Façade constructions are parts of a building that provides protection of the people inside against extreme weather and enemies. Buildings either for commercial, institutional or residential purposes must fulfill fundamental needs of human beings.
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In most cases, these fundamental needs relates to the dictates of weather and climate for instance adequate sunlight, cold, wind as well as rain. This means that facades are very important structures in buildings.
Yin (2008) indicates that due t the importance of facades and the improving technology as well as changing weather patterns, the development of façade constructions is continually evolving. These developments reflect many years of human experience and technology advancements.
Generally, there are various technologies applied in the construction of facades. In this case, most façade constructions address the needs of a particular situation, which depicts different architectural styles and materials.
In addition to the needs of certain situations or settings, façade constructions might have different designs due to cost of materials and type of building involved. It is evident that technological development has been advancing at a very high speed. For this reason, architects and building engineers have come up with new façade construction technologies and designs following extensive research.
Due to contemporary changes in social, political, technological and environmental spheres, today’s façade structures seek to solve contemporary problems and keep pace with advancing technology. In addition, contemporary façade structures as a sign of the expression of architectural and aesthetic quality.
This means that the façade serves several other functions besides protection from harsh weather conditions. As a result, there are several designs and types of façade constructions to address these diverse functions.
There is need for an integrated system of façade construction, which can serve different purposes rather than a system that only serves a single purpose. This integrated façade construction system entails various architectural designs and incorporation of different materials and structures.
The integrated façade system is a vital element in construction facades as it will serve multiple purposes and lasts longer than a single-façade system comprising few materials and a single design. In this sense, the major function of the integrated façade system is to offer occupants of different buildings with a unique structure hat solves most of their problems and addresses their needs.
Such an integrated façade system aims to respond to the external weather conditions and enhance internal performance of buildings, whether office, residential, commercial or institutional. This integrated façade system is a valuable cladding system for tall buildings.
In addition, the system shifts from traditional façade systems, which only had a single layer or several joined layers with no space between them. In the convectional façade system, the primary and the secondary structures remained highly separated. However, the integrated façade system also comprises the joining of the primary and secondary structures for effective protection.
For successful implementation of the integrated facade system there is need of extensive research of modern needs of buildings as well as the changing weather conditions. Having adequate data on these aspects is important in the implementation of the project.
This is because the main purpose of this form of façade system is to offer multi-purpose protection of the interior of buildings as well as meet the needs of occupants of such buildings in relation to internal performance and productivity.
This project offers a viable solution to the contemporary needs of façade constructions. The integration of active facades, day-lighting facades, double facades and interactive facades provides an enhanced form of protection for nearly all types of buildings.
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Particularly, this project is very essential for incorporation of façade system on tall buildings, which for a long time lacked a permanent solution. The project will cover the architectural detailing of the integrated façade system, the different forms of facades, and the performance of the system as well as the design of this system.
Literature review and available data
Façade is a very significant part of any building and serves various purposes. It is an envelope for the building that prevents it from unpredictable weather effects. In addition, most architects and building engineers usually consider the façade as an important expression of the level of architectural advancement and building technology.
Moreover, the façade improves the aesthetic quality a building and serves various environmental purposes such as energy saving. Since the last two centuries, architects and engineers have completely altered the appearance and design of buildings from the conventional features of raw stones, bricks, and concrete, to highly technology based double- skin façade system, interactive facades, day-lighting facades as well as active facades (Yin, 2008).
This shift from the traditional to modern façade structures occurs due to advancements in technology as well as development of the architectural and building industries. In contemporary world, most architects continually discover new forms of façade structures that suit the needs of the contemporary generation.
This change is inevitable since the needs of occupants and buildings are also changing day after day. In addition to the advancements in technology, the change has also occurred due to the altering and unpredictable weather patterns and climatic conditions. This is because the core function of facades is to control outdoor conditions depicted by changing weather and climatic factors.
According to Knaack (2007), the façade detaches the functional interior space from the unusable exterior world. In addition, the façade displays the architectural manifestation of the building and offers views to the exterior and interior of the building.
Façade constructions also takes up pull and push forces and it takes up the weight of all the other building segments. The façade also has a double function in relation to sunlight. On the one hand, it allows considerable amount of useful sunlight to penetrate the building.
