Marketers have always been concerned with the aspect of consumer behavior. The reason for this is because an in-depth understanding of the feature has numerous benefits to the business experts. Extensive knowledge of the concept allows marketers to determine how customers feel towards a given product. It provides information on how they value and choose goods and services from different manufacturers and suppliers (Mooij, 2010). In addition, marketers are able to find out how end users are influenced by other people around them. The significant others, in this case, include, among others, family members, friends, and salespersons. In addition, the impacts of the environment on the conduct of these consumers are made evident (Solomon, 2006).
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The term ‘consumer’ has varying definitions. For example, in the field of marketing, the phrase refers to acts and patterns of purchasing and buying. To this end, it is used to refer to pre and post-purchase decisions made by consumers. On their part, Solomon (2006) defines a consumer as a field of study. To this end, it is regarded as the practices involved in the acquisition, use, and disposal of goods, services, and ideas (Solomon, 2006).
On its part, consumer behavior is defined as the acts of individuals. The activities are linked to the process of obtaining, utilizing, and discarding monetary goods and services. Extensive research reveals that the behavior of customers is influenced by a wide range of factors. They include social, cultural, psychological, and personal factors. Some of these elements are beyond the control of the marketer. However, in spite of this, business experts must take them into consideration in order to better understand consumers.
In this paper, the author will explore the manner in which culture affects consumer behavior. To achieve this objective, the author will examine the issue using the information in a journal article published by Kwon Jung and Ah Keng Kau. The article by Jung and Kau (2004) is titled “Culture’s Influence on Consumer Behavior: Differences among Ethnic Groups in a Multiracial Asian Country”. To provide readers with an in-depth understanding of the topic, the author will use additional information from a number of consumer and marketing journals. The literature will be used to support the findings and conclusions made by Jung and Kau (2004). In addition, the author will refer to Solomon’s textbooks.
The Premise of the Article by Jung and Kau (2004)
In their article, Jung and Kau (2004) highlight the importance of understanding the influence of culture on consumer behavior. According to scholars, marketers should not ignore these impacts. The reason behind this is because as companies venture into the global market, they sell their goods and services to people from different cultures and backgrounds. Due to the apparent relationship between culture and consumer behavior, extensive research on different ethnic groups has been conducted to understand the concept. According to Hofstede and McCrae (2004), individuality is shaped by culture. Due to this, the facet turns out to be a key determinant of consumer mannerisms.
From the wide range of studies, scholars have established the presence of varying behavioral patterns among different ethnic groups. People tend to have dissimilar notions on aspects such as probable risk, brand loyalty, and novelty. High-risk customers tend to be certain about what they are purchasing. On its part, fewer risks clients can allow some level of uncertainty when buying items.
Culture determines the success or failure of products and services in the market. A business that produces merchandise desired by a particular group of people has better chances of thriving within the market. However, marketers are, at times, faced with the challenge of predicting how a certain product will fair. According to Solomon (2014), the relationship between consumer behavior and culture is a two-way street. In spite of the fact that culture is a major source of influence, marketers must consider three primary aspects that are not culturally bound. They include perceived fit, quality, and packaging. Perceived fit entails determining the right distribution channels for a product.
Quality determines whether consumers will purchase the product or not (Peter & Olson, 2008). Packaging creates a link between customers during acquisition. A unique packaging design attracts more people from all areas across the globe. Due to this, there are higher levels of success.
According to Jung and Kau (2004), culture comprises of shared beliefs, customs, and attitudes which are passed from one generation to the other. All these elements are responsible for influencing the standards of evaluating, perceiving, and acting within society. Due to this, culture tends to have a huge effect on the decision made when purchasing items. One must conduct himself or herself in a similar manner as the other members. Some marketers believe people who live close to each other in terms of geographical regions are similar and share the same preferences (Balabanis & Diamantopolous, 2008).
However, this is not the case. The reason behind this is because individuals from one part have varying cultural values. In addition, persons from certain countries have higher tendencies of purchasing items compared to others. In most East Asian countries such as Singapore, shopping is considered to be a leisure activity. Due to this, it is important for salespersons to familiarise themselves with the cultural characteristics of diverse groups. Through this, they will be able to create the required brand names for products and develop merchandise that suites a specific market.
