Australian Red Cross has a lot to accomplish: disease prevention, taking care of the affected in armed conflicts, protection of people’s life and health besides promoting social welfare.

All these roles are not only broad, but also very common in the world we live in. These being a not-for profit organization, it would be better if it received more funding for its work. It has more volunteers implying that the magnitude of work is magnanimous.

But this also means that more funding is needed to provide the facilities required in accomplishing this work. On the other hand, Salvation Army has numerous employees which it can comfortably pay. It has some sources of finance such as a bank and a food depot.

Giving in churches also boost its operations a lot. As such, it has more sources of funding than Australian Red Cross that relies on donations. Therefore, the $200,000 should be given to the Australian Red Cross.

Reference List

Anti-poverty week, 2011. Joining In. Anti-poverty week. Web. Web.

Australian Red Cross, 2009. Australian Red Cross Position Description: Selection Criteria Web. Web.

Australian Red Cross, 2010. Australian Red Cross Position Description. Web. Web.

Australian Red Cross, 2010. History, Australia. Australian Red Cross. Web. Web.

Australian Red Cross, 2001. Annual Report: Our Mission. Web. Web.

Australian Red Cross, 2005. Volunteer Policy and Procedure. Web. Web.

Falcone, P., 2009. One hundred and one tough conversations to have with employees. NY: AMACOM.

Liebler, J. & McConnel, C., 2004. Management principles for Health Professionals. Ontario: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Pang, P.N., 2004. Essentials of Manufacturing Engineering Management. Lincoln, US: iUniverse.

Rowitz, L., 2006. Public Health Leadership: Putting Principles to Practice. Ontario: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

The Salvation Army, 2010. Thank God for the Salvos: About Volunteering. Web. Available at .

The Salvation Army, 2011. Timeline 1829 to 1999: The Salvation Army-Australia Southern Territory. Web. Available at

WA. News for Members and Volunteers: Benefits for Volunteering. Web. Web.

Work-place Communication, 2011. National Donut Day. Work-place Communication.com. Web. Web.

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