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Example that supports an age range
In Human development, adolescence is the most important age range. According to psychoanalytic theorists, such as Freud and Ericson, the age range would determine the success of an individual in society. Freud observed that a person might develop some sexual characteristics that might end affecting his or her normal socialization.
For instance, an individual might develop a negative attitude towards members of the opposite sex. At the stage, Freud noted that the libido reappears at the genital areas but takes a more mature anal form. In this regard, if proper balance is not achieved, an individual might develop weird sexuality. Development of peculiar sexual features is a result of frustrations at the stage.
All sexuality problems encountered during childhood manifest the adolescence stage. Therefore, the age range is very important. Ericson observed that individuals might develop cult behaviors if proper balance is not negotiated. The stage is therefore very important in understanding the behavior of an individual (Murphy, & Dillon, 2011).
Ericson observed that adolescence is the beginning of puberty and the main task confronting an individual is ego identity, ruling out the chances of ego confusion.
If an individual does not balance the two, malignancy or maladaptive tendencies would take place. Ego identify implies that an adolescent understands his or her position in society. Through this, an individual would be in a position to solve internal and external conflicts. If an individual fails to answer the question “who am I,” he or she would probably suffer from ego confusion, which is referred to as fanatic.
This is a situation where an individual believes his or her ways are perfect. Such an individual would be reluctant to follow societal rules and regulations. This is a stage when the life of an individual is either made or destroyed. At the stage, the family plays a minimal role in influencing behavior. The main socializing agent during adolescence is the media and the peer. Individuals learn more from the media and their friends.
Example that supports the entire lifespan
Psychodynamic theorists evaluated the effectiveness of various concepts in understanding human behavior. Psychodynamic perspective would explain the entire cycle of development, unlike other theories that focus on a few areas. Human beings develop in a systematic manner implying that each stage is very important.
At childhood, children learn specific laws and principles that would help them cope with mid-adulthood life. Therefore, they are expected to behave in a specific manner. At adulthood, individuals are also required to behave according to societal expectations (Seligman, & Reichenberg, 2009).
Defense and support of development cycle
The most preferred developmental cycle is the Ericson’s cycle. Ericson noted that human beings develop in eight stages. The first stage is the infancy stage where the child is expected to cope with challenges such as development of trust. Anal muscular stage is the second stage where the child is socialized to be independent in life.
Other stages include genital locomotive, latency, adolescence, young adulthood, mid-adulthood and late adulthood stages. The cycle is preferred because it explains each stage in detail and each stage is designated a name, based on the task. Furthermore, the cycle is preferred because each stage has a specific optimal time. Finally, the cycle explains the consequences of malignancies and maladaptive tendencies. This would mean that each stage affects an individual in some way.
Murphy, B. C., & Dillon, C. (2011). Interviewing in action in a multicultural world (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Seligman, L. W., & Reichenberg, L. W. (2009). Theories of counseling and psychotherapy: Systems, strategies, and skills (3rd ed.). Boston: Pearson.