The Main Themes in the Article by Jung and Kau (2004)
Consumer Behaviour in a Multiracial Society
A multicultural society comprises of people from different races. Despite the groups living in one country, they practice their own unique cultural values, attitudes, and beliefs. Numerous studies have been conducted with the aim of understanding how people in multiracial countries have varying purchasing behaviors. However, Jung and Kau (2004) argue that most of the research is carried in the American and European nations. Few scholars have focused on Asian countries. Due to this, the duo opted to conduct a sub-cultural study in Singapore. The nation provides a perfect setting for studying Asian consumer behaviors (Peter & Olson, 2008). The reason behind this is because the country is a multiracial society made of three major groups. They include Chinese, Indians, and Malays.
During the colonial era, Singapore was under the British Rule (Kongsompong, 2006). At the time, the three ethnic groups already lived in the country. Despite them residing in the same nation and interacting together, they had distinct customs, values, and religious practices and beliefs. In addition, the groups had different ways of life. To ensure the cultural ties were upheld, the Singapore government stressed the need for the Chinese, Indians, and Malays to maintain their practices (Kongsompong, 2006). Despite the cultural variations, Singapore has managed to maintain national harmony since its independence.
Consumer Behaviour among the Chinese
People from Chinese origin tend to value their public reputation a lot in the context of interpersonal and social interaction. The concept of “face” is considered to be a factor that earns one respect in society. According to Lin, Xi, and Lueptow (2013), poor public reputation results in a huge emotional effect on an individual. In addition, the Chinese tend to maintain strong relationships with each other. The correlation is characterized by connections and reciprocity. Due to this, the feature of personal loyalty is more valued than an organizational attachment.
Constancy is considered to be a virtue. Within the Chinese culture, people are taught the importance of loyalty to their family and kin while at a tender age (Mokhlis & Salleh, 2009). The aspect goes on to be observed in the commercial context. Numerous studies on the ethnic group reveal Chinese consumers maintain their loyalty to a specific supplier. The reason behind this is because constant switching would ruin the public reputation or face of the provider. Due to this, Chinese customers strive to avoid alternating between suppliers. According to Lin et al. (2013), the aspect of loyalty observed within the culture is a major influence on customer behavior.
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In Chinese culture, human relations are reciprocity based. The concept stresses that favors from others need to be paid back. Due to this, the Chinese tend to focus on upholding the symmetry of debits and credits. When it comes to purchasing products, some people only shop in instances where there are special occasions or ceremonies. Jung and Kau (2004) note that the concept of face impacts consumer behavior in a big way. Among the Chinese, public reputation influences individuals to purchase products with prestigious brand names. Upon buying, some customers leave the manufactures’ tags on their items such as classy suits.
Among the Chinese community, family dynamics tend to influence consumer behavior. A family is considered to be a refuge against the harsh aspects of life. Due to this, it should be well protected. During the purchase of products, the Chinese population is attracted by items with advertisements that have a family orientation (Solomon, 2014). The case is different compared to the West. A majority of consumers do not value products with celebrity status or sex appeal endorsement messages. Due to this preference, marketers are always keen on how they promote their goods in the country. One keen supplier is the Coca Cola Company. The drink’s advertisements produced for the Chinese market entail images of family gatherings and festivities (Jung & Kau, 2004).
In Chinese culture, the husband and wife relationship influences customer behavior. According to Sun and Wu (2004), most people from the ethnic group believe the husband plays a key role in determining what should be acquired. The reason behind this is because the man is considered to be the head of the family. Due to this, all the other members need to show him respect. To stress on the feature of authority, the Chinese tend to be guided by one saying. The expression states that a husband sings, and the wife hums along. However, the notion has changed over time. In this current era, women can also make purchasing decisions (Solomon, 2014). Factors that have influenced the change include education and financial stability. Numerous studies have been conducted with the aim of understanding changes in Chinese consumer behavior. An analysis of the findings reveals real females make more decisions when procuring certain items such as household products.
Consumer Behaviour in the Malaysian Society
Among the Malays, religion s considered to be a subsystem of culture. In addition, it is a value and way of life. Values-based on religion are powerful forces that impact peoples’ attitudes and behaviors (Mokhlis & Salleh, 2009). Malays ethnic and Islamic practices are considered to be inseparable. Due to this, most of the Malays tend to be Muslims. The validity of this claim was proved by the Singapore census conducted in 2000.
According to Jung and Kau (2004), 99.6 percent of Malays were found to have Muslim ties. In the Islamic religion, the Quran, which is God’s word, influences peoples’ way of life. It dictates the moral, social, political, economic, and spiritual facets. The book points out what is right and what is forbidden. In addition, the Quran is considered to be a source of strength during trying times. Due to this, the Malays place their total trust in Allah to guide them in times of difficulty. In Singapore, marketers who promote life insurance policies are faced with huge problems. The reason behind this is because a majority of Malays do not insure their lives. People from the ethnic group only take insurance covers for material items such as cars (Peter & Olson, 2008).
In Singapore, Malays practice different lifestyles form the Chinese and Indians. According to Jung and Kau (2004), the close association with the Islamic religion has impacted Malays culture in a big way. Upon birth, Malays are integrated into both Islamic religion and culture simultaneously. Any individual who refutes Islam is no longer considered to be Malay. Research by Roth and Diamantopolous (2009) reveals that there is a strong relationship between religion and ethnicity and the purchasing patterns of the Malays.
The cultural values and beliefs derived from Islamic impact economic decisions made by consumers. Some of the most culturally impacted items include food and clothing. In terms of foodstuffs, Malays are required to follow the Islamic Halal dietary law. In the clothing perspective, men are obliged to dress in the Arab baju Melayu. While in mosques, they are required to wear the Sarong. On its part, ladies must put on clothes which match with the Islamic law (Kongsompong, 2006). Despite purchasing behavior being influenced by culture, people also consider other aspects not bound by culture. They include products, quality, effectiveness, and price. In addition, they are also attracted to more technologically advanced items.
Consumer Behaviour among the Indians
Caste ideas are still relevant in the Indian community. According to the orthodox notion, men are never equal. The difference is based on the merits and demerits amassed from previous embodiments (Mokhlis & Salleh, 2009). Due to this inequality, each caste is required to live in accordance with their dharma. In Singapore, caste beliefs have lost value over time. The ideas are only utilized in instances where the Indians want to make a distinction between their members. In terms of consumer behavior, less marketing literature exists on Indians’ buying habits. Jung and Kau (2004) stress that most studies have focused only on Chinese and Malays.
Among the Indian community, consumers purchase products based on celebrity influence, freebies, quality, and eco-friendly nature of products. To create the feature of differentiation, some people opt to acquire merchandise with expensive brands. The reason behind this is because Indians associate high prices with quality. In addition, consumer behavior is also influenced by celebrity status. Products advertised by celebrities tend to attract more clients (Wong & Merrilees, 2007). Due to this, marketers who wish to capture Indians’ attention use famous persons to advertise their items.
Hofstede’s Cultural Framework
To gain an in-depth understanding of Chinese, Malays, and Indians consumer behavior, Jung and Kau (2004) opted to use Hofstede’s cultural framework model. Hofstede’s model analyses cultural differences in five perspectives. They include individualism/ collectivism, power distance, and uncertainty avoidance. Other dimensions include masculinity versus femininity and long-term versus short-term orientation. Most researchers opt to employ the model due to one primary reason (Mokhlis & Salleh, 2009). It acts as an effective tool for determining the different cultural ideas, customs, and religious beliefs that dictate consumer patterns.
The facet of individualism-collectivism refers to the patterns of behavior exhibited by people in groups and their correlations with others. For all the three ethnic groups discussed, the family is considered to be vital. Despite this similar notion, Singapore based communities portray different levels of collectivisms. Among the Malays and Indians, loyalty to one’s culture and way of life is considered to be a vital feature (Jung & Kau, 2004).
However, the Chinese share a different opinion. In addition, Malays believe religion plays a central role in holding them together. The feature collective they possess is derived from the Islamic religion. Among the Indians, family cohesion is viewed as an important aspect. Due to this, harmony should be shared by all members of society. To maintain family and community solidarity, Indians based in Singapore tend to value occasions such as birth, marriage, and death. Among the Chinese, loyalty is accorded to the immediate family (Sun & Wu, 2004). In addition, people from the ethnic group tend to conform less to the social norms compared to Indians and Malays. Results and findings from numerous research studies reveal the aspect is influenced by the adoption of Western values. According to Jung and Kau (2004), the Chinese posses more individualistic traits compared to Malays and Indians in Singapore.
A wide variety of consumer behaviors can be determined with the use of the individualism-collectivism concept. Solomon (2006) considers the dimension to be a major cultural feature that influences consumer behavior. People from societies that exhibit individualism tend to be less influenced by reference groups. In addition, they share less information and less ethnocentric.
Avoidance of Uncertainty
Compared to the Indians and Chinese, Malays exhibit the lowest patterns of uncertainty avoidance. The reason behind this is because of their laid-back nature and belief that factors in society tend to be preordained. According to Jung and Kau (2004), Malays consider everything to be out of their control. They put more trust in religion and consider it to be the facet that can help them evade risks. The Chinese also portray some level of uncertainty avoidance in their culture.
Different research studies reveal the feature is influenced by the desire to protect their reputation or face. Due to the great need of adhering to group standards, the Chinese tend to be image-conscious. When shopping for commodities, they purchase items that will make them stand out from others in society. Compared to the Malays, their level of uncertainty avoidance is higher. Further studies on this topic reveal Singapore Indians exhibit lower tolerance levels of anxiety, risk, and vagueness. The results are in comparison to ethnic groups from Japan, America, and Canada. During the purchasing of merchandise, Indians focus more on product quality than the brand name. From the findings, Jung and Kau (2004) suggest that Indians in Singapore portray the highest level of uncertainty avoidance.
According to Solomon (2014), the term uncertainty avoidance describes the manner in which different people deal with unknown future facets. Acute levels of the trait result in buyers’ anxiety and stress. However, people cope differently with the effects experienced. The variation in levels of uncertainty avoidance tends to influence consumer behaviors across diverse ethnic groups. The mannerisms exhibited are linked to risks, brand loyalty, and innovation. People from cultures with high uncertainty avoidance such as Indians, practice purchase behaviors, which reduce the risk factor. According to Klein, Ettenson, and Krishnan (2006), such persons are more loyal to product brands. In addition, they focus less on innovative merchandise. However, they tend to be more concerned with seeking information.
In the Malay culture, the aspect of gender role distinction is still prominent. In the traditional era, Malay women were required to be obedient to their husbands. In addition, they were supposed to play the role of housewives and take care of children. In this current time, the notion has not changed much in Singapore. The reason behind this is because Muslims in the modern era still abide by the traditional socio-cultural rules of matrimony. Malay husbands still believe their position as family heads should be respected (Mokhlis & Salleh, 2009). In addition, a husband and wife should not have the same education level. When it comes to the planning of marriages, men prefer their parents to make the arrangements. Due to this, the purchase of products to be used for the ceremony is the parents’ choice.
Among the Indians, the perception of women is different from that of Malays. The notion that women are required to be housewives has changed over time. In Chinese and Indian culture, women are more educated and financially dependent. Due to this, the level of masculinity is lower. Unlike in the Malays community, Chinese and Indian females can make their own purchasing decisions. According to Hofstede and McCrae (2004), ethnic groups that rate the highest on masculinity are dominated by men. Most decisions are made by the husband. Due to this, men dictate consumer habits in the household. In addition, masculine cultures focus more on aspects such as tasks, accomplishments, and finances. On its part, feminine groups place more emphasis on factors such as quality of life, environment conservation, and aiding others in society. In female-dominated settings, women influence consumer decisions (Hansen, 2005).
Hofstede’s dimension of power distance describes the extent to which less powerful members of society acknowledge and condone inequality. In communities where the feature of power is upheld, each individual has a position in the social hierarchy. The rank is determined by one’s social status. To maintain the high class, members purchase products from luxurious global brands (Mooij, 2010). The construct of power distance is observed more in the Indian community compared to the Chinese and Malays (Peter & Olson, 2008).
The feature is influenced by the notion of caste. Among the Malays, people tend to support inequality. Persons from the group consider inequality to be an element of destiny. The differentiation is beyond their control and cannot be changed (Klein et al., 2006). On its part, the Chinese are not guided by similar beliefs as the Indians and Malays.
General Topic Coverage from the Perspective of Different Literature Materials
Literature from different scholars concurs with that of Jung and Kau (2004). The reason behind this is because they believe culture influences consumer behavior in a great way. Their conclusions are based on numerous studies that involve individuals from different ethnic groups and marketers. According to Solomon (2006), consumer behavior entails more than purchasing of merchandise.