On the other hand, the façade offers protection to the interior of a building from direct harmful sunlight. The façade is also useful in preventing the infiltration of rainwater in to a building and controls the humidity inside and outside the building. The façade also offers insulation against excessive cold, heat or noise.
Besides serving the above functions facades, especially the double skin facades are useful in environmental control and eventually saving energy. In this regard, a successfully designed double façade can offer visual lightness and transparency to a building. Double facades offer improved productivity to the people occupying such buildings. This is highly because double facades provide a comfortable and healthy working environment (Moon, 2009).
In view of the integrated façade system that incorporates double facades with other façade systems, the system would increase comfort as well as offer suitable protection to the occupants. Since the integrated façade system incorporates different designs, architectural detailing and materials, the end-product offers maximum protection and comfortable environments. In addition, the integrated façade system offers a long-lasting solution to the external conditions affecting a building and its occupants.
Contemporary façade systems accrue from technological development and advancements of the convectional materials, methods and designs. In this case, modern architects and building engineers make changes to the already established designs, improving them to fit contemporary needs.
From the convectional façade system, there are three major sections of façade construction. These sections include the primary structure or the shell building, the secondary structure or the load bearing structure and the infill elements (Knaack, 2007). Even though these elements reflect the traditional façade system, modern systems improve on these elements to suit contemporary demands.
This clearly means that the development of contemporary façade systems borrows the initial plans from the convectional systems. However, architects and builders alter some elements of these traditional systems to meet the needs of contemporary buildings and occupants. In this case, the various levels of structures in the conventional façade systems are also present in the modern façade systems with various alterations.
Selkowitz (2001) indicates that efficient façade constructions must be dynamic and adaptable to contain alterations in the eternal environment as well as interior needs. In addition, the façade system should offer the context of the entire building system.
In this case, it is evident that there is a wide climatic variability and the weather patterns become increasingly unpredictable. In addition, there are variances in the needs and desires of occupants of modern buildings, which calls for more sophisticated and diverse façade systems. This variation of the needs of occupants might accrue from several aspects including clothing diversity, changing office duties, company needs as well as changes in visual roles.
This dynamism and diversity in the needs of occupants as well as changing technology needs calls for integrated façade systems. This is because relying on traditional façade constructions would not serve these functions. Integrating different contemporary façade systems with vital traditional systems produces a highly performing façade system that meets the entire needs of occupants of buildings.
For the general design of a façade system, drawn from conventional design, the primary structure, secondary structure and the infill elements all serve different functions. The primary structure handles the load-bearing role of the whole building and conveys the leads from the façade to the foundation of the building.
On the other hand, the secondary structure conveys loads in to the primary structure. The infill elements, which might comprise panels and glazing mounted on the secondary structure, must fulfill several specifications. In this case, such infill elements must be windproof, resist water infiltration and should avoid thermal bridges (Knaack, 2007).
Selkowitz (2003) argues that the integrated façade system is a noteworthy means of addressing both the occupants’ interior needs as well as the changing climatic and weather conditions. In addition, the integrated façade system is significant in contemporary world, where tasks and roles of buildings are constantly changing as well as the diverse customer preferences.
This system of façade construction also entails enhanced utilization of energy flows linked with day-lighting and noteworthy solar increase. Moreover, this façade system integrates the enhancement of wind and buoyancy driven natural ventilation with construction of assimilated photovoltaic systems.
This literature reveals the general functions of facades as well as the importance of facades to people and buildings. In addition, it is evident that due to contemporary changes in technology, occupants’ needs, office and company preferences as well as the unpredictable climatic and weather patterns, there is need for integrated façade system.
The integrated façade system, which integrates the various façade designs, architectural detailing as well as traditional and modern systems is useful in a number of ways. This system meets the needs of occupants, accommodates changes accruing from altering weather patterns as well as providing protection in huge buildings.
Several contemporary studies reveal that most architects and building engineers are shifting towards more complex façade systems and dong away with the traditional single-purposed facade systems. The major reason for this shift has been the increase in demand for tall commercial and institutional buildings with various modernized specifications.
These buildings require modern façade systems to meet various indoor and outdoor needs. This is because the new features present in these buildings demand for specialized façade systems that correspond with the features.
Aims and objectives of the project
In any project, aims and objectives are vital as they give direction of the project, offer a platform for implementation and provide the actual targets that the project aims to accomplish. The major purpose of this project is to provide an analysis of the significance and performance of an integrated façade system, which is multipurpose in contemporary world.
This purpose derives from the need for a façade construction system that meets the needs and specifications of modern buildings. Modern buildings require an integrated façade system that meets the needs of the changing weather conditions, the advancing technology as well as the shifting occupants’ needs.
In order to realize this major purpose, the project specifies various goals or targets. One of the major goals of the project is to offer improved sunlight protection while at the same time reducing adverse effects of extreme sunlight. In addition, the project aims to improve the system of day-lighting in tall commercial and residential buildings.
Another goal of the project is improved air quality in buildings by use of natural ventilation. In this case, the integrated façade system will be the active control element of the air movement. The project also aims at improving the aesthetic quality of modern buildings through integrated façade system.
The project will also aim at minimizing operating costs through the reduction of heating, lighting and cooling energy use. The project will achieve this by enhancing the day-lighting-thermal tradeoffs. Another goal of the project is offering a net energy balance by use of integrated photovoltaic systems.
This goal is very important since it will help in environmental conservation. Another goal of this project is to offer enhanced indoor environments in terms of air quality, adequate lighting and considerable warmth. Eventually, this will lead to improved health of the occupants, comfort and productivity.
Generally, this project aims at analyzing the role of integrated façade system that offers solutions to the needs of cotemporary buildings and occupants. The development of the integrated façade system, seeks to respond to adequately to the altering outdoor conditions and the internal productivity of buildings as well as the aesthetic needs depicted by modern technology.
In this case the changing outdoor conditions involve the unpredicted weather patterns and climatic conditions. On the other hand, the internal productivity entails improvement of indoor environment quality as per the needs of occupants.
To realize the above goals, the project seeks to meet several defined objectives for implementation. These objectives include architectural designs of double-skin facades, designing of day-lighting facades, design of active facades, and integration of different elements of the façade system and integration of different structures in to the façade system. The project will also target to enhance the performance of the façade system to meet the required indoor performance needs as well as avert the outdoor conditions.
The architectural detailing of the integrated façade system is of great importance for the implementation of the project. According to Yin (2008), there has been an increase in the level of construction technology, which has caused many architects to produce different kinds of shapes with much creativity.
As a result, contemporary architects have developed quite diverse shapes and designs of facades for modern buildings. Moreover, most architects feel that the designing of facades with the normal traditional rectangle glass frame is getting out of date.
Due to these concerns, the architectural detailing of the integrated façade system uses modern technology, which integrates different shapes, styles and materials. The use of these materials and diverse shapes produces a multi-purpose façade system that meets multiple needs.
In addition, the use of different architectural styles produces unique structures, which enhances the aesthetic quality to the building. These different shapes and materials also produce different forms of modern facades. For instance, the double-skin facades occur in diverse shapes and integrate different materials.
The utilization of different materials of diverse shapes, sizes and colors offers unique architectural designs for cladding tall buildings. Since the integrated façade system utilizes different forms of both convectional and traditional facades, it produces a unique architectural finish that depicts contemporary building technology.
Moon (2009) indicates that cladding of tall buildings necessitates the use of different façade systems. These include stressed steel skins, metal or glass curtain walls and precast concrete panes. This kind of integration produces numerous layers that offer much protection from external harsh conditions.
For advanced architectural designs, the integrated façade system merges the secondary and the primary structures to form one structure. This enhanced design improves the performance of the integrated façade system. In this regard, the border to the external and the internal becomes one component.
However, this kind of structure requires enhanced care it might not tolerate harsh weather conditions during some occasions (Knaack, 2007). The architectural design of the integrated façade system is vital for the performance of the whole system.
For this project, the architectural detailing of the integrated façade system forms the core of laying out the foundation of the system. In this regard, the architectural detail of the façade system covers many aspects including the aims and objectives of the project.
This means that for the project to meet and achieve the needs and objectives of the system, architectural details are of great significance. The architectural designs must aim at meeting these objectives since they form the initial plan and design of the façade system.
One of the major components of the integrated façade system is the double-skin façade. The double-skin façade is a modern façade design mostly initially introduced in Europe. The double façade serves multiple purposes due to its unique characteristics and design. This form of façade has an increased demand for use in commercial buildings due to its multi-purpose nature. The double-skin façade uses high-glazed components and is suitable for tall buildings.
There is a considerable mounting interest in the use of double-skin facades in commercial and some institutional buildings. Relatively high transmittance glazing systems forms the most part of these facades. In addition, the double-skin façade comprises some form of sun control, which enhances its performance.
A detachment of these designs utilizes a second layer generating a double envelope system, which is the double-skin façade. The double-skin façade can hold extra venting and ventilation practices to improve performance of the façade (Lee et al, 2002).
Selkowitz 2003) affirms that the double-skin façade system is a unique form of façade that serves various significant functions. This façade offers a protected segment for shading systems, which extracts excess solar increase, from the cavity before it causes excess heating.
The double façade also serves as a natural ventilation system, which might permit reduced ventures in the ventilation system that might assist in paying for the more expensive façade. In the case of high-rise buildings, double facades might permit window opening and decrease auditory impacts of open windows relating to street noise in urban areas.
Due to its unique functions and adaptability to modern buildings, the demand of this form of façade is very high. However, using this façade system alone cannot completely serve contemporary needs. There is therefore the need to integrate the double-skin façade with other façade systems to produce a façade system that is multi-purpose.
Although most contemporary architects and building engineers as well as companies are going for the double-skin façade, integration with other forms of facades is of paramount importance.
Day lighting facades and active facades
Day Lighting façade is another component of the integrated façade system. To change or improve the distribution of light coming in to the buildings, the Light redirecting systems depend on principles of refraction, reflection, diffraction or non-imaging optics.
In addition to Day lighting facades, the active facades are another form of integrated façade system. Active facades occur in the form of smart windows and shading systems, which have visual and thermal properties that are subject to change in response to climatic changes, desires and needs of occupants and requirements of building energy management control system (EMCS).
These special requirements include switchable electro-chromic or gaso-chromic window coatings, double-envelope macroscopic window-wall systems and motorized shades (Lee et al, 2002).
The integrated façade system utilizes these technologies to offer enhanced performance in the use of energy in large buildings. In this case, the performance of the integrated façade system depends on the ability of the above named technologies to offer reduced impact on energy use.
This is because energy efficiency and conservation is one of the major gals that the integrated façade system seeks to accomplish. The integration of the day-lighting facades and the active facades is a superior way of ensuring maximum energy conservation in the buildings.
The successful integration of the double façade, day-lighting façade and the active facades forms the core of the integrated façade system. Every form of façade system has its individual performance levels, unique characteristics, special designs and utilizes special materials.
In this case, the integration of these different materials, performance levels and the diverse designs forms a unique multi-purpose façade system. The façade system is unique because it will eventually have several diverse designs, which will serve in diverse settings. This means that the integrated façade system will be useful in all types of buildings and will meet most of the needs of the occupants of such buildings.
Design of the integrated façade system
The design of the project is the most important part of the project since it reflects part of the project implementation. This involves the assembling of the required materials and use of appropriate tools to design the façade system.
The design of this system require extensive engineering scrutiny with state of the art tools for instance computational fluid dynamics to assess air flow and ray-tracing to estimate day-lighting performance (Selkowitz, 2001). Adequate assessment is necessary to avoid carrying out inappropriate designs that might ruin the whole façade system. This is because the design process dictates the outcome of the overall project.
After proper assessment of the design procedure, the next step is to divide the façade system in to achievable elements. According to Yin (2008), the design process entails dividing the integrated façade system in to several elements, which has all the fittings.
All these elements will come from a production line and transported to the building site. After transporting all the required elements to the site, the remaining work is that of assembling the façade elements to come up with an integrated façade system.
The design process provides the actual plan of implementing the project. This is the stage of the project that lays the foundation for the commencement of the construction work. One of the major activities of the design process of this integrated façade system is detailing the integration process.
In this regard, the design process lays out the means in which harmonization of the different forms of façade, the different designs and the materials will occur. This harmonization is of paramount importance to avoid over-detailing of particular elements or over use of particular forms of façade.
In the case of large and commercial buildings, the computerized design process and operation is essential because of the complexity and magnitude of the façade system. On the other hand, smaller buildings especially most residential homes can utilize manual design and operation. In addition, small buildings might require manual operation of windows or shades.
In bigger buildings and commercial buildings however, the design strategy might comprise predictive algorithms. The design of smaller buildings can comfortably utilize the integration of façade and lighting systems while larger buildings rely mostly on reliable automated controls (Selkowitz, 2003).
The actual design process of this project incorporated several aspects including the architectural detailing, the various forms of façade systems integrated in to the system as well as the utilization of different materials to build various façade structures.
The structures of the facade system varied greatly in the design process and ranged from glass curtains to concrete walls. The major aim of the design process was to provide the backbone of the project. This means that through the design process, the project specifications were clear and the procedures required for the realization of the set goals and objectives.
Analysis of Performance of the integrated façade construction system
Another major specification of the project is assessment of the performance of the integrated facade system. Performance is of critical importance since it establishes the usefulness and suitability of the different methods applied in this integrated façade system. The performance of this façade system depends on the suitability of the project for future uses.
In addition, the performance of the system relies on the actual implementation of the project. In addition, performance of the project depends on the future changes in climatic conditions as well as the needs of occupants.
Selkowitz (2001) argues that to measure the performance of the integrated façade system, there is the requirement of an extensive commissioning program after the completion of the project. In addition, there may be requirements of extra specifications and alterations as the building ages and experiences changes in weather and climate conditions.
Another measure of the performance of this integrated facade system lies in the discretion of the occupants. In this case, the occupants should realize the initial goals and objectives of the façade system. This will help to avoid the occupants altering the initial intention and purpose of the design of the façade system.
This therefore means that to measure the performance of this integrated façade system, there is need for the implementation of other systems, which helps in tracking the performance of the system over time, completion of the needed maintenance, and timely handling and addressing of the uncertainties.
Generally, the performance of the integrated façade system entails the accomplishment of the various tasks are requirements. For this project, the measure of performance depended on the successful reduction in energy use in buildings, the cladding of tall buildings, indoor air quality, meeting of the needs of occupants as well as improvement of aesthetic quality of the buildings.
Moreover, performance depends highly on the comfort of occupants, the internal productivity of a building as well as environmental effects of the project.
Selkowitz (2003) indicates that the capability of predicting the performance of a façade system is a major requirement for the furtherance of advanced façade systems. He states that performance measurement should extend beyond indoor and outdoor requirements to cover the unseen impacts of a façade system.
These impacts might include the aesthetic quality of a building, the durability of the building as well as the reliability of the façade system for future use.
The performance of the integrated façade system also highly depends on the individual forms of façade integrated in to the overall system. This is because each of the individual façade systems has their individual performance levels. In this regard, one façade system for instance the double façade might have a higher level of performance in saving energy.
On the other hand, the day-lighting façade might have a higher performance level in allowing considerable light in to the building. The integration of these two systems will therefore utilize individual performance levels for the determination of the overall performance of the integrated façade system.
Methods of implementation
Besides the design process, the methods of implementation of a project are very significant to the overall performance of the project. In actual facts, implementation is the core of project completion. After planning and designing a project, implementation follows, which actually involves the actual performance of the project.
Methods of implementation entails the activities carried out for the realization of the goals and objectives of the project. There are various methods of implementation of this project.
These methods include documentation of the architectural designs, the actual designing of the façade system, purchasing and assembling the required materials for the construction, hiring the required personnel to complete the project, commencement of the construction work and monitoring the progress of the project.
Documentation of the architectural designs is of critical importance to the completion of the project. This is highly because the architectural designs form the major activities to be carried out. The building engineer uses these designs to determine the various activities, division of work and prioritize on the most important parts.
In addition, the designs offer the building engineer with a clear picture of the façade requirements of the building. With this picture, work can be much easier and completion of the project would be successful. The designs also demonstrate the manner in which the façade construction will meet the requirements targets and the needs of the building as well as of the occupants.
The actual designing of the façade system is the first step towards the construction of the façade system. This involves the actual planning on the ground and the laying of the initial foundation.
The design process also takes into consideration the required materials for the construction, the number of people required to complete the construction as well as the overall cost of the construction. Designing lays the foundation of the actual construction of the façade system such that the construction goes on well without contradictions of multiple alterations.
After successful designing of the project the other implementation procedure is the purchasing and assembling of the required materials for the construction of the façade system. In this case, assembling all the materials is very important as it avoids unnecessary delays in the completion of the project. In addition, assembling of all required materials prior to the commencement of construction helps the project manager to know the available and unavailable materials.
Another critical step in the implementation of the project is the hiring of the required personnel for the project construction. These personnel exclude the building engineer and the architect, who were already in the initial planning of the project.
Due to the sensitivity and complexity of this project, the hired personnel are of high competency and professionalism. The completion of the project also requires workers who conduct themselves in an ethical and professional way. After hiring the workers, they are accorded their different responsibilities before the commencement of the construction.
After hiring the required personnel the next step in the implementation of the project is commencement of the construction. This is now the major activity in implementation of the integrated façade system. In this case, all the workers carrying out the construction process start working on the project.
In addition to the workers directly involved in the construction process, there are other individuals, who supply finished materials useful in the project. Once the construction of the façade system commences, the project is in its core of the implementation process.
There is still another step in implementation wile the construction process progresses. This is monitoring the progress of the project. Monitoring is an important part of the implementation process of the project. Proper monitoring helps in discovering mistakes done during the construction process as well as during the designing process.
In this regard, there is a chance of making some important changes before the project comes to a completion. In addition, monitoring helps in discovering areas that require improvements as the implementation progresses. This is very important as it ensures meeting the full needs of the occupants as well as of the building.
The successful implementation of this project requires that these methods occur in a respective order for a smooth execution of the project. All the above methods and steps of implementing the project are very important and when one is lacking, the implementation cannot occur successfully.
This means that all these steps in implementation of the project are of paramount importance and their successful execution leads to successful implementation and completion of the project. It is however vital to realize that completion of a project does not mean automatic successful implementation. All the above steps are vital for the implementation process.
Strengths and weaknesses of the project
Every project has its unique strengths and weaknesses depending on the nature of the project and the purpose of the project. Strengths are the strong points of a project that offers the project speedy implementation and the achievement of the set goals and objectives.
On the other hand, weaknesses are the weak points of a project that might hinder or low down the implementation of the project as well as timely completion. These weaknesses might impede the realization of the set goals and objectives while at the same time helps the project management devises plans of averting or accommodating these weaknesses.
The analysis of strengths and weaknesses of a project is an essential component of project development as it helps the project management to realize the actions to take. In addition, proper analysis and evaluation of strengths the project is vital for the project management to realize the opportunities available for bettering the project.
Knowing the strengths of the project also helps in achieving the set goals and objectives. The evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of this project are very important to the overall success and implementation of the project.
Strengths of the Project
One of the major strengths of the project is that creation of an integrated façade system suits contemporary buildings. Unlike their convectional counterpart, modern buildings have specialized needs and demands. In addition, due to advancements in architectural designs, new buildings require specialized facades that suit them.
In this case, the integrated façade system is very suitable for modern buildings and meets most of their demands as well as needs. This therefore means that the demand for an integrated façade system has increased for modern buildings whether commercial, institutional or residential.
The other strength of the project relates to its multi-function nature. The integrated façade system for modern buildings aims at serving various functions at once. Unlike most convectional facades, which only served a single purpose, this façade system serves multiple purposes.
The integrated façade system helps to improve the indoor air quality, offers adequate lighting from the sun, prevents over-heating, enhances the aesthetic quality of the building, saves energy, prevents penetration of rainfall in to a building and blocks heavy and destructive wind. This also increases the demand and usability of an integrated façade system over a single-based façade system.
The other strength of the integrated façade system is its flexibility and capability to adapt to different situations. For instance, the system is able to withstand the changing weather conditions and adapt to climatic changes.
In this case, the façade system provides indoor ample protection despite the altering weather patterns. This is because the integrated façade system comprises of diverse materials, shapes and forms that integrates to form a unique façade system. In addition to adaptability to changing weather conditions, the integrated façade system is very flexible, which makes it suit different types of buildings including tall buildings.
The integrated façade system also presents unique performance of contemporary facades. In this case, the integrated façade system incorporates various façade systems, which eventually improves its performance.
All these façade forms integrated in to this system have their own unique characteristics. Eventually, mixing these various unique characteristics and performance levels produces a successful overall performance of the integrated façade system.
The integrated façade system does not have many weaknesses since it is a modern façade system that serves multiple purposes. In this case, one of the major weaknesses of the system is increased cost of construction. This façade system uses various modern materials that are quite expensive compared to traditional locally available materials for convectional facades.
