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Theories of motivation identify why persons pursue to work hard, and also expound on work-related behavior that is not linked to work performance. However, many theories address performance due to motivation and not employee’s capability.
Motivation encompasses the explanation for an individual’s engagement in certain actions. These actions are driven by direction or choice, intensity or input effort and persistence or continuity. Else, motivation is driven by desire to attain a certain goal and result from an individual’s wants.
Work motivation theories emphasize on the reasons why individuals behave in the manner they do and not on their potential. In the JC’s casino, employees have the potential but face restrictions of their performance since motivation is minimal (Spector, 2003).
This theory points out that certain behavior emanates from rewards. It identifies motivation as a product of environmental influences and not from internal motives. It recognizes the cognitive processes of a person and explains the reasons why rewards results to a given behavior.
The theory adapts a situational stance on behavior as a function of individual‘s reinforcement history. Accordingly, work related behaviors, which are rewarded, have a likelihood of recurring in future. The theory ignores internal aspects such as motivation and explains that reinforcement history triggers certain behaviors, whose probability goes up when tagged along rewards as explained by the law effect. Conversely, when punishment is administered along with a particular behavior, its recurrence declines (Spector, 2003).
Occurrence of behavior is dependent on the rewards and therefore, work related performance increases if there is a reward. Reward could take any form, either tangible and intangible e.g. finances and praise respectively.
It could be a by-product of certain work aspects where good performance could offer a feeling of accomplishment or from the industry which offers a bonus for good work. These two aspects reinforce and result to recurrence of good performance. In an organization, rewards could take a form of incentives like sales commission (Spector, 2003).
The incentive system is dependent on individual efforts. In JC’s Casino for instance, rewarding the attendant who facilitate efficiently the guests’ admission on time, by relating the number of guest admitted and the time taken would enhance performance.
From research, the reward system gives an average performance of sixteen percent but when it takes the form of money, performance increases to twenty three percent (Spector, 2003). The reward system is absent in JC’s Casino and therefore, there lacks a reinforcement history, which results to poor job performance.
The principles of the theory could enhance job performance in JC’s casino when applied. For instance, it could curb the rising rates of absenteeism by encouraging attendance through stipulating each worker’s criterion of attendance within a given time span.
If there are no absenteeism records within a month, the employer is rewarded. Additionally, a control program can also be put in place where employees present at work every day take a card from a standard deck. When the week end, those with a perfect attendance should possess a certain card and win a prize.
The system has been noted to reduce the rate of absenteeism by eighteen percent (Spector, 2003). The theory however, has been sidelined since it does not relate behavior reinforcement to motivation.
It has been ethically questioned since workers should work voluntarily, without eyeing the rewards. In addition, it has been termed as unethical to use manipulation by offering rewards in order to achieve good performance (Spector, 2003).
Expectancy theory gives an explanation why reward is principal to manifest particular behaviors. It argues that individuals will attain a good performance on believing that their efforts will result to performance, when performance would come with a reward and when they desire the reward.
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Similar to reinforcement theory, expectancy theory tries to relate environmental rewards and behavioral aspects in individuals. However, the theory’s main aim is to determine the cognitive processes, which give an explanation of rewards to result to a particular behavior (Spector, 2003).
Expectancy theory elaborates on reinforcement theory since it gives an explanation why behaviors occur. It states that motivation is the prime aspect to achieve the changes since workers become motivated when a reward system is in place and therefore perform well.
Having to work extra hours may be accompanied by extra pay. So an employee may be motivated by the extra money he or she is earning and this expectancy could motivate one to perform well. The theory can also give a prediction to an individual‘s choice (Spector, 2003).
Consequently, the above normal rate of absenteeism and high turnover of rooms for housekeeping staff in the JC’s Casino could be addressed by putting a reward system as stated by the reinforcement theory. Therefore, employees would be motivated to work extra harder in order to achieve these rewards put in place by the organization.
Besides, the fulltime employees who clean the rooms severally should be rewarded in order to be motivated to do so. In any case, when the JC Casino stipulates a reward system, there will be no absenteeism and therefore, the full time employees will not engage in housekeeping work or even the hotel adjusting check-in time from three to six in the evening.
This has called for a luggage room to accommodate the luggage for early visitors in the hotel and a need to hire staff to man the room, which would not be necessary if every staff performed their tasks effectively.
One of the occupational stressors at JC’s Casino is identified as having the full time employees engage in house-keeping work. This is too demanding for these employees and may lead to an overload. Besides, the JC’s Casino has an unbearable boss who lacks the welfare of the employees at heart.
The employees therefore, are psychologically prompted to change career and avoid interacting with such an employer. This is also affecting the ability to hire new employees thereby, causing a staff shortage in the organization.