The construct involves studying and understanding the manner in which possessing or lack certain products impacts peoples’ lives. In addition, consumer behavior helps researchers to understand how the items acquired influence one’s feelings and state of being. Different consumer researchers also believe that the study helps people appreciate how purchasing activities influence the broader social world experience.
Hansen (2005) believes consumer behavior is an ongoing process. More aspects are involved other than just handing over money and receiving the desired products or services. Marketers stress that the wide range of facets influences consumer behavior before, during, and after the acquisition of the merchandise. In addition, the process of buying may involve more than one person. The reason behind this is because the individual purchasing an item may not be the actual user. According to Solomon (2014), a consumer can also be a group or corporation. In such instances, buying decisions are made by one individual who is the leader.
Consumer behavior varies across cultures. Due to this, marketers believe understanding customers is vital for products and services success. The primary function of businesses is to meet clients’ needs (Wong & Merrilees, 2007). When a firm produces merchandise that meets the preferences of a certain ethnic group market, it has a better chance of survival against competitors. People from different cultural backgrounds tend to be keen on what they acquire. Due to this, marketers must also be keen on the marketing strategy employed.
Consumer behavior across cultures is affected by personality (Sun & Wu, 2004). Findings from research studies reveal some brand personality facets are culture-specific. In addition, some customers from certain ethnic backgrounds such as Malays, Indians, and Chinese attribute different trademark personalities to one and the same global brand. According to Balabanis and Diamantopolous (2008), trade names have different characteristics.
Products with brand names termed as friendly are linked to cultures that exhibit high uncertainty avoidance and low power distance. Products considered to be prestigious are associated with high power distance groups. On its part, brands termed as trustworthy are linked with people who portray high uncertainty avoidance traits. When purchasing merchandise, consumers choose items that match with their own cultural values (Klein et al., 2006). Ideals of the producer of the product do not play a vital role. Due to this, they are less considered by the buyer.
Like Jung and Kau (2004), Solomon (2014) considers identity to be a major influence of consumer behavior. Chinese are associated with the feature of caring about one’s reputation. However, most researchers believe the concept of image is valued by people from across all cultures. The reason behind this is because the image influences the manner in which other people see you. In addition, the way in which an individual portrays him or herself determines the level of respect that is accorded. All of these factors have a huge effect on consumer behavior. When shopping, people choose commodities that will bring out the reflection of a unique self. In individualistic cultures, the concept of image is considered to be very important.
According to Peter and Olson (2008), the shopping practices of all consumers are influenced by fundamental modes. They include price, quality, and brand name. For decades, numerous studies have been conducted to understand the aspect of the purchase. However, experts are still unable to formulate one mechanism which can be utilized to describe clients’ behavior patterns across diverse cultures. Researchers share a common definition of culture. A majority of scholars refer to culture as shared beliefs, attitudes, and customs responsible for shaping society. In addition, they share a similar notion that the element dictates peoples’ way of life and influences consumer decisions. Due to this, marketers believe it is important to produce products that meet the cultural standards of certain groups.
Despite this view having some weight, Hansen (2005) shares another idea related to ethnicity and consumption. The scholar stresses businesses will be faced with challenges in the near future when determining preferences of various markets. The reason behind this is because boundaries between different ethnic groups are continuing to blur. In this current era, most people consider themselves to be multiracial.
People’s behaviors are influenced by one’s cultural values, which are derived from a particular context. The ideals are developed over time through the process of socialization (Kongsompong, 2006). Cultural value systems are influenced by various factors. They include family beliefs, societal standards, and regional subculture. From this, researchers conclude a person’s ethnic principles tend to be similar to those of people from the same groups.
According to the model of cultural interaction and consumer behavior, customs affect purchaser patterns. Depending on one’s community, the behavior adopted by an individual can be accepted and emulated or rejected (Hofstede & McCrae, 2004). Independent of culture, researchers also concur with the fact that marketing communications have an effect on purchase patterns across all ethnic groups.
Data Collection Methods
To examine consumer behaviors among the three ethnic Singapore communities, Jung and Kau (2004) employed the survey methodology to collect data. The sampling units comprised of married Singaporean individuals from Chinese, Indian, and Malay groups. The idea of using married participants was influenced by the fact that some consumer behaviors are a family decision. For certain items to be purchased, the husband and wife must engage in an interaction. To gather more information, the researchers also used questionnaires. To distribute the forms to the respondents, the researchers employed the method of snowball sampling.
The total number of questionnaires distributed was 300. The number of those returned by the participants was 258 (Jung & Kau, 2004). However, those considered to be valid totaled 231. The researchers concluded that invalid forms were not found to be fit due to various reasons. According to Jung and Kau, some of the 27 questionnaires were filled were by persons not from the three ethnic groups, unmarried, or had conflicting information. Out of the 231 valid forms, 83 belonged to the Chinese, 73 Indians, and 75 Malays (Jung & Kau, 2004).
To measure the cultural dimensions of the three ethnic groups, the researchers utilized Hofstede’s model. Hofstede’s framework is designed to use work-related questions. Due to this, the original values scales turned out to be inapplicable for the study. However, the researchers modified the version to fit with the study requirements. For the scales to be valid for the research, they had to be generic in nature. In addition, they had to match with the four constructs developed by Hofstede. Jung and Kau (2004) analyzed past studies to obtain measures for consumer behaviors. The information gathered from the questionnaires was assessed on a five-point scale. In addition, the same range was used to determine the level of family decision making when purchasing products.
Societal and Marketing Implications of the Study
Consumer behavior has attracted the attention of researchers for decades. Marketers have found that purchase patterns have major implications on the society and on marketing specifically. The traits exhibited by customers from all cultures influence the marketing strategies to be employed by organizations. As observed by Jung and Kau (2004), people from different ethnic groups are attracted to a product’s advertisement means. Some cultures prefer items promoted by influential figures such as celebrities. On their part, others favor products with a familial orientation. Due to these variations, firms must conduct comprehensive studies to determine the strategies suitable for a particular group (Solomon, 2014).
Consumer behavior dictates the type of commodities to be supplied to certain markets. When supplying products targeting groups such as Malays, Indians, or Chinese, the items must be what the people desire. In addition, specific items such as clothing should match with the values observed. In the case of Malays, for example, they have a unique dress code (Solomon, 2006). The reason behind this is because they abide by the Islamic religion.
To gather the required information to understand consumer preferences, marketers are required to employ a wide range of techniques. The methodologies include surveys and analyzing data on past consumer behaviors. Businesses garner important information from various sources, such as the internet (Wong & Merrilees, 2007). In addition, they collect information from marketing databases and company sales history records.
Consumer behaviors dictate the type of brand name for a certain product. Some customers purchase items based on the trademark and popularity. In some ethnic groups, people tend to be more attracted by items with prestigious brands (Solomon, 2006). Such products are considered to be of great quality. In addition, they associate an individual with higher status quo.
Consumer behaviors also have significant impacts on society. In this modern era, social classes are determined by how people purchase goods and the type of commodities. In all societies, people have their ranks. Some are accorded higher status than others. Due to this, persons in different hierarchical positions exhibit varying traits. For those at the top, they must spend on luxurious and expensive brands and products. The reason behind this is so as to maintain the top position. According to Jung and Kau (2004), individuals in different social classes also have distinct attitudes and beliefs. Before supplying merchandise, marketers and businesses must analyze how social classes impact consumer behaviors. Through this study, organizations can produce items that meet the needs of people across all social classes.
Consumer behavior impacts on society through the aspect of self-image. Some cultural groups are known to value their representation more than others. However, findings from numerous studies reveal all people desire a great unique look. To acquire the image, people opt to purchase products that will initiate the process of recognition and interpretation within the society (Sun & Wu, 2004). However, the extent to which an individual purchases products to gain imagery acceptance is determined by financial status.
In their article, Jung and Kau (2004) contend that the modern world continues to be more competitive and globalized. Due to this, marketers acknowledge the importance of consumers and their purchase behaviors. However, problems are experienced in the quest for determining preferences for different markets. To solve the problem, marketers strive to study the values and beliefs of different cultural groups. Since traditional times, culture has been considered to play a vital role in determining peoples’ needs and behavior. Culture is not static. On the contrary, it is a dynamic phenomenon.
The reason is that its aspects and values keep on changing over time. Some ideas and practices observed in the past are no longer followed with much strictness. When the standards change, consumer behaviors are also altered. When shopping, people will purchase items that match the current principles and way of life. In addition, some people are emulating other cultural systems and picking up new traits. The feature results in a change of lifestyle.
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