In addition, the architectural designs of this façade system require the input of highly competent and professional architects, who are expensive to hire. Moreover, the successful completion of this façade system may take a couple of days, and require increased labor thereby increasing the overall cost. Due to costly nature of this system, not all people and companies might afford to put up this façade system.
The other weakness of the system is possible conflicts with the interests and demands of the occupants. Often, the occupants might have preferences that do not coincide with the standard plan and design of the façade system. For instance, occupants might have interests in having the blinds open on the west direction to watch the afternoon sun.
This may be in conflict with the project manager who might be trying to reduce peak building cooling loads. Selkowitz (2003) argues that occupant predilections for light levels, temperature, and view are often consistent for a single person but more diverse between different people, which present some probable integration challenges.
Another possible weakness of the integrated façade construction system is the likelihood of overlapping functions of the system. This might occur because this façade system utilizes many different elements of various types of facades.
In this regard, there may be overlapping of the core functions of the system and in addressing the needs of the occupants. It might be even more confusing in case of use of incompatible materials. Some materials are more strong and durable than others while some are cannot tolerate harsh weather conditions. In such a case, outdoor conditions may render some materials inactive, therefore not serving their purpose.
Benefits of implementation of the project
The completion and implementation of this project brings about many benefits to the building technology, the occupants of the building as well as workers in the case of commercial buildings. The successful implementation of the integrated façade system is of great benefit to the future of façade constructions.
In this case, the integrated façade system solves many problems encountered in the interior of many commercial as well as residential buildings. The project helps to meet specific needs of different buildings as well as occupants of various buildings.
The integrated façade system offers a unique solution to the adverse effects of changing weather and climatic patterns on various buildings. Of particular importance is the needs of the occupants of various buildings including commercial, residential and institutional.
In most cases, occupants of buildings require fresh air, adequate lighting, and comfortable indoor environments. In addition, such occupants need shelter from adverse effects of outdoor weather conditions. The implementation of the integrated façade system helps solve these problems.
In addition to occupants needs, successful implementation of this project ensures environmental protection and reduction of operating costs in terms of saving energy use. In this case, buildings with façade structures that allow considerable amount of warmth and sunlight do not require spending on lighting the day or providing warmth as well as proving cooling effect. This is a significant benefit to both the residential and commercial buildings.
In general, the implementation of the project will offer both direct and indirect benefits to the occupants of buildings and the building and architectural industries.
This is a unique and a multi-purpose façade system that serves the needs of contemporary generations while still not compromising the ability of future generations in solving their own façade constructions needs. Its implementation is a great opportunity for the building industry to portray its unique technological development.
Façade constructions are very vital structures of buildings ranging from commercial, residential as well as institutional buildings. The façade of a building acts as shelter or protection of the building and its occupants from harmful outdoor conditions.
In addition, the façade improves the aesthetic quality of a building as well as the surrounding environment. Facades are also vital in enhancing the quality of indoor environments. With regard to these functions of facades, there has been a growing demand of façade structures that meets most of these requirements.
The convectional façade structures are single-purposed and they can only meet one requirement at a time. However, the advancements in technology coupled with changing needs of occupants and the altering weather conditions calls for modern façade structures that address many of these problems.
In this regard, an integrated façade system, which incorporates different façade forms, different materials and architectural designs, is of paramount important. Such an integrated façade system serves various purposes and meets the needs of modern building requirements.
The successful implementation of such an integrated façade system marks a great advancement in the architectural and construction industries. It is a unique façade system that is multi-purpose and corresponds with the modern building and architecture.
This façade system integrates various modern façade forms including the double-skin façade, day-lighting facades as well as active facades. This integration produces a unique façade system that meets contemporary demands.
This project analyzed the various specifications required for successful implementation of this unique façade system. These specifications include the design process, architectural detailing, the different forms of façade structures, analysis of performance, strengths and weaknesses as well as the implementation of the system.
The design of the system entails the detailed planning of the means of executing the project. The architectural detailing involves defining the shape, scope and design of the system. It is evident that the successful completion and implementation of this unique façade system is of great importance to all commercial, residential and institutional buildings.
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Yin, Y. (2008). Prefabrication of Façade Elements in Scandinavia. Web.