This results to a workload on the already present employees in the organization while their pay remains similar to other casinos while the working conditions remain unfavorable. Workload may therefore, become an occupational stressor in JC’s Casino.
In addition, a healthy organization change is paramount in JC’s casino although it is a decision that lies on the hands of the top managers. This should consider employees’ health as well as their satisfaction by improving the working condition and reducing excessive job demands.
Besides, the manager should evaluate his coping habits with his staff and improve on them by facilitating communication as well as interacting freely with the employees. Occupational stressors result to absenteeism, inadequate productivity and health impacts, which affects the overall performance of the organization.
The JC’s Casino could modify its working environments by enhancing the level of skills through training, employees freely airing their views as well as improvement of the organization’s career ladder (Hardy et al., 1998).
Role of Job Satisfaction
Job satisfaction is crucial to enhance productivity as well as individual efficiency since an employee has inner motivation. Such employees enhance positive working environment and creates harmonious working relationship for other employees to work effectively. These employees have the zeal, motivation and enthusiasm to perform for their welfare and that of the organization as a whole (Landy & Conte, 2009).
Employees’ turnover at JC’s Casino is high and this creates an additional expenditure to recruit and train new staff. Therefore, job satisfaction is minimal at JC’s casino since the organization lack professionalism because the staffs in higher ranks are forced to take tasks of house-keeping such as cleaning, which is a position for subordinate workers.
There is no joy and excitement to work at JC’s Casino as a result of the harsh working environment created by an unbearable boss and absence of staff.
Although the housekeeping director, Andrew Keehn is pursuing on the addition of extra staff, he states that it is difficult to find good help since no one is willing to volunteer to work at the casino. This is because the hourly wage for JC’s casino is similar to other casinos in the region but due to the staff shortage, there is extra work of cleaning extra rooms unlike the other staff from other casinos.
The nature of work is tiring and this does not facilitate a healthy mind, essential to attain maximum productivity from the employees. The nature of work affect hiring and retention of employees since they find the working conditions at JC’s casino as being incomparable to the pay they earn hence opts for a job change.
The casino owner is not even aware of the issue since he is detached from his employees, whom they cannot interact freely. Thus, the management style is questionable and affects the employees’ empowerment. Therefore, an open line of communication, encouraging employee autonomy and enhancing their participation are essential aspects for the casino to run smoothly and attain maximum productivity.
It is clear that the superior-subordinate relationship has failed in JC’s Casino since the manager is termed as ‘toxic’. This signifies that his interpersonal relationship is ineffective and therefore, the employees are not happy to work in the casino since their motivation is minimal. The manager should cultivate friendliness and pursue open communication with the employees.
Counterproductive Employee Behavior
This is an employee behavior, which is against an organization’s goals. They could be intentional or not and emanate from underlying aspects of motivation. They are manifested from inadequate job performance, high staff turnover and high rate of absenteeism as in JC’s casino.
The employees’ withdrawal may manifest as absenteeism or lateness and this affect the productivity of the company. The employees’ withdrawal is meant to evade tasks or a show of retaliation against unfavorable working conditions. Absenteeism relate to lack of satisfaction and personal commitment, which could be due to fatigue and work-related stress.
In JC’s casino, this might be linked to poor performance, absence of reward scheme and poor working conditions. The problem could also be on recruitment of new staff whose cognitive ability or agreeability is minimal. Therefore, integrity screening is essential to eliminate employees with counterproductive behavior by testing their integrity and cognitive process (Jex & Britt, 2008).
All the same, situational factors during the organization’s activities such as absence of rewards, constraining tasks, illegitimate work and injustice within the organization may prompt counterproductive behavior as manifest in JC’s casino.
Therefore, to curb this, organizational justice should be improved through ensuring clear communication and feedback mechanism, encouraging employee’s involvement as well as supervisory training. JC’s casino should be attentive to determine interpersonal conflicts for employees and tend to them immediately.
Since this behavior declines workplace productivity, it must be dealt with at whichever cost through monitoring employees’ progress. The casino could also draft innovative policies, which engages all employees. The manager should assertively combat counterproductivity by keeping in touch with the employees and monitoring their progress.
Hardy, S., Carson, J. & Thomas, B. (1998). Occupational Stress: Personal and Professional Approaches. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes.
Jex, M. S & Britt, T. W. (2008). Organizational Psychology: A Scientist-Practitioner Approach. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons.
Landy, F. J. & Conte, M. J. (2009). Work in the 21st Century: an Introduction to Industrial and Organizational Psychology.Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons.
Spector, P. E. (2003). Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Research and Practice. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons.