The selection of employees is an important task that implies the identification and the appointment of the right person at the right position. The importance of such selection can be seen through its influence on the organization’s success, considering that employees are established as a capital in the company. The task is not limited to the process of selection, but also continues through developing the employees through training. In order for the task of selection and development to be successful, there are different initiatives that can influence, promote and increase the efficiency of such tasks. Among such initiatives is the field of Industrial/ organizational psychology. This paper analyzes industrial/organizational psychology and its role in employees’ selection and development, providing an analysis of the scientific selection of the employees, based on the analysis of the position of a police officer.
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The role of industrial/organizational psychology can be outlined through its goal, where it is defined as increasing “the productivity and well-being of employees.” (Aamodt, 2009, p. 4)Having two approaches, i.e. the industrial and the organizational, the selection and the training can be related to the industrial part, which “focuses on determining the competencies needed to perform a job, staffing the organization with employees who have those competencies and increasing those competencies through training.” (Aamodt, 2009, p. 4)
Accordingly, the goals of industrial psychology, in that matter, can be achieved through a number of practices, which are included within their competencies. These competencies fall within the field of personnel psychology and include competencies include job analysis, recruitment, selection, salary appointment, training, performance evaluation and others.
A distinct part of these competencies is job analysis, as many other competencies such as selection and recruitment are based on it. Job analysis can be defined as “a process to identify and determine in detail the particular job duties and requirements and the relative importance of these duties for a given job.” (“Job Analysis: Overview,” 2001) The approaches to job analysis are divided into two distinct directions, based on the purpose of the job analyst. The approaches can be defined taking the example of the position of police officer as follows:
- Job-oriented analysis – “systematic process for collecting information about the highly specific and distinct tasks required for particular jobs.” (Bacal, 2009)Accordingly, the job-oriented analysis for the position of a police officer cannot be applied, as the tasks performed by a police as the competencies cannot be divided into a step by step sequence of job tasks. Nevertheless, a general analysis of the parts of job can have elements such as documenting complaints, writing reports, patrolling the streets, investigating crime, building relationships with community members and arresting or citing lawbreakers.
- Person-oriented analysis – the description of knowledge, attributes, and other characteristics, which are necessary for the job to be completed successfully. In regard, of a police officer, such analysis can be seen as more applicable, where the analysis might include points such as having a physical condition, good memory, no fear of firearms, great vision, good background, and etc.
It can be seen that through the implementation of different approaches to job analysis, the role of industrial/organizational psychology can be evident in supervising and conducting such activities. Applying the right job analysis can be seen as vital in giving the right position to the right person.
Aamodt, M. G. (2009). Industrial/organizational psychology : an applied approach (6th ed.): Cengage Learning.
Bacal, R. (2009). Task Analysis Strategies and Practices, Practice Application Brief. The training World.
Job Analysis: Overview (2001). HR Guide.