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The role of ICT in the management of disaster is enormous in the current world. ICT has proved to be very vital in effectively suppressing the impacts of the tragedies that humanity faces in the modern world.
The events of the beginning of the 21st century has witnessed an unprecedented capacity of ICT to solve the emerging human problems and calamities (Streitz, Kameas & Mavromamati 2007, p.114). The adoption of ICT services in disaster management has greatly improved the efficiency of handling such fatal occurrences. With the invention of advanced technology, the effects of disasters that occur inadvertently have been greatly reduced. (Oosterom, Zlatanova, & Fendel 2005, p.332). Thus, the purpose of this essay is to outline the systems designed to deal with disaster management.
Such computer applications, like the GPRS, have all revolutionized preparation for disaster and mitigation schemes.
Disaster management programs are broadly based on their applications. Depending on their design framework, these software packages tend to solve numerous disaster problems. Through extensive consumer research, these programs are tailored to meet the exact needs of the consumers. The programs are very useful in averting possible loss of life or damage to property by aiding in the coordination of evacuation activities after disaster strikes. (Streitz, Kameas & Mavromamati 2007, p.114).
The designed software application should be capable of taking into consideration all the requirements of the disaster cycle:
Mitigation: how does the program operate to extenuate the effects the disasters?
Preparedness: Does the program have a functionality of alerting humanity in time to avert damages?
Response: How exactly does the application aid in offering any reaction to the disaster?
Recovery: In any case the disaster occurs, how exactly does the application operate to offer recuperation to victims?
These are fundamental questions the software designer must answer in the system development process.
Computer applications used in disaster management are anchored on several variant aspects. The programs must yearn to meet these foundations in order to fulfill the mandate of the program design. The table below is a summary of all these aspects and their significance.
|Incessant information||Disasters may occur very fast and it is often very difficult to predict them in time; the software design should ensure constant and timeless flow of information relevant to avert the disaster.|
|Poly-faceted and open information||Disaster management systems have to provide a multi directional communication and broad based system communication. This leads to enhanced communication|
|Content of information and location||The system must be able to supply enough information and its location in the directory|
|Data linkage and updates||The data should be intertwined to enhance search in the directory. Information from the database must be up to date for timely action|
|Psycho-social impacts||Psychological effects the information imparts on the users must be accounted for as a proper design method|
According to American civil defense association, inception of ICT has witnessed improvement in disaster response and management. With the adoption of ICT systems over the last ten years, the casualty levels of Hurricanes have ebbed in the US. The table below summarizes the findings (Garcia and Hegge 2012).
|2007||Casualties Reduced by 4% from 2006|
|2008||Reduced by 2%|
|2009||Reduced by 1%|
|2010||Reduced by 3%|
|2011||Reduced by 5%|
The reduction of casualty levels have been partly attributed to the adoption of advanced technology in ICT.
Garcia, AW & Hegge, WS 2012, Hurricane storm surge data. Pine, New York.
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Oosterom, PJ, Zlatanova, S & Fendel, EM 2005, Geo-information for disaster management. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Streitz, NA, Kameas, A & Mavrommati, I 2007, The disappearing computer interaction design, system infrastructures and applications for smart environments. Springer, Berlin.